Esitelmäni Sähköpäivänä Tallinnan teknillisellä yliopistolla.
Text of S¤hk¶inen liikenne nyt ja tulevaisuudessa (S¤hk¶p¤iv¤ 2014)
Suomen shkinen liikenne nyt ja tulevaisuudessa ! Electric Trafc in Finland: the Present and the Future Vesa Linja-aho Senior Lecturer in Automotive Electronics Metropolia UAS
Challenges Finland will never be the world number one country in electric trafc Cold climate Long distances / low population density Warm, densely populated and/or countries with small area are the optimal environments for electric trafc
Bad arguments (= common myths) against electric trafc The grid can not cope with charging The vehicles can be charged overnight, when the load is low 0.5 million electric cars charging @ 2 kW = 1 GW = no problem http://www.ngrid.//sahkomarkkinat/kulutus-ja-tuotanto/Sivut/ default.aspx Electric vehicles are spreading gradually, the grid can be improved in time Finnish distribution grid is already very modern and highly automatized What about the long distances in Finland?
Long distances? ! http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/ Population_map_of_Finland.svg Question: how long we can afford the sparse population? People are moving from rural areas to cities According to Yle News, many single family houses outside growth centers might be worthless soon.* The population will concentrate in cities Long distance driving will diminish The battery technology advances * http://yle./uutiset/moni_vanha_omakotitalo_saattaa_osoittautua_arvottomaksi__henkilokohtaisia_tragedioita_edessa/7233659
Helsinki region Helsinki region = Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen Population density: 950 persons / km2 For comparison: in Stockholm region: 3597 persons / km2 Population now: 1.1 million Population estimate (2035): 1.5 million +400000 inhabitants require massive mass trafc arrangements Passenger car based trafc would be a disaster, were they electric or fossil fuel ones.
Long distances? Most of the trips with passenger cars are very short. Typical trip from and back to work is couple of tens of kilometers -> very well suitable for even the current electric cars. Longer trips are usually to visit relatives and the summer cabin. Solution: 15 minutes fast charge while drinking coffee and visiting the restroom Many families already have two cars - the other can very well be electric
Good arguments against electric trafc (or issues to be handled) Low number of production = electric vehicles are expensive. Old electric installations in parking lots In Finland there are 1.5 million parking lot sockets for engine & interior heater According to Aalto university report, the main obstacles for electric trafc are tax issues and arctic conditions.
Signicant pros Minimal service cost Zero local emissions Fighting oil dependency -> human rights issues Better total efciency Overall performance (full torque from 0 km/h)
Concerns for individuals The electric power is mildly taxed - for now Charging at your workplace is a tax-free benet As the electric vehicles become more common -> tax revenue falls -> the electric vehicles will be targeted The planned satellite surveillance system
Passenger cars in Finland 2.4 million cars 0.1 million cars sold every year The average car is 13.1 years old The fuel consumption of new cars reduces about 3 % / year http://www.taloussanomat./autot/2014/03/21/tulevaisuuden-auto-ei-niin-hauska-ajettava/20143951/304
Hybrid electric vehicles in Finland 0 2250 4500 6750 9000 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 of which 5200 are Toyota Prius or Auris http://www.tra./lebank/a/1391172324/816fe7cba124187b38635396c8b40123/14125-Hybridiautot_2013_kanta.pdf
Full electric vehicles in Finland In the end of 2013, there were 439 electric vehicles (BEV + PHEV) in Finland and 260 public charging stations. The electric companies have founded a company http:// virta./ to make the charging points more common. The number of public charging stations is doubling in summer 2014. Price examples: Nissan Leaf: 36 k, 200 km, 24 kWh, 8 h / 30 min ( 80 % @ 50 kW) Opel Ampera: 43 k, 80 km*, 16 kWh, 4 h * With gasoline: 500 km
Operating costs Electric vehicles have typically low maintenance cost (< 50 % of gas vehicle). The main benet is the higher efciency of the power system (> 80 % vs. < 30 %). The distribution losses in electricity distribution are < 5 %. Electric power costs typically about 0.12 /kWh. Gasoline costs typically about 1.60 /l (fuel tax 0.67 ) and Diesel fuel 1.50 /l (fuel tax 0.49 ). 100 km with 20 kWh = 2.40 6 l of gasoline = 9.60 5.5 l of diesel = 8.25 The fuel economy depends on driving style and vehicle. The difference is smaller if the fuel tax is taken into account. Without fuel tax: 6 l of gasoline = 5.58 5.5 l of diesel = 5.56 If and when electric vehicles become more common, it is very likely that government wants to tax them also.
How about the battery? With regular hybrid vehicles with NiMH batteries: usually no problems in 10 years / 160 000 km. For electric vehicles: we dont know the reality. Does the range drop 20 % from the new cars range after 100, 120, 150 or 200 thousand km? The more common the electric vehicles are, the cheaper are the batteries.
Taxation of vehicles The prices of new passenger cars (electric or not) have relatively high vehicle tax in them. Couple of examples: koda Octavia 1.4 TSI Active 19370 + tax 4485 = 23855 Nissan Leaf 31767 + tax 4213 = 35980 The average age of passenger cars is high: 13.1 years. Additionally, a yearly tax is paid
Yearly tax for having a vehicle Depends on the power source(s), total weight and CO2 emissions. Examples: Nissan Leaf: 153 / year koda Octavia 1.4 TSI Active 101 / year For diesel vehicles the tax is typically 400-500 /year
Handled issues Training of rescue staff Updating the electric safety standard(s) and legislation
Electric work safety Finlands electric work safety legislation is pretty bureaucratic. When working with electric vehicles with > 120 VDC battery voltage, we have to follow legislation designed for electric installations in buildings. Own electric safety examination + vocational degree in vehicle technology + 1 year of work experience = qualication for head of electric work in repair shop
Safety of rescue staff Photo: Mikko Saastamoinen
Electric bus trafc Goal in the Helsinki region trafc: 100 electric buses in 2018 (of total 1000), 400 @ 2025
The Future Robotization Small electric vehicles Electric bus trafc All the major railways are already electried Electric tram trafc and commuter train trafc
Thinking outside the box The battery and range issue can be dealt also by changing the paradigm: ditch the 1500 kg metal box and move only the person: Electric-aided bicycles Electric mopeds and motorcycles Segway and all kind of new vehicles
Conclusion Electric trafc is more than just the vehicles: services (vehicle as service) infrastructure city planning Finland can be a good environment for electric trafc, the high level of know-how and modern grid are the key strengths of the country. http://www.raceabout./era/
Sources and additional reading http://www.teknologiainfo.net//content/s %C3%A4hk%C3%B6isen-liikenteen- toimenpideohjelma-kohti-p%C3%A4%C3%A4st %C3%B6t%C3%B6nt%C3%A4-liikennett %C3%A4-0 The easy way to follow the advances in electric trafc in Finland: http://electrictrafc./