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Athletic Shoes Industry

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  • 1.Athletic Footwear Industry

2. History of Athletic Footwear Market Shape The sneaker as its commonly referred to as has evolved in many forms such as shape, design, features, functionality. Design The design element of the sneakers has evolved over the centuries. Features When sneakers were first created the main feature was to cover your foot and provide a new level for comfort. Functionality The original purpose was to for all purpose uses such as cleaning, gardening, going out. 3. Evolution of the athletic shoes 1800s - Athletic shoe companies have been around since the late 1800s, and have evolved tremendously over that time. 1830s - Liverpool Rubber Company developed the Plimsoll shoe 1895 - The J.W. Foster company 1916 - Keds 1917 - Converse All Stars 1936 - Adi Dassler 1950 - Adidas 1970 - Nike 1980 - Air Jordans 21st century - Nike has dominated the sports landscape as the leading athletic shoe 4. Market OverviewCompetitive environment of different brands Marketing and Advertising Strategy Competitive and Market Strategy 5. Market Leaders 6. NIKE, Inc. is the worlds leading innovator in athletic footwear, apparel, equipment and accessories that is engaged in the design, development and worldwide marketing and selling. Headquarters: Beaverton, OR, USA Founded: January 25, 1964 7. Mark Parker 8. Bill Bowerman & Phil Knight Founder 9. "To bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world"Innovate for better worldhonesty, competitiveness, and teamwork 11 10. Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman form Blue Ribbon Sports as a redistributor of Onitsuka Tiger Shoes. First appearance of Swoosh Waffle Trainer was introduced, quickly becoming the best-selling training shoe in the US. 12 11. BRS, Inc. now officially known as Nike,Inc. Air Force1 basketball shoe was released Nike signed Michael Jordan to an endorsement contract, release Air Jordan shoes Nike Airmax1 released, first with visible air bubble 13 12. Nike opened first Niketown in Portland. Nike signed Tiger Woods Bill Bowerman dies at age 88 Nike Shox introduced14 13. Nike acquired Converse and signed Lebron James for an $87m endorsement contract Nike and Apple released Nike + iPod kit.Nike releases their most expensive shoes to date, the Lebron X ($315)15 14. Graphic design created by Caroline Davidson in 1971. It represents the wing of the Greek Goddess 16 15. 17 16. Nikes foremost focus is athletic footwear, designed for sports and everyday usage with the brand name. The production facilities are located close to the raw material to have low labor prices. The company presently sells roughly 300 models of athletic shoes in 900 styles Running Basketball Training Football Soccer Skateboarding Golf Tennis Childrens shoes Customize with NIKEiD18 17. Nike charges high prices or premium prices for i high quality products and its famous brand. The pricing based on the basis of premium segment as target customers. Nikes pricing strategy use of vertical, take part in more than one channel level operations for control costs and influence product pricing. The company has designed its pricing structure in a way to make it competitive to other shoes sellers. The price of the products is variable depending on the type and the size for example a comfortable and good pair of shoes would cost from 70 to 150 dollars. 19 18. Nike shoes are carried by multi-brand stores and the exclusive Nike stores across the global. Nike sells its product to about 25,000 retail accounts in the U.S. and in almost 200 countries around the world. This means that place strategy is used by Nike. In the international markets, Nike sells its products through independent distributors, licensees and subsidiaries. Independent distributors need not adapt to local pressures because the 4Ps of marketing are managed by distributors. 20 19. Promotion is largely dependent on finding accessible store locations. It also avails of targeted advertising in the newspaper and creating strategic alliances. Nike has a number of famous athletes that serve as brand ambassadors such as the Brazilian Soccer Team (especially Ronaldino, Renaldo, and Roberto Carlos), Lebron James and Jermane ONeal for basketball, Lance Armstrong for cycling, and Tiger Woods for Golf.21 20. Nike also sponsors events such as Hoop It Up and The Golden West Invitational. Nikes brand images, the Nike name and the trademark swoosh, make it one of the most recognizable brands in the world. Nikes brand power is one reason for its high revenues. Nikes quality products, loyal customer base and its great marketing techniques all contribute to make the shoes empire a huge success. 22 21. 23 22. Niche marketing, narrowly defined customer group seeking a distinctive mix of benefits. In the lifestyle and apparel market targets consumers who identify with sport as a way of life and are brand conscious.24 23. Geographic segmentation Density: Urban and semi-urban cities Demographic segmentation Age: 15 to 35 Gender: Male and female Income: Middle to high income Social class: Upper middle, lower upper and upper class25 24. Customer Profile Athletes Gym regulars Sports enthusiasts Brand freaks Image seekers 26 25. Nike has divided its customers into the following way: 1. Y Women 2. Y Men 3. Y Girls 3-36 months 3-8 years 8-15 years 4. Y Boys 3-36 months 3-8 years 8-15 years 27 26. Psychographic segmentation Active people who enjoy high quality sport footwear. Customer who feel so strongly that the firm can meet their needs best that any competitors are virtually excluded from their consideration. Consumers that wear Nike just want to build confident or make other feel they wearing a branded shoes but not ordinary shoes but not for sport purpose. For youth, they think Nike shoes is a fashion lifestyle and they wear it just to follow fashion trend. 28 27. Psychographic segmentation Active people who enjoy high quality sport footwear. Customer who feel so strongly that the firm can meet their needs best that any competitors are virtually excluded from their consideration. Consumers that wear Nike just want to build confident or make other feel they wearing a branded shoes but not ordinary shoes but not for sport purpose. For youth, they think Nike shoes is a fashion lifestyle and they wear it just to follow fashion trend. 29 28. Behavioral segmentation Most of them preferred Nike to Adidas, but felt that Nike was overpriced. Those who preferred Adidas, however showed great brand loyalty to the brand. They rate attributes like quality, price, durability, comfort, style, advertising and innovation on a scale of 10. The results that we obtained is graphically shown belowNike AdidasQuality DurabilityPriceComfortStyle Advertising Innovation30 29. Behavioral segmentation Customers purchase products through Nike towns, Nike stores, Nike outlet stores, and online website Customer attitudes : Customers have good attitude to Nike products. They share experience to their friends and family Nike including review products on internet which are spread to Adidas social very quickly. Advertising, brand ambassador and special sport occasion have effect to purchasing behavior of customers. For examples, FIFA world cup, PGA grand slam of golf. 31 30. Behavioral segmentation Customers purchase products through Nike towns, Nike stores, Nike outlet stores, and online website Customer attitudes : Customers have good attitude to Nike products. They share experience to their friends and family Nike including review products on internet which are spread to Adidas social very quickly. Advertising, brand ambassador and special sport occasion have effect to purchasing behavior of customers. For examples, FIFA world cup, PGA grand slam of golf. 32 31. The market segment targeting is quite essential to differentiate itself from competitors. Nike offers its consumers the option to custom built their own shoes on its website, a huge Nike differentiation that Adidas does not have.Adidas Nike also has a large of innovative products, including the Nike+, in collaboration with Apple. 33 32. Nike positions itself as the market leader of sports footwear with high price, high quality, high technology and uses the greatest athletes and the record of their achievements in advertising. The swoosh logo together with the Just Do It slogan expresses a high ambition and a will for victory, which is a part of Nikes Nike brand image and corporate culture. Adidas Nike, the largest seller of athletic footwear in the world .Nike has been launching new technically advanced shoe models from time to time 34 33. However, the company still faces many challenges in the changing fashion trends, the falling sale of its higher- priced shoes increasing competitionNike Adidas35 34. 36 35. Nike places a significant weight on marketing and its products. Nike agressively bonds the contracts with highly successful and influential athletes, coaches, teams and to popularize its footwear. Nike focus on the customer satisfaction. Nike invests a lot in its product R&D , 3 primaries area: Biomechanics Physiology Sensory Its innovation in products includes: Nike with Apple Designs your own shoesNike Adidas37 36. 38 37. Nike actively responds to trends and changes in consumer preferences by Adjusting the mix of existing product offering, Developing new products, style and categories, and Influencing sports and fitness preferences through aggressive marketing. Its primary areas of marketing remain internet, TV and magazines The only criterion where the company faces tough time is its high competitive prices. The competitors like Adidas that offer products at lower price compared to Nike. 39 38. 40 39. A German multinational corporation that designs and manufactures sports clothing and accessories. This holding company consists of the Reebok sportswear , TaylorMade-Adidas golf company (including Ashworth), Rockport, and 9.1% of FC Bayern Munich. Adidas is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Germany and Europe and the second biggest sportswear manufacturer in the world. Headquarters: Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany Founded: August 18, 194941 40. FOUNDER Adolf "Adi" Dassler His brother Rudolf returned to Herzogenaurach to join his younger brother's business Rudolf Dassler became founder of Puma.42 41. MISSION STATEMENT The adidas Group strives to be the global leader in the sporting goods industry with brands built on a passion for sports and a sporting lifestyle. We are committed to continuously strengthening our brands and products to improve our competitive position.Vision The company is innovation and design leaders who seek to help athletes of all skill levels achieve peak performance with every product we bring to market. The company are consumer focused and therefore we continuously improve the quality, look, feel, and image of our products and our organizational structures to match and exceed consumer expectations and to provide them with the highest value. The company are a global organization that is socially and environmentally responsible, that embraces creativity and diversity, and is financially rewarding for our employees and shareholders. The company are dedicated to consistently delivering outstanding financial results. 43 42. Core value Performance Sport is the foundation for all we do and executional excellence is a core value of our Group. Passion Passion is at the heart of our company. We are continuously moving forward, innovating, and improving. Integrity The company are honest, open, ethical, and fair. People trust us to adhere to our word. Diversity The company takes people with different ideas, strengths, interests, and cultural backgrounds to make our company succeed. We encourage healthy debate and differences of opinion.44 43. TIMELINE Gebrder Dassler Schuhfabrik ( 1924-1936 ) Adolf "Adi" Dassler started to produce his own sports shoes in his mother's wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria after his return from World War I In July 1924, his brother Rudolf returned to Herzogenaurach to join his younger brother's business, which became Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each year before World War IIWorld War II and company split ( 1945 ) Both brothers joined the Nazi Party The Dassler factory, used for production of anti-tank weapons during the war in April 1945, Adi Dassler's wife, Kthe, convinced the GIs that the company and its employees were only interested in manufacturing sports shoes. American occupying forces subsequently became major buyers of the Dassler brothers' shoes. 45 44. The brothers split up ( 1947 ) Rudolf forming a new firm that he called Ruda from Rudolf Dassler, later rebranded Puma Adi forming a company formally registered as Adidas AG from Adi Dassler on 18 August 1949. "Adi" (a nickname for Adolf) and "Das" (from "Dassler").The Tapie affair ( 1987- 1994) After the death of Adolf Dassler's son Horst Dassler in 1987, the company was bought in 1989 by French industrialist Bernard Tapie, Tapie was at the time a famous specialist of rescuing bankrupt companies, an expertise on which he built his fortune. Tapie decided to move production offshore to Asia. In 1992, Tapie mandated the Crdit Lyonnais bank to sell Adidas Tapie filed for personal bankruptcy in 199446 45. Post-Tapie era (1994-2006) In 1994, combined with FIFA Youth Group, SOS Children's Villages became the main beneficiary. In 1997, Adidas AG acquired the Salomon Group and its official name was changed to Adidas-Salomon AG Adidas also acquired the Taylormade Golf company and Maxfli, which allowed them to compete with Nike Golf. The World's First Intelligent Shoe (2005) In 2005, Adidas introduced the Adidas 1, the first ever production shoe to use a microprocessor. Dubbed by the company in 2005, on 3 May, Adidas sold their partner company Salomon Group Acquired Reebok (2006) In 2006, Adidas acquired British rival Reebok as partner. The Revenue peak (2012) End of 2012, Adidas is reporting the highest revenues ever and Chief Executive Herbert Hainer expresses optimism for the year ahead. 47 46. The Adidas LogoLogo #1: The Three StripesLogo #2: The TrefoilLogo #3: The Three BarsThe company simple placed three black stripes on everything that they manufacturedThis logo is still used on some of their products, particularly their line of classic productsMost of their high-performance products have moved on to a third and final logoThe three elements in this and all other Adidas logos are said to represent Dasslers three sons.This logo was chosen because the company wanted a logo that represented the fact that their brand was a lot larger and more diverse that it used to be while still keeping the classic Adidas look.Adidas Logo the Three Bars, This logo is the latest one that has been introduced, and it represents the finest equipment that Adidas sells 48 47. 4Ps Products Providing high quality products aimed at providing the best value to the costumer. The products portfolio is continuously enhanced through creations and innovations throughout the companies various categories. This is pursued in order to cater to the various needs and wants of consumers worldwide. Well-known brands for sports apparels, equipment and accessories, the Adidas group has a diverse brand portfolio consists of: Adidas , Reebok , TaylorMade Adidas Golf , Rockport, CCMHockey49 48. 4Ps Price Using adapted pricing strategies, depending on which market they are operating in, so as to achieve its goals. Penetrating attack markets with lower prices or using market skimming tactics, for instance. In intense competition in the global market, the company is involved in regular evaluation of its price to ensure that the products stay competitive at the point of sale.50 49. 4Ps Place Distribute its products to the consumer with a strong focus on controlled space, including: Own-retail business, ecommerce, Shop-in-Shop, Joint ventures with retail partners, mono-branded franchise stores, co-branded stores with sports organizations and other brands. Hence, a high level of brand control is provided. In addition, an integrated distribution roadmap has been set up to ensure further growth and to increase brand presence in under-penetrated, affluent cities, without cannibalizing their own brands and distribution mix. 51 50. 4Ps Promotion Different promotional tools are used in order to reduce the number of lost customers and to increase sales. The group has set up an unparalleled portfolio of promotion partnerships with international recognized sports associations (e.g. UEFA, FIFA, NBA, NFL, and NHL). Commercials, ads, apps for smartphones, product placement, sponsorships for athletes and sport events (e.g. Berlin Marathon 2011)52 51. Market Segmentation GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: divided the market into different units of location neighborhood, states, regions cities countries. Adidas Bold 2009 have operated in urban and semi-urban cities of India. BEHAVIORAL SEGMENTATION: This segment divided the consumers according to their attitude, knowledge, response and use of the product. Below are the behavioral segmentation for Adidas: Benefits Gym regular users Sports lovers Athletes Image seekers Brand freaksPSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: the analysis of the different personalities of each consumers. The only key is to be different. Achievers Well-experienced Hard workers Goal achievers DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: divided into different segments based on the variables of family size, family life cycle, income, gender, age and etc The demographic segmentation of Adidas as follows: Age 15-36 Income level: $15,000 Social Class: Upper middle, upper class and lower upper. Gender: Both male and female 53 52. Target Markets sports personalities involved in various sporting activities such as soccer, rugby, athletics and basketball. young people male and female averagely between the ages of 10 to 3054 53. Product Positioning adidas the brand strive to be the globally leading and most popular sporting goods brand focus is mainly on innovation and technology adidas Originals the first brand leveraging its sports assets in the lifestyle area it is regarded as a legitimate sports lifestyle brand. Snoop Dogg. Or Rihanna. Or Katy Perry. adidas Sport Style "Future of Sportswear" includes the labels Y-3 Porsche Design SportReebok American-inspired sports brand with the clear objective to become the leading fitness brand in the worldadidas NEO, From the track to the catwalk, it helps you to "Style your Life"55 54. Strategies Creating shareholder value Investments focused on highest-potential markets and channels Creating a flexible supply chain Leading through innovation Develop a team grounded in company heritage Becoming a sustainable company Brands Broad and Unique Product Portfolio Brand Extension StrategiesAdidas Core Competencies Technology Customer focus Brand recognition Supply chain Collaboratively competitive 56 55. Why Adidas is number two compare to Nike? Nike has an overall better selection of gym shoes, and basketball shoes compare to than Adidas. Nike have wider variation of types of shoes which ranges anywhere from boots, to basketball shoes. Nike also are endorsed by higher profile athletes than Adidas does. Nike has players like Kobe, and Cristiano Ronaldo while Addidas has Kevin Garnett, who is passed his prime. Nike's shoes are also more stylish, and well known. Nike have higher modification function for customers on design and technology57 56. How to improve to rank no.1 in this market? Adidas should improve its product lines substantially as variation in products could lead to better and improved sales which form a major objective of any business organization. Adidas should concern more on innovation along with strategic partnership, Now, Adidas signed a contract with Samsung to produce a shoe + phone promotional campaign. In this strategic partnership, both the companies developed a phone to be used with shoes during training Improve brand association of professionals with Adidas is that it has a culture of technology and has a history of achieving a strong position in the minds of target customers. Adidas should work towards improving market share and being at par with Nike which is currently the world leader in Athletic footwear. Adidas should focus on roping in more celebrities to promote their products58 57. PUMA 58. Puma core value Design innovation and inclusiveness, and communicated through all consumer touch points, from product to distribution to marketing 59. Puma history 1924 - the company was funded in Germany by Rudolph and Adolf Dassoer. Originally Puma shoes wore by many Olympic athletes. 1948 The brothers split their business, Adolf called his firm Adidas. Rodolf called his new firm Ruda( from Rudolph Dassler), after changed its name to Puma 1950 Puma gains attention for the development of their soccer shoes. 60. Puma history 1960 Puma becomes the first sports shoes manufacturer to use the vulcanization production technique. To support Puma athletes in showing top performances. 1986 Puma issue IPO on the Frankfurt stock exchange 1998 Puma merges sport and fashion by collaboration with designer Jil Sander. 61. Puma history 2001 Puma acquires Tretorn Group. 2007 more than 60% of company shares are acquired by French luxury goods company PPR(owns Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent). 62. Puma segment Puma's market segmentation targets unique, exclusive, imagination consumers who attractive originality. 63. Puma segment In the dynamic changing consumer market, Puma intent to surprise consumers by constantly delivering the unexpected and challenging perceptions that continues to be a defining representative in the world of sports. 64. Puma target group Puma target market is for the ages 15-30 which is the age when a person is sporty and active the gender is for both female and male with a range of females and males sports clothing, shoe wear even a perfume line. 65. Puma position Puma position themselves as the creative leader in Sportlifestyle gives us the opportunity and the responsibility to contribute to a better world for the generations to come 66. Puma mission Puma mission is to become the most desirable and sustainable Sportlifestyle company in the world. 67. Puma vision Puma.Creative the core competency by co-ordinate of different creative and artists department Puma.Safe comprises of initiatives and commitment for environmental protection and improved working environment. Puma lunched many programs implementing cleaner, safer and more sustainable systems and processes within the supply chain. Puma.Peace to supports the global Day of Ceasefire or The International Day of Peace known as World Peace Day on September 21 every year. The idea is the power of sports would persuade people to get into peace. 68. Puma visionPuma sustainability strategy 69. Puma strategy Puma specific on sportlifestyle original in sport then combine to lifestyle by fashion approaches. The strategic objectives and related expansion targets this long-term strategic objective is to be achieved through three ways: 70. Puma strategy First, Product expansion both develop existing product and expand to new product. Develop existing product the entire sportlifestyle from sport to fashion base on eliminate weakness and improve design. Expand to new product need to distinguish the Puma brand from the market and from competition in a unique manner. 71. Puma strategy Second, Geographic expansion, Puma aims expansion both in the wholesale and in its own retail business. Additional goal is to terminate the major distribution licenses and to consolidate the business. The targeted expansion strategy in conjunction with to be obvious virtualization of business processes should lead to get more strengthen and expansion of the share of retail operations in consolidated sales. 72. Puma strategy Third, Expansion with Non-Puma Brands, In addition to the brand Tretorn (since 2001) Puma does not rule out expansion with non-Puma brands. And acquisition if that brand can increase sustainable of the company. 73. Marketing Mix for Puma PRODUCT Puma shoes is sport lifestyle so their need to have fresh design in order to provide the best shoes to their customer. 74. Marketing Mix for Puma PRICE Puma price base on premium segment. For premium brand like Puma if they set their price too low it would destroy brand reputation. Product warranty for online they provide half-month warranty to every customer to gain customer loyalty, that If customer not happy for any reason have been seen after purchase we will exchange with a new pair of shoes in order to create brand image. 75. Marketing Mix for Puma PLACE Traditional sale is customer come to outlet and buy, customer can find product that fit, color and style to them. Online shopping provide more convenience to customer and give more advantage such as extensive online catalog, current news on Puma, newest items. 76. Marketing Mix for Puma PROMOTION Stimulate sale volume by launch new promotion. Package design involves the development of a container and a graphic design for a product. Packaging function is to protecting product from damage and it can add value to product by concern about environment sustainable. 77. Why Puma is no.3 of sport shoes market? Puma still very low brand awareness, low market share , low advertising Puma brands have revealed they are enthusiastic to respond to the great eco-challenge announced by Greenpeace, aiming to annihilate the usage and disposal of hazardous chemicals until 2020. 78. How Puma can improve business performance in these market? In economic downturn Puma should do two approaches. First increase investment into develop new product. 79. How Puma can improve business performance in these market? Second Geographical Expansion. If Puma can expand into Asia they will get a lot of market share. 80. How Puma can improve business performance in these market? Puma should use Flanking attack and Bypass attack. Use flanking attack to attack the leaders weakness, for example one huge weakness with the NIKE Company is that they fail to see problems in relation to their labor and factory conditions. So Puma set their employee is first priority, like Puma talent management and International leadership program. 81. How Puma can improve business performance in these market? Overview of International Leadership Program.Puma talent management 82. How Puma can improve business performance in these market? Bypass attack initiate new product into new market. 83. How Puma can improve business performance in these market?Product Table Prototype for Puma Black Station Store in TokyoPuma phone 84. Analysis NIKE performance driven styleADIDAS sport performance sport heritage sport style PUMA active lifestyle 85. NIKEADIDASPUMAReason for beingTo bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the worldImproving every athletes performance through innovationMixing the influences of sports, lifestyle and fashionValue propositionJust do itPerform at the highest levelFits your active lifestyleReasons to believe- Footwear technology platforms (shox, air, airmax, zoom air) - Cutting edge performance / lifestyle apparel l- Mass customization (NIKE ID) - Full line of performance / lifestyle accessories - Digital / Physical Experiences (Co-branding with IPOD) - Social responsibility (Livestrong, United Nations programs) - Branded retail experiences (Niketown) - Event sponsorships (marathons, Olympics)- Footwear technology innovations - Automatic customization (Adidas1) - Co-developed celebrity lines (Stella McCartney) - Classic styles, tradition and heritage - Mass Customization (Adicolor)- Distinctive trend setting styles - Branded retail experiences (concept stores) - Co-developed celebrity lines (Turlington / Nuala) - Co branding partnerships (Ferrari) - Partnerships with famous designers (Starck, Wanders) - Mass customization (Mongolian bbq) - Promotional events (beats & treats)PersonaAthletic, influential, outgoing, fresh, aggressive, hi-tech, futuristic, retro coolClear, orderly, practical, hi-tech, classic, sophisticated, sincereElegant, colorful, fresh, spontaneous, individual, metropolitan, internationalAssociationsAthletes at the top of their respective sport (Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, Lance Armstrong) Unfair labor practicesElite Soccer players, soccer teams, NBA stars Hip hop artists (Run DMC) Mainstream sports- Fashion brands (Gucci, Armani, Dolce & Gabbana) - Fringe / extreme sports - Music artists & movie starsRange of authorityFootwear, apparel, equipment in multiple categoriesHigh performance footwear Performance & casual apparelPerformance & casual footwear Apparel & accessoriesAudienceAll athletes - anyone with a bodyAnyone who plays sportsAnyone who leads an active lifestyleRelationshipFellow athleteRespected coachHip friend who shows you a good time 86. Soccer Shoes Comparison August 2009 Soccer Shoes offers: -NIKE 15 models Ranging price $30-$190 Special Nike ID customizable feature Lightweight nature and durability Indoor and outdoor models -ADIDAS 50 models Ranging price $55-$220 Equipped with PowerPulse Indoor and outdoor models -PUMA 30 models Ranging price $25-$200 Lace Wrap System Indoor and outdoor models 87. BRAND IMAGE 88. RECOMMENDATION Recommendations for the Puma in order to strengthen its brand image further include the revision of strategies to be the main partner/sponsor of the Mega Events like Olympics and Football World cups etc. besides other integrated Marketing Communication efforts. Brand Message is required to be communicated all around and these forums will help the Puma in creating Brand Awareness which ultimately results in strong brand image for Puma and help Puma in achieving its targets in all areas e.g. sale, market share and enhanced profits. 89. 92