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  • 1. 1 Context Clues context = , clue = Dictionary (Context) "about" We know about that. (about = concerning) It is about six o'clock.(about = close to) (Context Clues) ( Clues / signal words) 1. Definition type () 2. Restatement type () 3. Example type () Context Clues

2. 2 4. Comparison or Contrast type ( ) 5. Cause and Effect relationship type () 6.Explanation type () 7. Modifier type () 8. Subjective type () 9. Familiar type () (Modifier) who which where that with without (Phrase) verb + ing verb 3 1 Mr. Robert is an anarchist, [ who thinks that all government ] are bad. who anarchist 2 Last Sunday we visited the aquarium, [ where we saw a wonderful display ] of strange fish living peacefully in glass tanks. where aquarium Aquarium 3 Nylon and polyester are synthetic fibers [made by man]. made 3 that are made 1. (Modifier type) 3. 3 fibers that are made by man synthetic 4 John is a member of an anarchist community, [where there are no leaders]. Anarchist community where a community without any leaders anarchist community She said: "Please help me with my work." The teacher I like most are: Mr. Peter, Miss Laura, Mr. Mike, Mr. Lyan and Mrs. Lucy. 1. Full stop (.) Comma I want to buy a book, a pen, a pencil and some paper. If I had lots of money, I would travel round the world. 2. Colon (:) 2. 4. 4 3. Semicolon (;) Comma Clause Compound sentence Clause Comma and, but, or, therefore, nevertheless Our mother was a simple modest, unassuming person; but we all respected her. 4. Question mark (?) Full Stop Question mark Direct Question How many people are there in the class? 5. Quotation mark("..") She said, "I won't allow it." 6. Dash ( - ) I invited two foreign friends (they are from England) to my party. Brackets He [Columbus] discovered America. If my husband were alive - but why lament (sad) the past. 7. Parentheses (.) Brackets [..] Parentheses 5. 5 1 Deglutition, or swallowing, moves food from the mouth to the stomach , (comma) Deglutition swallowing () ", or" ", or" Deglutition swallowing () 2 Are you averse --opposed to the court decision. --(dash) averse averse opposed 3 Cleaning up waterways is an enormous task: the job is so large, in fact, that the government may not be able to save some of the rivers and lakes which have been polluted. : (colon) enormous task the job (that) is so large () 4 Catching crooks with pilfered items is indeed difficult; thieves do not often hold on to the stolen goods. 6. 6 pilfered pilfered items pilfered (crooks) stolen goods () pilfered stolen 5 Here are several comments about the pros and cons (advantages and disadvantages) of buying a second-hand car from a dealer. pros and cons pros advantages cons disadvantages Definition 1. means 6. verb to be 11. to be called 2. to be a kind of 7. to be defined as 12. to be regarded as 3. to be known as 8. to be the name give to 13. to be a type of 4. consist of, refer to 9. can be defined as 14. can be thought of 5. may be described as 10.may be seen as 15. what this means is 1 The earths hydrosphere consist of water on its surface, water, vapor in the air and even water that has soaked into the soil. hydrosphere 3. (Definition) 7. 7 consist of = () water on its surface, water, vapor in the air and even water that has soaked into the soil. hydrosphere hydrosphere 2 A pattern of stars visible to the naked eye (without eye glasses) in a small area of sky is called a constellation. constellation is called A pattern of stars visible to the naked eye (without eye glasses) in a small area of sky Constellation 3 A large part of the milk sold today is homogenized milk; what this means is that the milk has been treated so that the fat particles are evenly scattered throughout. homogenized milk what this means is the milk has been treated so that the fat particles are evenly scattered throughout. homogenized milk = 8. 8 4 A body of water surrounded by land is usually called a lake. lake = a body of water surrounded by land = is called 5 A committee may be defined as any group interacting in regard to a common purpose. committee = any group interacting in regard to a common purpose = be defined as 6 A premise is a statement of the relationship between a cause and a consequence. premise is a statement of the relationship premise premise - People who study the stars are called astronomers. Astronomers are called 9. 9 people who study the stars astronomers astronomers but/yet though / although/ even though however / nevertheless on the other hand while / whereas on the contrary in contrast as opposite to in spite of despite 1 They went swimming in spite of all the peril or serious danger signs 4. (Contrast and Concession) 10. 10 in spite of in spite of or serious danger peril 2 Although everyone played well, we got a defeat in the game. although 2 defeat 3 I have asked everybody to immigrate to Canada but only ten people move in. but 2 10 immigrate move in = 4 Some people endure great suffering without complaining at all, while those who cannot cope with pain complain endlessly. while "endure" (cannot cope with pain) (complain endlessly) endure cannot cope with pain bear 11. 11 bear, put up with 5 An elephant is immense, comparing to a mouse. mouse ( ) (small) elephant () (big) immense =/= small ( not small /big) immense = big or = this is to say = that is to say = in other words = to put in another way = 1 5. (Renaming or Restatement) 12. 12 The big cities need new sources of revenue, or income. revenue or income revenue revenue 2 The government has to provide a new accommodation a place to live for the people who are moving from the slum area. Accommodation - .. - a place to live accommodation accommodation 3 The statement that the politician made was contradictory; that is, one part of it did not support the other part. contradictory that is one part of it did not support the other part contradictory contradictory 4 You can take an escalator, or a moving staircase, to go down to the plate form. Escalator = a moving staircase = or 13. 13 5 These two circles are concentric. In other words, they have the same center. Concentric = having the same center = in other words (Main Idea) ? Main Idea Main Idea 2 1. State main idea Reading comprehension 14. 14 2. Implied main idea main idea 1.) A baby elephant is the biggest of all land babies. A newborn baby weighs more than two hundred pounds. It is about three feet high. The new baby is strong, too. Almost as soon as it is born, it can walk about. (land babies) 200 3 Main Idea 15. 15 (main idea) A baby elephant is the biggest of all land babies. 2.) Keep your tree outdoors until the day before Christmas. Never use lighted candles. There are also other suggestions for avoiding a Christmas tree fire. Turn off the lights before you leave the house and throw away the tree by New Year's Day. (main idea) There are also other suggestions for avoiding a Christmas tree fire. 3.) Most people are free to enjoy themselves in the evenings and on weekends. Some spend their time watching television, listening to the radio, or going to movies; others participate in sports. It depends on their interests. There are various ways to spend one's free time. (Main Idea) There are various ways to spend one's free time. 16. 16 2 1. Topic Noun Topic 2. Topic Sentence 1.) Topic Noun What is topic noun ? football baseball tennis sports skiing : Sport ,, Topic ( ) 17. 17 The family hurried to the cellar and waited. First, they heard the pounding of the hailstones. The wind became deafening, and the children started crying. Suddenly it was silent. They waited awhile before they ventured outside to see the damage the tornado had done. Topic Noun Tornado () 2.) Topic Sentence () Topic Sentence Main Idea Topic Sentence Some insects destroy plants and trees. Some destroy stored grain, flour and meal. Some attack clothing and carpets. Others cause discomfort to animals by boring into their skin, biting or stinging. Some insects are real ests but many are helpful, too. Some eat harmful larvae. Others help with decay by eating rotting wood and plants. 18. 18 Topic Noun InsectsTopic Idea Insects - good and bad Topic Sentence 5 Some insects are real pests but many are helpful, too. Topic Idea Topic Sentence Topic Idea Topic Sentence The gathering stage consists of researching, brainstorming, and analyzing in order to come up with a thesis. The next stage, organization, requires you to think about a logical and persuasive arrangement for your various ideas. The writing stage requires you to sit down and, following and outline, construct your essay. The fourth and final stage involves endless revision: going over and over what you've written to make it better. (writing) , (thesis) 4 Topic Sentence paragraph The writing process consists of four main stages: gather, organize, write, revise. 1.) skimming () 2-3 2-3 2 (main idea ) SKIMMING SCANNING 19. 19 Every second, one hectare of the world's rainforest is destroyed. That's equivalent to two football fields. An area the size of New York City is lost every day. In a year, that adds up to 31 million hectares -- more than the land area of Poland. This alarming rate of destruction has serious consequences for the environment; scientists estimate, for exa