Lot 2C2 Building Science Report

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Menara PjH, Lot 2c2 group report.

Text of Lot 2C2 Building Science Report

  • 1. 1 (Author, 2014) Menara Putrajaya Holdings (Lot 2C2) Design architect Cox Architect Consultant architect Jafri Merican Architects Client Putrajaya Holdings Sdn Bhd Builder Putra Perdana Construction Sdn Bhd Consultants Kemasepakat Sdn Bhd, Meinhardt Faade Technology (S) Pte Ltd, Norman Disney Young Sdn Bhd Building introduction Location Lot 2C2, Precinct 2, 62100, W.P. Putrajaya Start date: 28 January 2010 Completion date: 30 June 2012 12 Storey Office Tower 4 Storey Podium Office + 2 Level Basement Carpark
  • 2. 2 Map of Putrajaya Precincts [Map]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lcct.com.my/help/faqs/how-to-go-to-putrajaya-from- lcct Situated linearly along the waterway, Precinct1 to Precinct 5 serves as the Core Area defining the identity of Putrajaya, the federal administration centre for Malaysia. According to (Jafri Merican Architect, 2009), Lot 2C2 originally got its name from the abbreviation Precinct 2, commercial building, parcel 2. Being 25 kilometers South to Kuala Lumpur, it is an office building with a garden by the side, locating next to a waterfront sited at Precinct 2 Putrajaya. Built on a slope, Lot 2C2 has a high foyer space connecting two main building parts while functions as a main circulation path for the building.
  • 3. 3 Primary views Secondary views (Author, 2014) Putrajaya Seri Wawasan Bridge (Author, 2014) Putra Mosque Primary view Secondary view (Author, 2014) Ministry of Finance building (Author, 2014) National Space Agency building
  • 4. 4 Site Map of Lot 2C2 Floor plans LEVEL 1: Level of the main front entrance LEVEL 3: Office floor level A B B A
  • 5. 5 LEVEL 4: Roofs of the 4 stories office podium LEVEL 12: Level containing the rain water tanks ROOF PLAN: Roof designed for rainwater harvesting
  • 6. 6 Sections Section A-A Section B-B Passive design features 1. Building envelope- Sun shading louvers 2. Building orientation Building form Solar Wind
  • 7. 7 Certifications 1. PAM Awards 2013 Silver (Category 11: Commercial High rise office) 2. Green Building Index Gold Green features:- Solar renewable energy Grey water recycling system Light colored interior surfaces with appropriate office layouts Multiple shading building envelope design Natural ventilation Rain water harvesting Optimal building orientation Site layout to reduce vehicles carbon emissions
  • 8. 8 Optimal building orientation Multiple shading building envelope design Site layout to reduce vehicles carbon emissions Natural ventilation Rain water harvesting Grey water recycling system
  • 9. 9 Light colored interior surfaces with appropriate office layouts Solar renewable energy
  • 10. 10 Putrajaya, Malaysias Climate The graph displaying the temperature varies throughout the year and as an obvious point of metric system for the building to consider regarding its passive heating and cooling design. Malaysia being in the tropical rainforest climate, having the average temperature ranges between 24 degree Celsius and 32 degree Celsius. With an eight degree Celsius differences between the maximum and minimum temperatures. The average amount of sunshine hours mostly depends on the monsoon season which determined the amount of rainfall annually. For Malaysia, the average hour of sunshine is 8 hours. 34 35 35 35 36 35 34 35 35 35 34 35 30 31 32 33 32 32 31 31 31 32 32 31 25 25 25 23 26 26 26 26 26 24 24 25 23 23 21 22 23 21 22 22 23 23 23 22 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Temperatures: Average and Extreme Absolute Max Average Max Average Min Absolute Min 6 8 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 6 6 JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER SUNSHINE HOURS IN PUTRAJAYA, MALAYSIA Hours Source: http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Malaysia/Putrajaya/climate-profile.aspx Source: http://www.holiday-weather.com/kuala_lumpur/averages/#chart-humidity
  • 11. 11 The rainfall each year ranges from 1500 mm to 3000 mm depending on the location. The months with the most rainfall in Putrajaya are from November to February, which is during the Northeast Monsoon season. As from May to September, the amount of rainfall declines due to the Southwest Monsoon season. The level of humidity is similar for both Malaysia and Singapore, where in the morning hours, the humidity percentage are high and then it began to drop as it reaches the afternoon but continues to hike once the sun begins to set. For Malaysia, the average humidity level is 79.5% which is lower compared to Singapore. 230 200 260 240 190 160 150 160 200 280 290 250 AVERAGE RAINFALL mm 78 76 77 80 79 78 78 78 79 81 83 81 HUMIDITY Percentage Source: http://www.holiday-weather.com/kuala_lumpur/averages/#chart-humidity Source: http://www.holiday-weather.com/kuala_lumpur/averages/#chart-humidity
  • 12. 12 In Putrajaya, the wind speed is relatively low as to compare with the site in Singapore. The maximum wind speed in Putrajaya is 74km/h which is comparatively high when measured with the other months. The range for the average wind speed in Putrajaya is 2m/s to 3.6m/s which falls on 2 in the Beaufort Scale, which the strength are desired as it does not cause irritant to the human yet able to allow ventilation. 11 12 8 5 7 8 9 9 8 7 6 10 39 37 37 43 37 74 43 35 31 50 35 43 WIND SPEED [KM/H] Average Maximum Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Year round Wind direction SSW SSW SSW NNE NNW NNW NNW NNW NNW ESE SE SSW NNE Average Wind speed (m/s) 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.6 2 2.6 2.6 Average Air temperature (C) 29 30 29 30 30 30 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 Source: http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Malaysia/Putrajaya/climate-profile.aspx
  • 13. 13 Thermal comfort The thermal comfort range for Malaysia is 22 to 32 degree Celcius for temperature and 70% to 80% for relative humidity. Source: http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/morib_kuala_lumpur?fspot=putrajaya_lake
  • 14. 14 Passive feature 1: Building Orientation and Form Image source: (http://www.world-architects.com/en/projects/41019_Putrajaya_Lot_2C2)
  • 15. 15 Below shows the effect of building form on environmental control strategies. Figure 1.1 ( Stein, B., Reynolds, J., & McGuinness, W. J. (1992). Mechanical and electrical equipment for buildings. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.) a) Solar Analysis Figure 1.2 Menara PjH Lot 2C2 office building is built up in thin combo building design. As compared to a thick building which requires more artificial lighting, thinner building allows most of its interior spaces to be exposed to daylighting especially in the core of the block. This is because spaces in thin combo building are closer to its outer shell. The usage of the shading devices as part of the control systems to allow appropriate amount of sunlight and heat gain to ensure thermal comfort can also be seen in Menara PjH. THIN COMBO BUILDING Daylighting Ventilation Complete daylighting for most spaces Natural ventilation is easily accomplished
  • 16. 16 Figure 1.3 The longer sides of Lot 2C2 building which is the A tower is positioned between east and west. East and west direction is the most critical position where the sun has maximum exposure to the tower. Therefore, the solution is to corporate sun shading devices on the faades. Even so, this taller A tower provides shading for the lower B,C,D office podiums especially during the afternoon while still allowing certain amount of natural sunlight to penetrate through the entire building. Figure 1.4 Besides that, there are three parts of the building which are extended towards east. These 3 office podiums provide shading to each other and the pedestrian areas in the between the blocks when the sun faces west as shown in the diagram. A B C D
  • 17. 17 b) Wind Analysis Figure 1.5 According to the wind rose diagram, the overall wind direction comes from every direction, there is not one point where wind is not received. In order to obtain maximum wind exposure, the direction to face is the South-southeast direction, where there is a 9% of wind distributed annually. Direction where wind is least obtainable would be the North and East- southeast direction which just 3% from each direction.
  • 18. 18 Figure 1.6 With wind coming from all direction at any possible period, the architect has to coordinate the building in an orientation that serves the wind while providing proper ventilation to host the user. Constructing a building form of a W allows air to be deflected along its current, a passive way of forcing the wi