תרגום ספר באמבריולוגיה

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1 (' 54-14) ()cleavage , . - - ( ZP 02-2). -ZONA PELLUCIDA ( )ZP ' , . -03 . -9 , . - -COMPACTION . (02-2 .)E,F 21 51 . ( )INNER CELL MASS . -3 . . (Nondisjunction of Chromosomes ) - ( ) , . mosaic (- ). , 12 . , 12 . , mosaic , , - . () ( -4 ), )blastocyst cavity )blastocele (02-2 .)E -ZP . , -2 : - , . - ,inner cell mass . .embryoblast (22-2). . , - ZP ( .)2-20F, 2-22A - ZP . . - 6 ( 02 82), (endometrial ,)epithelium - ,inner cell mass ( embryonic pole 32-2 .)A -2 (32-2:)B - ( ). - . , , . 6 , . , ( ) (32-2.)B 1

- ,inner cell mass - . embryonic pole , . 7 , , , - inner cell mass (32-2 .)B - .inner cell mass - . DNA amplification Y 8-6 . IVF -X. , . , , . . , %54. , . . , . , ' ', . -2 %3 %21 . . ( )oogenesis . , . seminiferous tubules ( )spermatogenesis . -uterine os . . . . . . , . . ( ) . -3 21 , , . , : Inner cell mass or embryoblast - . , blastcyst cavity . - tropoblast . - inner cell mass - . 5-4 , - ZP -inner cell mass ( ). - embryonic pole -2 , cyncytiotropoblast - cytotropoblast . . , - .inner cell mass , . 2

12-2 - ( in vitro ).

3

22-2 . 4 - A, - ZP . -B , - unner cell mass. - ZP.

32-2 . 6 - A, - embryonic pole . 7 - B, ( ). . .

4

42-2 , . 1 . 2 ( 2 3) ( 2 61 , ). 3 ( 4 5) . 4 ( 5 6) .

5

2 (' 95-84) . , "" - . . - , , , - .connecting stalk

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, . . , "" . . , . " , - 2-( COX ) ,Fas . -. - ,decidual cells . . , : - - , . - - , . ,)hCG )human chorionic gonadotrophin () . - corpus luteum , . RIA , . - . hCG " , , . , , , - .amniotic cavity , - amnion (= , ) . , , . : - , . - - .exocoelomic , . , . , . , . - extraembryonic ,mesoderm ( ). " - .primitive streak , . , , , , . , . , - ,hCG " - -corpus luteum , . - ,embryotroph " . , - .uteroplacental circulation , . - spiral ,endometrial arteries " - .endometrial veins

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- 01, - ( conceptus ), . , , , " , - .closing plug 21 - .closing plug - .the decidual reaction , decidual .cells - decidual reaction - .conceptus 21 , , . , , - intervillous spaces . , -sinusoids- , . "" . - . - 21 / , . , - - .extraembryonic coelomic spaces - .extraembryonic coelom , " - .connecting stalk -, , . " -, . , "" . , . . , . " - .primary chorionic villi . " - .extraembryonic somatic mesoderm - primary chorionic villi . ( ): 1. , . 2. . . ( ,)gestational sac , " . . ( ) ( ) ( ) " ( )connective stalk ( ). . ( 8-3) 8-3 - . .

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. 41 , .prechordal plate , . , , , ( ) . " ? , . , , MHC ) Major ,)Histocompatability . , , , MHC .class I : T )NK )natural killer . : 1. , , MHC , )class I )HLA-G " , " ,T " ,NK "" . 2. , 2, E T NK . . , , , . " , " , . " " radioimmune assays hCG . Previa previa , ( 01-3). .

9

01-3 . X . ( ) " - A H . A- F , G , H . .

. . 59 79 . ( 9-3 11-3). 1 08 1 052 , . 53 . . 9-3 A , . B .

01

(, ). , , . , . hCG . . . , " . , " / . " , . . " ( 11-3). 11-3 . A . B 4 .

( 01-3(, . " , . () ( 01-3), . , . 11

, " ,rectouterine pouch ( 21-3). , . , " , . , , 09 , 7 . , . ( ), " " (.)lithopedion 21-3 , . , .rectouterine pouch

, 1 0007 . " . " " , , . ( 01-3), . , , , , . , , ( 01-3 21-3). . . . 02, . . . , . . .

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. 9591 43 , 01 , . 7691 57-07 , %85 . %61 , . 5791 %16. , 7791 . . . . , .. 8891 , , .

. . , , . : ( 5). . . ( 6). ( 7). (, ) ( 8). ( 9). , " ( 01). " ( 11-01) , , - ( -11 21). ( 31-21). ( 41-31). ( ) , , " , . , 6-5 , . , , . . , , . " " 684 RU " .

31

( )IUD " " . .

( -3 31). . . . . . . : . , , , . (), . . 31-3 , , (52 .)X .

3 (' 27-46) ": - .primitive streak . .

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. ( .)LMNP . , . , .

- . , - -. ( ), . )BMPs )bone morphogenetic proteins . - primitive streak . (, ) : - , ,CNS, PNS . - , ()GI tract - ,GI tract . - , - . ' - , , , , . - ,primitive streak , . . primitive streak - .primitive streak - -primitive streak " , (""), . - primitive streak . " , , , - .primitive node - - ,primitive groove - ,primitive node- .primitive pit , , , "", , . - primitive groove and pit ( ) . , , - , '. , . . ( ) . . () . ( )nodal factors ,-TGF . , ,-TGF -T ,box- ,Wnt signaling pathway . - primitive streak . - : , . , , , .

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- primitive streak - primitive streak , . . - primitive streak , - sacrococcygeal . - primitive streak . Notochordal process and Notochord , - ,primitive node and pit - .Notochordal process - .notochordal canal , - -prechordal plate , . , - prechordal plate . - prechordal plate ', . - primitive streak- ,Notochordal process , . - , . , - primitive streak - ,Notochordal process - .prechordal plate - ,cardiogenic area . - ,primitive streak , - ,cloacal membrane . , ', -, , . , : - '. - - ,primitive node - notochordal .process - . - notochord " - notochordal .process "" ( ) - ,primitive streak notochordal precursor . . : . ( ). . : - notochordal process " - .primitive pit - primitive pit - .notochordal canal - primitive node - .prechordal plate . , . - notochordal canal . ,confluent - notochordal canal. - notochordal plate .

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, - notochordal plate . neurenteric ,canal . , - neurenteric canal" . , . . ' - .primitive node , - nucleus pulposus -. . , - neural plate (.)CNS

Allantois- allantois 61, ( ) . - connecting stalk ( ). - allantois , . . - allantois - placenta- amniotic sac - allantis . - allantis . - allantois - urachus - ,median umbilical ligament - allantois - .)umbilical )umbilical arteries and veins # ' 56 B C E

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n

N eu ru lat io

-( nutochord /) , ( ) " - .neural plate - .neural plate - )neural plate )neuroectoderm , . . - neural plate, node . - neural plate - .oropharyngeal mambran plate , -81 - neural plate - ,neural groove .neural folds- neural folds () . # ' 86 -96. - neural folds - .neural tube 81

, . . - neurulation . - neural folds ,neural crest cells - neural tube - .neural crest - neural crest , - neural crest .( - , dorsal root ganglion ). 01,9,7,5 . - crest cells - neurolemma sheaths