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تعريف ماهي

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جزوه ماهی شناسی

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  • 1. .c8/1c 4090pptm 7000 .)384322 (117.2000)belon (15511557)Rondelet (168642017351705) ( .300025000. .58 %41%1 % .44 %) (13 %13- %1 %5 %7 %)Benthic ( . ) (.

2. . 3. 4. oPlacodermiiAcanathodii.Chordata CraniataVertebrataMyxini ( )GnathostomataAgnatha= Hagfish, LamperyPlacodermiiAcanthodiiChondrichthyesOsteichthyes classclass 5. Class:ChondrichthyesSelachimorphaElasmobranchii: Sharks, Rays, SkatesHolocephali: chimaeriforms (Ratfish)subclasssubclasssuperclassClass:OsteichthyesSarcopterygii (Lobefin): CoelacanthiformsDipneustii: LungfishBrachiopterygii: BichirActinopterygii: Other bony fishessubclasssubclasssubclasssubclass 6. :)Fusiform : ()compressiform : ( ) ()centrarchidae ( )Lutjanidae(.( )3 ()depressiform : ( () )Rajidae ()Lophiidae ()squatinidae (. ()4()vermiform : ()Myxinidae(5 ()eel like : (Anguilla anguilla6 ()Filiform : (7 ()taeniform : ()Pholidae(Subclass:ActinopterygiiChondrosteichthyes: AcipenseriformsNeopterygiiTeleosteiAmiforms ()LepisosteiformsHolosteiInfraclassInfraclass 7. 8 ()saggittiform : ()Esocidae ()Lepisosteidae(9 ()Golobolar (Mola mola(sun fish(10 ( :)box fish (ostracidae-:o)Head : (.o)Trunk : (.o)Tail : ( )Totallength ()SL ()Fork length ()Snout L ( .)cheek L... (.:- :- :- :- :- :-Whale sharkRhincodon typusRhincodontidacm20- 18.-CyprinidaePaedocypris progeneticaphotocorynus spiniceps( angler fish(mm2.6.)Head()mouth ()nostril()spine()barble ()occiput) (Isthmus ()cheek ()chin ( .. 8. . .)Maxill (MaxillaPremaxilla .)Mandible. ()superior : ()Pseudorasbora parva. ()Inferior :(.VentralInferior.)Terminal: ( cyprinidaesalmonidae.)subterminal: (capoeta copoeta-)Hemirhamphidae (.)Nostril(-2 9. .) ()Stargazer (Choana ..-:oAcipenseridae,Cyprinidaeo.-)Hemiscyllidae ()Huso huso (Acipenser. ) (.-.-.-.-: : 10. . :.)Barbels in fish( . ..- ..-:1 - :2 -o : :o :o :)cobitidae(-4)Acipenser stellatus (. ) (.- ) (. 11. -Lota lota)Gadidae(Mastacemblus halepensis.-capoetacapoeta capoeta heratensisSchizothoraxpelzami.-)Ariidae (3.)Occipitalis()Neurocranium ()Regio occipitalis (:1 -)occipital) 2 -)occipital lateral) 3 -)supra occipital(o)Basi occipital(:.)Trunk(-.)Fins (: 12. -)branched (unbranched (()spine ( . . .)8/D lll.(:)Malcopterygii: ( .)soft ray fin (:-)cyprinidae (cyprinuscarrasius.)Acanthopterygii(-Hard rayspine-rays,carangidae,serranidae,Lutjanidae , Mugilidae:o)unpaired fins :(dorsal finanal fincaudal fin .movement.o)paired fins :( 13. .PectoralVentral ...)Dorsal fin:(- )Dasyatidae ()Myliobatidae .(.-. .-.-2 Atherinidae-2 ())Lutjanidae ()serranidae()Stromatidae(-)Gadidae (3.).( 14. .)finlet. (-())(). (--Rutilus rutilus.-.:-)Echeneidae(.-)Lophiiforms (lophidaeCeratiidaeilliciumescalure.-)Gastrosteidae (12-339 . 15. -)Thymalidae ()xiphiidae (.-- .)Anal fin:(- ..-)Clupeidae ()Mullidae.(-.-Squalus .-Gonopodium)oviduct (Poecilidae ())() .()Caudal fin:( 16. -. . ..- :)Protocercal caudal: (-)EpichordalHypochordal(.)Diphycercal caudal:(-)(.)Heterocercal caudal:(- .)Homocercal caudal:(-) () ( : 17. 1(Rounded :2(Truncate)(:3(Emerginate:4()Lunate:(.5()Forked(:-.-)Leptocercal. (-)Gephyrocercal ()Headfish(Mola mola.-.-)Pectoral fin:(-)Paired fin ( .) (.-.- .- 18. 100-50 2.-6-4.- ).(-Brachiopterygium-)() (.-)Pelvic fin:(- . )Jogular (.-5.-PterygopodiumMyxopodium.-) (Eel 19. - .-:. . .. ()) ( . . ..)Epiderm(.30-10250 .3-2 20. 20mm3.) ( . . ..)Club cells(.Gonorhinchiforms ,Cypriniforms , Characiforms , Siluriforms , Gymnotiforms4143..Schreckstof ..)Mucous cells( . .. 21. . Stratum spongiosum )Stratum compactum . ()Subcutis (. .)perinurium ( . (). ())Bioluminescense ( .)1000-300 ( . .)Photophores (:. 22. )self luminous (. ..() :1(:2( :3( :4( :5( :6( : ..)Radius ( . . . .)( . .)Rutilus rutilus ( 23. . .. :(). :. :. :.... :.. . . . . . .. 24. . . . . . ..)Vision( . . .Selective Feeder.)Schooling (. ).( )Nictitant ()Clupeidae()Mugilidae ( . )Gobidae ( )Platycephalus indicus ( 25. .)Anableps ( )Brackishwater (..Amocoet . ) Iranocypris typhlops ( .20 PleuronectidaeBothidae .Soleidae .DextralSinistral.OcularBlind . ... . . ) () ( . 26. 23 90 Crista . . . . ) ( .3 )() () ( . .. )Hair Cells (.)Lateral Line( . .) RhodeusspBitterling ( .)Pelecus sp ( . )Carangidae ( .)Exocoetidae (. . 50-15 4700-50 27. . . .)Neuromast ( . . )Cupula ( ) ()Hair Cells ( .. ) ()Plotosidae( . . . 2 3 ) ( . . .692:Rajiiformes : Rajiidae TorpedinidaeSiluriformes : MalapteridaeGymnotiformes : Electrophoridae Gymnotidae ApteronotidaeRhamphichthidaePerciformes : UranoscopidaePetromyzontiformes : PetromyzontidaeOsteoglossiformes : Mormyridae Gymnarchidae 28. )Electrophorus electricus (700-650. . . . . .70-5010000-5000.:::knife fishes Elephant nose:Paddle fish3 123 21 )( 29. 2 ) (. :1 )2 )(3 - )( . .)Urostyle ()Hypural plate. (1 -: .2: .. 30. 3: . .. . 4 . )Gill raker ( )Gill filament ( )Lamella ( . . . . 31. .)Brevoortia tyannus ( )lamella(. . . . ) ( :)Operculum()Sub operculum()Inter operculum( )Pre operculum(: : () .3575 10-68 : .7-525 32. 132 :. : . . : Ram JetRam Ventilation . . : rectum. : ). ( - ) ( Cyprinus carpio . . . 33. ) ( . )phenumatic (physostome. .15 %)Cyprinidae Scaridae Odacidae Blenniidae ( .U .3:1-cardiac .2- fundic o pyloric G. .)Gizzard-Like Stomach( .MugilidaeGirellidaeAcanthuridaeMugilidAcanthurid pH . . . 34. . ) ( . 20 % . 20 . . . .Rectum .. rectal gland( ( .4:1-Herbivores :2-Carnivores :3-Detritivores :oOmnivores : .) ( . 20 % . . . 35. . canniculi . . . . . .phyloric caeca .)Ictaluridae) top minnows(Cyprinodontidae (Esocidae ((.Polypterus3)Pleuronectiformes (5 .)Scombridae (Salmonidae ((Liparidae ((200 . . . ..: )Tooth( 36. . . . ) ( )( .)Esocidea ( . ) Vomer( . )Pharyngeal Teeth( . CobitideaBalitoridea .)Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ()Hypophthalmichthys nobilis ()Carassius ()4-4 ( Rutilus sp)Rutilus frissi kuttum ( 6-5.)Ctenopharyngodon idella ()Albernoides( 5.2-2.5) ( . 37. )Barbus sp (35.3.2-2.3.5 .Cyprinus sp3.1.1-1.1.3...)Swim bladder( . . .2: : .... : . .. ... .. 38. ..)Weberian Apparatus()Weberian Apparatus(34Claustrum)Gymnotidae(Scaphium IntercalariumTripus34 . .Cypriniformes Siluriformes Gonorynchiformes CharaciformesGymnotiformes.:Anothophysi :Gonorynchiformes37o2(Othophysi (Euostariophysi: (oCypriniformes (minnows and allies), about 3,268 species (containsCyprinidae, largest family of freshwater fishes(oCharaciformes (characins and allies), at least 1,674 speciesoSiluriformes (catfishes), about 1,727 speciesoGymnotiformes (electric eels, American knifefishes), at least 173species (sometimes grouped under Siluriformes( .4 :)Sinusvenusus()Atrium()Ventricle ( 39. .4 ..) ( . .. . -. .CO2) .(4 ) ( 40. )Cuvier duct ( . .)CO2() (3-2 7 . . . .) ( . . ) ( . . . . .. 24100 . . . . . . 41. . .. 25 %%1030 % . .() 150000.) (. .1/0 %) ( . . . . .)( .)( . . )(. .)( 42. . . . )() ( . .. .() .. .) .( .)(. . . . ...8)Ichthyoplankton ( 43. 5-412)Eel( .) (...)(.)Brood pouch ( .)Ariidae()Apogonidae ()Buccal or OralIncubation ( .Ovophile MouthbroodingPseudotropheus spTropheusspMaylandia spMaylandia zebra Larvophile MouthbroodingGeophagus altifrons SatanopercaGymnogeophagus sp. ... . . .)( ..)Salmon ( 44. .. ..:))Bisexuall(Gonochorism.) :Protandrous , Protogynous.)Sparidae (.Labridae....) (Parthenogenic: ( )Carassius auratus()Poecila formosa.(SerranidaeAnthias anthias12-2.)Fish Reproductive Method( 45. )Oviparous :(97 ...)Ovoviviparous :(Intromitten)Valva ( ())Squatinidae.()Viviparous :(PlacentaEmbiotocidae(Surfperches)Goodeidae(Splitfins (.. . . ..:1 -2 - . 46. :2 . . ..... .. . . . . cluaca. .ureter ) ( ... ..)Fish Migration( . 47. ) ( . .:)Diadromous :(:o ()Anadromous :(Upstream ..o()Katadromous :(Downstream)Anguilla Anguilla (3000.o(Amphidromous :Bull Shark(Carcharhinusleucas(2) -Potamodromous :()Oceanodromous :()Clupea harengus(