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1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2

1. 4

1.1 (), 1:

N=N+ N*; N - ; - ; N* - .

(1)

A B.

N AB=26030 + 11 = 20

1.

1 N 20 13 11 6 5 AB AC AD BC BD

4

.

N=NAB+ NAC+NAD;

(2)

N=20+13+11=44

, -20-12

-20-12 1.

1.2 . . , , , , , , , , .

4

1 - -

, , : 1. , (); 2. SM.10/125.04; 3. , ; 4. ; 5. . 4

2 - - 1. 2. , 3. , / 4. , / 5. , 6. , 7. , /: - 1.31 - 1.55 8. , /(*): - 1.31 - 1.55 9. , 10. , < 3.5 < 18 -40 +60 25 < 0.35 < 0.20 4 24 11 13 280 320 1 4 8,0 5

2. 2.1

, , 5

, . :

N=n12-n22; n1 ; n2 .

(3)

, , , 0,1 0,25.

n2 = 1,515 = 0,0038 n1:

n1=n221-2;

(4)

.

(3), (4) n1

n1=1,51521-2*0,0038=2,2952251-0,0076= 2,2952250,9924=1,521

5

NA=1,5212- 1,5152=2,313- 2,295=0.018=0,134

, (- ). :

V= *d*NA, d - ( 1,55 )

(5)

V=3,14*11,11,55*0,134=3,013

0 2,405 HE11, . :

N=(*d)2*,

(6)

2- 3- : ) 2- = 1,31 ) 3- = 1,55

5

N2=3,14*11,11,312*0,0038=2,689=2 N3=3,14*11,11,552*0,0038=1,921=1

, .

- , , , . :

D=d*0,85+2,1*V-1,5 D=1,11*0,85+2,1*3,013-1,5=13,908

(7)

0,135 2.

125

d

5

0.135

2 :

=0n1 0 (3*108 /c)

(8)

=3*1081,521=197238659=1,972*108

:

3 n1 n2 NA V N 2 3 1,521 1,515 0,134 3,013 2 D 1 /c 1,972*108 4

, . :

=+,

(9)

. :

=3,69**n1*tg ,

(10)

tg , = 1*10-11 :

=4,

(11)

, = 0,60,94*

1,55 = 0,8 4*4

=3,69**n1*tg

1,55*10-9=3,69*3,14*1,521*1*10-111,55*10-

9=17,623*1*10-111,55*10-9=0,114

=+=0,114+0,139=0,253

. , 0,95; 1,384; 1,625 1,675 , 0,6; 0,8; 0,06 0,17 . 4 , 0,8 0,85 0,95 1,0 1,26 1,31 1,36 1,384 1,4 1,43 1,53 1,55 1,625 , / 0,221 0,207 0,185 0,176 0,140 0,134 0,130 0,127 0,126 0,123 0,115 0,114 0,108 , / 1,956 1,533 1,117 0,8 0,317 0,272 0,234 0,218 0,208 0,191 0,146 0,139 0,114

, / 0,6 0,8 0,06

, / 2,177 1,74 1,302 0,976 0,457 0,406 0,364 0,345 0,334 0,314 0,261 0,253 0,2224

1,675

0,105

0,102

0,17

0,207

.

3 - = () , , . 1 0.780.93 0.85 . . 2 1.261.36 1.31 , . 1.53 1.565 1.55 3, , WDM. . .. , , :

D=S0*4*1-04,

(12)4

S0 ; 0.00932* 0 (1290 ); .

1.55 .

D=0.093*15504*1-129015504=36.038*1-0.479=18.75*;

: 5

, 1260 1290 1310 1350 1400 1450 1500

D(),*

2.842 0 1.918 5.304 9.146 12.675 15.7984

1550 1600 1625 1675

18.775 21.501 22.857 25.274

.

4 .

6 ., / , / D()., / D(), / , 1.31 0.406 0.35 1,918 3.5 1.55 0.253 0.20 18,775 18

, ..

4

.

2.2 . :

lmax= --2-+/l,

(13)

; (36 ); (0.30.5 ); () (0.050.15 ); ; .

:

lmin=-,

(14)

. 5

: -20-12 = 32 ; 5 , -20-12 = 30; 0.4 ; = 0.08 ; = 5 . 2- 3- . ) = 1.31

lmax= 32-5-2*0.4-0.080.406+0.08/5=26.120.422=61.89

lmin= 32-300.406=4.92

) = 1.55

lmax=32-5-2*0.4-0.080.253+0.08/5=18.920.269=97.10

, x :

F(x)=1D()*lclx,

(15)

(1015 ); x . 5

, 1.55 , 1.31 . . 7 = 1.55 x, x,

20 37

40 26.5

60 21.6

80 18.7

100 16.7

120 15.2

140 14.1

160 13.25

F

Fx=118.775*10-12*1020=0.053*0.707=0.037*1012=37*109

. (-20-12 68.736 ) .

5 Fx = (x) 160 , . AC. :

N..=l-lmax.., - . 1.31 1.55 .

(16)

4

N..1.31=7661.89=1.227

N..1.55=7697.1=0.782 1.55 , .. . : 8 . ., AB AC AD BC BD

40

76

58

36

18

: . 3 6 . . 40 18 . D 6

4

2.3 , : ..=*l..+NH*AH+Np*Ap+A., NH Np (17)

:

NH=l.. l+1,

(18)

4 . 5, 10, 15, 20 . :

D..=D()*l..,

(19)

.

4

NH=405+1=9 ..=0.253*40+9*0.08+4*0.4+0=10.12+0.72+1.6=12.44

D..=18.775*40=751

: 9 . ., NH A, , . ., D(). ., AB 40 9 12.44 5 17.44 751 AC 76 16 22.04 0 22.04 1426.9 AD 58 13 17.31 0 17.31 1088.95 BC 46 9 11.42 5 16.42 675.9 BD 18 5 6.55 10 16.55 337.95

:

-..-

32-30..27 5

2 ..27

.

2.4 2.4.1 . 1*10-6, 0.2 * 10-6 0.4 . 7.

.

max = 10000

max = 600

max = 100

1*10-7

1 *10-

1 *10-7

1 *107

0.4 *106

7 5

, 1 :

P..(1)=...lmax.

(20)

P..(1)= 1*10-7100=1*10-9

:

P..=P..(1)*l-

(21)

10:

10 -, P.. AB AC AD BC BD

40 4*10-8

76 7.6*10-8

58 5.8*10-8

36 3.6*10-8

18 1.8*10-8

2.4.2 4

, . :

=L-Lmin-, L Lmin

(22)

(36 )

:

L=L-.., L

(23)

:

Lmin=-70+10.5lgB, B /.

(24)

AB, MT-20-12 , B = 68.736 /c, = 3 .

Lmin = -70+10.5lg68.736=-50.71

L=-3-17.44=-20.44 5

=-20.44--50.71-3=27.27

. 11:

11 , P 21.7 10-6 22.5 10-7 23.1 10-8 23.7 10-9 24.2 10-10 24.6 10-11 25.0 10-12 25.4 1013 25.7 10-14 26.0 10-15

AB:

P. AB=10-15

12:

12 AB AC AD BC BD4

. ., . ., L, , 40 17.44 -20.44 27.27 10-15 76 22.04 -25.04 22.67 10-8 58 17.31 -20.31 27.4 10-15 36 16.42 -19.42 28.29 10-15 18 16.55 -19.55 28.16 10-15

, , .. .

3 3.1

. . .

N=N,

(25)

N .

4

AB, , -20-12 12 .

N=2012=1.6=2

13:

13 Nc AB 2 AC 2 AD 1 BC 1 BD 1

8:. 3

5 c 1

.

2 2 1

. B

2

1

1

. D

2

8 -20-12 4

8 , , . AB 10 OB, BC 6 OB, BD 4 OB. 2.

3.2 . ( ) -16, . (). , 26, , . 14.

14 . . . . D

( () () () ) 16 16 20 12 600 30 16 16 16 4 3 1 . 3 1 12 5 5 3 1 9 4 4 1 4 2 1 6 3 3 1 6 2 1 5 2 2 4

16 26

16 6

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 2 1

1 2 1

5

5