Λιάμης Γεώργιος Λέκτορας Παθολογίας Πανεπιστημίου Ιωαννίνων

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  • . . .

  • 80% () 60% 50%

  • KATANOMH TOY H2O (1/3) (2/3) (1/5) (4/5)

  • (- - )

    ( )

  • -

  • (Posm)

    2 ,

  • Posm Na+ ( Cl- HCO3-),

  • Posm=2 X Na+ (mg/dl) (mg/dl) 186++(mosmol/kg) (mmol/L) Posm= 275-290 mosmol/kg

  • ( ) 2

    (.. a+, , )

    (.. , ) 2

  • (mg/dl) 18 +

    (mosmol/kg)= 270-285 mosmol/kg

    = 2 X Na+(mmol/L)

  • Posm 2 X Na+

    + , H2O

  • -

  • Starling

  • M -

    (Pc + Pi ) (Pi + Pp )

    Pc = Pi = Pi = Pp = fluid outfluid in

  • H

  • 1000 ml 500-700 ml 100-200 ml . ( 70% , 95-100%) , (300-400 ml/24)

  • (1) :

    ( Na+ K+)

  • (2) = :

    600 mOsm/24 1200 mOsm/L 500ml/24

  • :

    (ADH):

  • 0,5 20 L/24,

  • (1) 5500 mEq (40-50 mEq/Kg)

    : 50% , 10% 40%

    70% .

  • (2) + (137-142 mEq/L)

    + , +

  • a+ =+e + K+e H2ONa+e + K+e: + +

  • Posm Posm 2 2O O

  • (3) 20000-24000 mEq 24

    0,5-1%, .

    , : 60-70% , 25-30% Henle 4-9%

  • ,

  • H ( D)

    H

  • Posm, Na+

  • ADH

    H2O, H2O

  • H2O

    Posm

    ADH

    H2O

    Posm

    H2O

    ADH H2O

    +

  • ( , ) :

    +

  • -- ( Na+

    , GFR Henle

  • (pressure natriuresis phenomenon)

  • ADH ADH (Posm)

    ADH ( Posm)

    Posm 1% ADH, , , ADH

  • ADH ADH ( 10% ), . , ADH ( Posm )

  • VS , & ( Posm) ADH ADH ADH

  • vs - , ADH

  • PhospholipidbilayerHydrophobic regionsof proteinHydrophilicregions of protein

  • ,

  • . O2, CO2, H2O

  • : 2 & 2 CO2

  • * Cell membraneSolute moves DOWN concentration gradient (HIGH to LOW)

  • H2O Low solute concentration High solute concentration

  • PhospholipidbilayerHydrophobic regionsof proteinHydrophilicregions of protein

  • , (), ,

  • ATP

  • Na+ Active sodiumPassive waterSodium only (no water)Makes dilute urineWater:ADH-sensitiveSodium: 25 mol/dWater: 150 L/dSodium: 100-200 mmol/dWater: 1-2 L/dSodium:Aldosterone-sensitive

  • ( ) ( )

  • E a+ (1) a+

  • E a+ (2) a+ ( Na+-K+-ATP) -

    a+ & (-70 mV)

    a+

  • E a+ (3) a+ .. Na+-H+ Na+- Na+-K+-2Cl- Henle

  • ( ADH)

    *Figure 7.3 The fluid mosaic model for membranesThe Plasma Membrane*G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010*The Plasma Membrane*G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010*The Plasma Membrane*G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010*The Plasma Membrane*G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010*The Plasma Membrane*G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010**Figure 7.3 The fluid mosaic model for membranesThe Plasma Membrane*G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010*The Plasma Membrane*G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010*Cells that reabsorb or secrete molecules are epithelial cells. They are unique in being polarized i.e. have two distinct membrane regions. The membrane on the basement membrane near the blood side of the layer has the Na-K-ATPase pump, while the membrane facing the lumen of the transporting cell layer, does not have this pump. The luminal membrane has other unique proteins that will determine in which direction ions move. Because of the expression of different transport proteins on the two different membrane surfaces, directional transport of ions, molecules and water can occur.

    We will see many examples of renal cells that reabsorb i.e. move molecules from the lumen into the blood. Several will be studied in detail.

    You will see in 2nd term that the small intestines have cells that secrete (moves molecules from the blood into the lumen) NaCl and water! The cell can do this even though the Na-K-ATPase pump is on the basolateral membrane just as in the reabsorbing cells. The difference is the pathway by which Na gets into the cell i.e. across which of the two membranes and what other transport proteins are embedded in each membrane.