×ודו×: רבקה × ×™×× â€“ ×”×וניבר××™××” העברי×

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זהום אטמוספרי חוצה גבולות במזרח התיכון יגאל אראל 1 , אורי דיין 2 , מרדכי שטיין 3 , עמיר סנדלר 3 , בוריאנה קלדרון 1,3 , רעות רבי 1 , ג'נה ג'נדורף 1 1 – המכון למדעי כדה"א, האוניברסיטה העברית 2 – המחלקה לגיאוגרפיה, האוניברסיטה העברית 3 – המכון הגיאולוגי של ישראל. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • 90% the air trajectories within the atmospheric mixed layer reach Israel from : 1) North West Europe, crossing the Mediterranean Sea; 2) Eastern Europe; 3) the Arabian Peninsula; 4a) North African coast; 4b) inland North Africa. (After Dayan, 1986) 3, 4a, 4b can cause dust storms(4a also dust before rain)2 prevails during the summer (PT)

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  • controllerpumpFilter holderTime Resolution PM10 Sampler~ 1 m3/hr0.5 mm Teflon filters Sensitive to changes in meteorological conditions Small sample sizeSequential leaching (L0, L1, L2)Chemical and Isotopic AnalysisMicroscopyArchive

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  • : 37(208):1:17:15(204), (: , - , ) (206Pb/207Pb) (Pb) 4 : 208Pb, 207Pb, 206Pb, 204Pb. 1 !

  • 1.119 1.141.1641.0951.121.1401.111.1151.1551.141.12Bollhofer & Rosman, 2001,2002Hopper et al., 1991Veron et al., 1999This work1.1591.1531.123 206Pb/207Pb

  • :1.1980-82: ~500 ng/m3 (Malenky et al., 1983)2.1997: 20 25 ng/m33.2001 2003: 5 - 20 ng/m3 (up to 170 during dust storms) 2005: From 2005: 2 - 3 tUSAEU

  • EF = [TM]/[Al]sample/[TM]/[Al]crust " (EF)n : (Pb) , (Cu) , (Zn) (Ni) , 5 EF

  • Summary of dust storm eventsTotal of 11(+3) dust events, 69 samplesSampled in Givat Ram

  • Chemical point analyses of PM2.5 using ESEM PM2.5 ESEM ( -) , ,

  • L1 = dilute HNO3 dissolutionL2 = HF + HNO3Al-Silicates EF ,

  • (stages) . 1 = , 2 = , 3 = , 4 = , 5 = .

  • (Pb EF) ( - 22-26.1.2004). : 10PM . 85% . . 5 . . ( ). .

  • 1, . ? median EFPb-Ca(L1dust) = 333max EFPb-Ca(IL soils)300= EF

  • L2 = HF + HNO3Al-Silicates ( )

  • Cairo Pb

  • () (ESEM) () ( 2004)() ( 2003)

  • 3176 11

  • (72h BT) () (PT-d), () (PT-r), () (PT-s).

  • Wanger et al. (2000) Some observational and modeling evidence of long range transport of air pollutants from Europe towards the Israeli coastLelieveld et al. (2002) Global Air Pollution Crossroads over the MediterraneanLuria et al. (1996) Atmospheric sulfur over the east Mediterranean region.

  • PM2.5 ESEM ( ) ( ) - ( )

  • Deep PT

  • % Uk Pb = 100*{(206Pb/207Pb)smp (206Pb/207Pb)IL}/ {(206Pb/207Pb)Uk (206Pb/207Pb)IL}Shallow PT: 4518% Ukraine PbDeep PT: 7413% Ukraine PbAdditional source 10PM EF ( ) 2 :

  • # particles*mass ~ measured [Pb, Cu, Zn] (ESEM) . . , , :

  • (PM2.5, mg/m3)

  • . . . . . ( 1000 ) . 2.5 . . . .

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