אלכוהול מאת: דר' חיים מהל

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אלכוהול מאת: דר' חיים מהל. תודות לדר' דרווין טליאס ודר' יהודה ניומרק, על סיועם בעיבוד החומר. אלכוהול - הגדרה. I/. בכימיה, אלכוהול הוא כל חומר אורגני שבו הידרוקסיל – OH , קשור לאטום פחם – C . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of אלכוהול מאת: דר' חיים מהל

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  • Alcohol: Neurochemical systemsThis is a diagram of a dopamine neuron (in yellow) originating in the VTA and projecting into the nucleus accumbens. These dopamine neurons are regulated by a variety of neurotransmitter systems:-excitatory NMDA systems (red)-inhibitory GABA neurons (green)-opioid neurons and receptors (blue)Alcohol is postulated to act by facilitating GABA-A function, by interacting with the GABA-A receptor, but at a site different from the GABA binding site or the benzodiazepine binding site. This leads to the activation of the VTA dopamine neuron.

    SLIDE 6This lecture now turns to a series of characteristics or genetically-influenced phenotypes that appear to influence the alcoholism risk. As outlined on the slide, these include genes that influence alcohol metabolism; the phenomenon of disinhibition and/or impulsivity; the intensity or level of response to alcohol; independent major psychiatric disorders (which are defined later); and a variety of additional characteristics.

    REFERENCESSchuckit MA: Editors Corner: Keep it simple. J Stud Alcohol (in press)Schuckit MA: Vulnerability factors for alcoholism, in Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. (ed): Davis K, Baltimore, The American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (in press)

    SLIDE 5As a complex genetic disorder, environmental influences are likely to explain 40% of the alcoholism risk, while a combination of a variety of characteristics (genetically-influenced phenotypes) combine to explain the remaining60%.

    BACKGROUNDSimilar to genetic influences in most forms of cancer, adult-onset diabetes, high blood pressure, and so on, the risk for alcoholism relates to both genetic and environmental components. The biological influences are the focus of this lecture, but it is important to remember that environment (while more difficult to study) is also important. The major premise of this lecture is that multiple genetically-influenced characteristics contribute to the risk, many of these genetic influences operate independently of each other, and most of the phenotypes are influenced by multiple genes. When a few genes operate to influence the phenotype they are referred to as oligogenic, while when many genes contribute the phenomenon is called polygenic.

    REFERENCESGoldman D: (1999) Big mountain (commentary). Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:553Hyman SE: (1999) Introduction to the complex genetics of mental disorders. Biol Psychiatry 45:518-521Prescott CA, Kendler KS: (1999) Genetic and environmental contributions to alcohol abuse and dependence in a population-based sample of male twins. Am J Psychiatry 156:34-40Schuckit MA: Vulnerability factors for alcoholism, in Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. (ed): Davis K, Baltimore, The American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (in press)

    SLIDE 13Another series of phenotypes that are both genetically influenced and related to a high alcoholism risk are independent (i.e., not just temporary and substance induced) major psychiatric disorders.BACKGROUNDAlmost all studies indicate that alcoholic individuals have significantly elevated risks for other major psychiatric disorders. Even after excluding individuals who meet criteria for ASPD (which is associated with a high alcoholism risk described earlier) and those whose additional disorder is another substance dependence, about 40% of alcoholics do meet criteria for major mood, anxiety, psychotic, and other psychiatric syndromes. However, a substantial proportion of these are men and women demonstrate psychiatric symptoms only in the context of intoxication or withdrawal from alcohol. These temporary psychiatric conditions are referred to as substance-induced disorders in DSM-IV, and do not represent additional genetically-influenced conditions, but rather are part of the alcoholism itself. Some independent psychiatric disorders (i.e., those seen in individuals who fulfill these syndromes either before the onset of alcoholism or during periods of extended abstinence) are related to the alcoholism risk. These include bipolar manic-depressive disease, schizophrenia, panic disorder, and social phobia. The lecturer might choose to discuss further how a careful time-line-based history can be used to differentiate between substance-induced and independent disorders. References are offered below to facilitate this information.REFERENCESAmerican Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV, Washington DC, Psychiatric Association P