Сети ЭВМ и средства коммуникации

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  • - (), - (), (), , ( ), , .

  • ()

  • , Ethernet .

  • (. Bridge) 2 OSI ( ). .

  • MAC- ( .Media Access Control , Hardware Address) , .

  • MAC-

  • cisco 771 .

  • ()

  • , ( .to sniff ) , - , , , .

  • Wi-Fi

  • Wi-Fi . Ad Hoc WDS WDS WITH AP

  • Wi-Fi Ad Hoc

  • Wi-Fi

  • Wi-Fi WDS

  • Wi-Fi WDS WITH AP

  • Wi-Fi

  • Wi-Fi

  • , , , , .

  • " ". , . . , .

  • Internet: ; ; .

  • - - - TCP/IP.

  • , , , , . , -- , , . - ,

  • -. , .

  • TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)-- , , .

  • (Internet Protocol IP) , , . (TCP)

  • Internet , Internet, , , , , . : IP- , .

  • , , IP - (Internet Protocol) URL (Universal Resource Location) - protocol://host.domain/path/: http://www.rambler.ru

  • URL . URL:://:@:/

  • ://:@:/

    - , - , - , - DNS IP- , . 0 255. - URL- ( )

  • () URL :ftp FTPhttp HTTPhttps HTTP , ( , SSL TLS) gopher Gophermailto news Usenetnntp Usernet NNTP irc IRCprospero ProsperoDirectory Service telnet Telnetwais WAISxmpp XMPP ( Jabber) file data (Data: URL)

  • URL URL , , ASCII: , . URL , , , , c , .

  • URL : (UTF-8) , . , URL, (%) percentencoding, URL.

  • WWW, World Wide Web, , - -. - , . , , -. - , , .

  • , , . . . . , .

  • . (hardware) . . .

  • (hardware) . , . . , -, , . , , , , .

  • . . ( ftp-archl.ucl.ac.uk) , . , , ftp-archl.

  • . , - . IP- IPX-. , , , . , , . , , IPv6, Internet.

  • Internet (32-) 8 , .123.45.67.89 , . , .

  • (IP-) . . , Internet (Network Information Center, NIC), Internet. Internet NIC, .

  • IP- IP-

    D

    0 N N

    10N N

    110N N

    1110 multicast

    11110

  • IP- IP- - . , , . 0, , , 3 . 1 126. ( 0 , 127 , .) 224.

  • IP- IP- - . , , . 10, 28 - 216. 16 , 2 .

  • IP- IP- - . , , . 110, 28. 24 , - 8 .

  • IP- IP- - . , , . 1110, D , - multicast. D, , .

  • IP- IP- - . , , . 11110, , .

  • IP- IP- - DHCP DHCP IP-. : - DHCP DNS. - IP- . , SNMP, IP-. - : DHCP- IP- .

  • Internet . (domain ), . . FQDN . polydos.uni-konstanz .de - ()

  • IP- - (MAC-) - (IP-) - (DNS-)

  • IP- , , , . , - - , , 11-0-17-3D-BC-01. , . - 6 : 3 - , 3 . , , .25 frame relay, .

  • IP- (IP-) -, 4 , , 109.26.17.100. . . IP- : . , Internet (Network Information Center, NIC), Internet. Internet NIC, .

  • IP- (DNS-) -, , SERV1.IBM.COM. , , , , . , DNS-, , , FTP telnet.

  • . , , . "" (), .

  • DNS (Domain Name System) - , Internet. DNS IP- . DNS- IP-. Internet. DNS IP- DNS IP , IP-.

  • IP-: DNS DNS-, , - DNS- , , DNS-. DNS- , Internet. , .

  • IP-: DNS

    - , , . IP- DNS-, .

  • IP-: DNS DNS , , ( ) . , , .

  • IP-: DNS DNS Internet Network Information Center. , . ISO 3166. , : com - (, microsoft.com); edu - (, mit.edu); gov - (, nsf.gov); org - (, fidonet.org); net - , (, nsf.net).

  • IP-: DNS DNS , . , . 63 . Internet (fully qualified domain name, FQDN), . DNS-: citint.dol.ru.

  • Internet , , TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol / Internet Protocol).Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) - , .

  • Internet (Internet Protocol IP) , , . (TCP)

  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) TCP/IP : , . TCP/IP. Internet. INTRANET- , Internet WWW, Internet. TCP/IP. , . -.

  • TCP/IP. TCP/IP 4 .

  • TCP/IP. ( IV) OSI. TCP/IP , : Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, Fast Ethernet, 100VG-AnyLAN, - "-" SLIP PPP, X.25, frame relay.

  • TCP/IP. III - , , , . . ( OSI) - IP ( ), . , : RIP (Routing Internet Protocol) OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol). - .

  • TCP/IP. II . TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP . UDP , IP, .

  • TCP/IP. ( I) . TCP/IP . , FTP, telnet, SMTP, Internet, , WWW .

  • TCP/IP. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) . telnet , . . SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ( , ).

  • , , . , . Ethernet (4 ). .

  • Internet - Internet . IP-.IP- 64 64 .

  • Internet IP-

  • Internet IP- IP- (, 4 6). , , . . IP- . , .

  • Internet IP-HLEN - , 32- , 20 (HLEN=5, ). - (TOS - type of service) , . 6 . IP- ( 65535 ), .

  • Internet IP- , (3 ) (fragment offset) "" . , "" . 0 , 1 (0 - ; 1 - ), 2 , (0 ; 1 - ).

  • Internet IP- (TTL - time to live) , .. . , , . TTL=0, . TTL , TTL=TTL-1. TTL .

  • Internet IP- 0-, 1-ICMP- [rfc792],,6-TCP- [RFC-793],, 17-UDP- [RFC-768],, 92-MTP- ,101-254- , 255 -

  • Internet IP- 16- 1. . , , .

  • Internet IP- . , . , - . , . , , 4 , .

  • Internet IP- 1992 : TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses (TUBA); Common Architecture for the Internet (CatnIP) Simple Internet Protocol Plus (SIPP). IPv6 IP- 128 32 IPv4. IPv6 (RFC-1883), 4 (IPv4; RFC-791).

  • Internet IPv6

    RFC-2460, RFC-1883, . 8 ( 4 ). 20 .

  • Internet , , . 2 : TCP UDP.TCP , .. .UDP .

  • Internet TCP TCP (transmission control protocol) UDP , , . TCP , . . , TCP, FTP telnet. , TCP SMTP, HTTP ..

  • Internet TCP-

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