低碳经济科学观 大学城论坛

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


. 2011.4.16. . . . . . . . . World Nominal Oil Price Chronology: 1970 - 2007. Million Tonnes Oil Equivalent. . . 2005 40-50% 2005 17% - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Slide 1


World Nominal Oil Price Chronology: 1970 - 2007

Million Tonnes Oil Equivalent

2005 40-50% 2005 17% 1990 20% 1990 30% 1990 25% 2000 25% 1990 40% 2005 20-25% 2000 50%

CO2 CO2CO2 CO2.The combustion of all carbon containing fuels, such as methane (natural gas), petroleum distillates (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, propane), but also of coal and wood, will yield carbon dioxide and, in most cases, water. As an example the chemical reaction between methane and oxygen is given below.

CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2OYeast metabolizes sugar to produce carbon dioxide and ethanol, also known as alcohol, in the production of wines, beers and other spirits, but also in the production of bioethanol:

C6H12O6 2 CO2 + 2 C2H5OH (+ 6O2 6H2O + 4CO2)All aerobic organisms produce CO2 when they oxidize carbohydrates, fatty acids, and proteins in the mitochondria of cells.

, , , , .

PW =10**15 watt.

88Resource recovery technology 20100116 07:49:11

1928 Scottish scientist and Nobel laureate Alexander Fleming discovered P that was a bread blue mould (it is presumed, penicillium) as a means of treating suppurating wounds was a staple of folk medicine in Europe since the Middle Ages. Charles Thom, an American specialist working at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, was the acknowledged expert, and Fleming referred the matter to him.

1939: Australian scientist Howard Florey (later Baron Florey) and a team of researchers at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford made significant progress in showing the in vivo bactericidal action of penicillin.

1942 the first patient was treated for streptococcal septicemia with U.S.-made penicillin produced by Merck & Co. Half of the total supply produced at the time was used on that one patient. By June 1942, there was just enough U.S. penicillin available to treat ten patients.

1944The discovery of the cantaloupe, and the results of fermentation research on corn steep liquor at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory at Peoria, Illinois, allowed the United States to achieve Large-scale production.

1950sThe chemical structure of penicillin was determined by UK Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin. Penicillin has since become the most widely used antibiotic to date, and is still used for many Gram-positive bacterial infections. Chemist John C. Sheehan at MIT completed the first total synthesis of penicillin and some of its analogs in the early 1950s.


First 1940-50s Second 1950-60s Third 1960-70s Fourth 1970s 301997Steve JobsMaciPodiPhoneiPad201053063.83027 51232%4674337

VLSI; GUI; to user friendly home computer Apple IIIBM In 1952, IBM began working with MIT to finalize the design of an air defense computer. The merger of academic and business engineering cultures proved troublesome, but the two organizations finally hammered out a design by the summer of 1953, and IBM was awarded the contract to build two prototypes in September. In 1954, IBM was named as the primary computer hardware contractor for developing SAGE for the United States Air Force. IBM gained access to pioneering research being done at MIT on the first real-time, digital computer. IBM built fifty-six SAGE computers at the price of US$30 million each, and at the peak of the project devoted more than 7,000 employees (20% of its then workforce about 30,000 ) to the project. SAGE had the largest computer footprint ever, and continued in service until 1984.IBM

Solar cells, wind turbines and biofuels are poised to become major energy sources. New policies could dramatically accelerate that evolution BY DANIEL M. KAMMENSCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 200619972009146Mw25853Mw20012 200753.60.16


2009305MW1.3%2000. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) - also known as CO2 (By Andrew Charlesworth. )

CCS 273 64 7 . pre-combustion Oxy Combustion post-combustion

: ;; CO2CO2 CO2 (NH4)CO3 + CO2 + H2O 2NH4HCO3

10 ( Alstom Strongwish (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd)









Petroleum, or oil, forms from the remains of plants and animals that lived in the ocean between 10 to 160 million years ago. When organisms died and sank to the bottom, they were covered in mud, sand, and other mineral deposits .Coal comes from the massive accumulation of dead land-based plant life, mainly trees. This organic matter was deposited in sedimentary basins on land (of continental origin), where the water was shallow for 60 300 million years ago.New technologies can fully utilize bio-material generating energy and derivative products that can be made of fossil fuel. In essence, it is using fossil fuel and coal but shortening the C-cycle time span by 1 to 6 hundred million years.2-6

Steam Hydrogasification Process to Convert Biomass Materials into Synthetic FuelsSHR Steam Hydrogasification Reactor, SMR Steam Methane ReformerGTL Liquid Fuel Production. Ex. Fischer-Tropsch Reactor

UCR Joseph Norbeck24

Cesar Torres and Bruce Rittman (ASU) ElectromicrobiologyYuri Gorby,J. Craig Venter Institute, San Diego, CASewage sludge utilization

The study of components and fundamental processes of extracellular electron transfer in microbial systems

25Samples of biofilms recovered from electrodes poised at +100 mV show an extensive network of branched appendages (putative nanowires). Cells are nanowires are admixed with mineralized structures, presumably carbonate minerals formed during rapid and complete oxidation of fixed organic compounds. We will soon attempt to confirm and evaluate the conductive properties of the partially mineralized appendages.

Non-fermentative pathway for synthesis of higher alcohols as biofuel James Liao Lab, UCLA

algae biofuels

Venice to use algae for 50% of its electricity within 2 yearshttp://www.google.com.hk/imgres?imgurl=http://pupilsdilated.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/algae6.jpg&imgrefurl=http://pupilsdilated.com/%3Fp%3D94&usg=__SpBarHgOBs_LeDGhk_rRZvOUPLU=&h=339&w=537&sz=39&hl=zh-CN&start=16&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=e5VI8VueoM7JNM:&tbnh=83&tbnw=132&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dalgae%2Bbiofuel%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dzh-CN%26safe%3Dstrict%26sa%3DX%26tbs%3Disch:1

You really can drive across country on algae and a 700-pound battery pack, or so proved the crew behind the documentary Fuel . Embarking on September 8 and pulling into New York City today, just in time for the film's premiere, the Algaeus covered 3,750 miles."It got 147 miles-per-gallon in the city," says Fuel director Josh Tickell of the converted to plug-in Prius hybrid that he drove on a mix of battery power and algae fuel blended with conventional gasoline. The Algae us did less well on the highway: 52 mpg, because of the lack of regenerative braking that recharges the battery, among other http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/60-second-science/post.cfm?id=algaeus-lives-a-modified-prius-goes-2009-09-18CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF?: The U.S. Navy has ordered more than 60,000 gallons of alternative fuels derived from weeds and algae--and hopes to power planes and ships with them in the near future.

CO 2

Scientific American August 2000

(BPM)30-60 / 5 (TECC) in2007 30 BPM 150-300 coal equivalent (tce); 6-10 2007 8-15 tce; 29-58% 2007 BPM 30% 100% TECC in 2007 60 104 kw CO2 200104 t; 75 of total CO2 emission in the plant CO2Biodiesel production of microalgae (BPM)

31 Biomass leads in renewable energy 2010

By Anna Austinhttp://www.biomassmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=3809Posted June 4, 2010, at 10:23 a.m. CST

Audit, tax and advisory firm KPMG has released its annual review of merger and acquisition activity within the renewable energy industry, results of which indicate that biomass is now the most attractive sector to potential investors and corporations this year, rising above both wind and solar.

Based on a survey of more than 250 senior executives active in the renewable energy industry worldwide. Looking at which renewable energy industry sectors are most attractive, 37 percent of respondents chose biomass, compared with solar (36 percent) and onshore wind (35 percent).

The report recognizes that while wind is still recording significant deal activity, research shows that dealmakers, particularly large companies such as the utilities, are looking for the next global trend and biomass appears to be positioned as one of the most active sectors. Andy Cox, energy partner at KPMG in the U.K., said biomass looks set to be the new wind.

Posted May 27, 2010, at 8:53 a.m. CST Novoenzymes + COFCO + Sinopec commercialization of cellulosic biofuel in China.

The new plant comes on line in the third quarter of 2011 and will produce 3 MMgy of bioethanol made from corn stover. In February, Novozymes launched new Cellic CTec2, an enzyme product enabling the biofuel industry to produce cellulosic ethanol at a price competitive with gasoline and conventional ethanol.

China has an adequate supply of biomass, and agricultural residues alone exceed 700 million metric tons (772 million tons) annually. By converting agricultural residues into fuel ethanol, China can reduce its gasoline consumption by 31 million tons in 2020, thereby reducing its dependence on imported petroleum by 10 percent and abating 90 million tons of CO2 emissions. By doing