Теория оптических эфирных опытов

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    145

    ..

    . , () . . - , . , 100 .

    1. 2. 3. 4.

    4.1.

    . 4.2.

    . 4.3.

    .

    4.4. [11] ([4]). 5. 6.

    6.1. . 6.2. , . 6.3. . 6.4. .

    7. 8.

  • 146

    8.1. . 8.2. -.

    1.

    , . . , . . , . , . , . , 1690 . , . . , . , , . . , . 1865 . .. , . , . : ? . . ( , ..) (, , - .)

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    147

    . (), 1905 . . . . .

    2. :

    , , . (). , , (), , . () () , , () (), , . . (), , (), () (), (, -). , , .. , , ,

  • 148

    . ( ) , . , . , . , .. . , , , . , .. . () , , . , , .

    3.

    . , . .. [1]. ().

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    149

    , .. : , , , , [2]. cv /= . , . , , . . .. [1] : (), . . ? . , . . ( ) , ( ) . , , . , . . , . , , . , , . () (. 2). , .

  • 150

    , , (), , (), .

    4. 1997 . [1] .. :

    (), . 2000 . [4] : () [10], , [11], . - [12, 13] . [10] [13] [4]:

    [10] .., .. , 156, 137, 1988. [11] .., .. . . . 42, 373,

    1999. . , . , . . [11] [4]. [11]

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    151

    , , , .

    4.1. .

    [10] [11] [4], , [11]. , [4] . : 2 ,l R R t = (1)

    2

    ,1 /

    v Rv

    v R c =

    (2)

    l , ; t , ; v ; (+) , , () , ; , R , ;

    2, , nv kk

    = = n ,

    , ,

    2 , = , c ;

    v , . ,

    ,

    ltv

    = .

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    (1) (2),

    2

    2 2

    2

    2 1,

    1

    RR vct

    Rvc

    =

    (3)

    ( )

    2

    2 2 2 2

    4 1 /

    Rt t tc R c

    + = =

    . (4)

    t . ,

    ( )

    22 2 2

    1/ 22 2 2 2

    4 1 /1 /

    Rt t R cc R c

    = =

    . (5)

    .

    2

    2 2 2

    4 1 /

    c t R c R c

    = =

    . (6)

    [11] ([4]). (1)

    , . . [10] , (5). [11] (1), , , [10], . , [11] , (1), [4], , , [10]. , , [11] (1). . (1)

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    153

    2 2 2

    2 ,1 /

    R R tlR c

    =

    (7)

    t , . ,

    2

    2 2 2

    2 /

    1 /

    t R R ctR c

    =

    . (8)

    (7) (8) t , 2 2 22 1 / ,l R R c R t = (9)

    (1) 2 2 21 /R c . , [4],

    ( )2

    2 2 2

    2 1 /

    1 /

    R v R ct

    v R c

    =

    . (10)

    (10),

    2

    2 2 2 2

    4 1 /

    Rt t tc R c

    + = =

    . (11)

    (11) ,

    2

    2 2 22

    4 1 / Rt t R cc

    = = . (12)

    (10), (11) (12) (3), (4) (5) [4] ./R-1 222 c (1) [4] . , [4], (1), (12) [10]? , [10] . , [10]

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    , . , [4] , 2 2 2 1 /t t R c = . (13)

    4.2. .

    . ? , Rl 20 = , [11]. , (), . 1- 2- . , , , , . , . . . , , : , . , -, , . - 2- . , . -

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    155

    , , . .

    4.3. . ,

    ( ), v x ( ), . 1. .

    2

    2 2

    2

    2 2

    , , , ,1 1

    , , , ,1 1

    vt xx vt cx y y z z t

    vt xx vt cx y y z z t

    = = = =

    + + = = = =

    (14)

    2 2 2/ v c= . . 2. A B :

    A (+) ;

    B (+) .

    B () ; A ()

    .

    O

    z

    x

    y

    K z

    x

    y

    O

    K v

    . 1

  • 156

    v R= . 0v u= ; 0 /u c n= . 0 2l R= K . K () . AB (+) BA (). A B= (+) (), . x A, B t K , K + K . (+) (), A B= K. (+) v. (+) K + . A, B

    A B

    v

    R

    O+

    . 2

    u 0 A B

    v

    x , x K

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    157

    (+), (14)

    2 2

    , ,1 1

    A A B BA B

    x vt x vtx x

    + + + ++ + + += =

    (15)

    2 2

    2 2, .

    1 1

    A A B B

    A B

    v vt x t xc ct t

    + + + +

    + + + +

    = =

    (16)

    (15) (16) , (+) K

    02 2

    ( ),

    1 1B A B A

    B Al vtx x v t t

    l x x

    ++ + + ++ + + + + = = =

    (17)

    02 2

    2 2

    ( ).

    1 1

    B A B A

    B A

    v vt t x x t lc ct t t

    + + + + +

    + + + + +

    = = =

    (18)

    (+) K

    002

    .1

    u vu u v

    c

    + +=+

    (19)

    (17) (19), (+)

    02

    0

    20

    1.

    1

    u vl vtl ct

    u u v

    +++

    +

    ++= =

    + (20)

    (18) (20),

    0

    02 20 0

    2 20 0

    1.

    1 1

    u v vt ll vt lc c tu v u

    ++

    ++ ++ = =

    + (21)

    () v. () K . A, B (), (14)

    2 2

    , ,1 1

    A A B BA B

    x vt x vtx x

    = =

    (22)

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    2 2

    2 2, .

    1 1

    A A B B

    A B

    v vt x t xc ct t

    = =

    (23)

    (22) (23) , () K

    02 2

    ( ),

    1 1A B A B

    A Bl vtx x v t t

    l x x

    = = =

    (24)

    02 2

    2 2

    ( ).

    1 1

    A B A B

    A B

    v vt t x x t lc ct t t

    = = =

    (25)

    () K

    002

    .1

    u vu u v

    c

    =

    (26)

    (24) (25), ()

    02

    0

    20

    1.

    1

    u vl vtl ct

    u u v

    = =

    (27)

    (25) (27),

    0

    02 20 0

    2 20 0

    1.

    1 1

    u v vt ll vt lc c tu v u

    = =

    (28)

    (18) (25) K

    0 02 2

    2 2

    1 1

    v vt l t lc ct t t

    +

    + +

    = =

    u0 B A

    v x , x K

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    159

    2 0 2 1 2 .vt t lc

    = (29)

    (+) () K A B= . K + K , . (21) (28) t t+ = (+) () l0 , A B= , . t t+ = , 0 .t t t+ = = (30) (30), , , . , , . , .

    4.4. [11] ([4]). ,

    [4], (4)

    ( )

    2

    2 2 2 2

    4 1 /

    Rt t tc R c

    + = =

    , (31)

    (13), K K ,

    ( )

    22 2 2

    1/ 22 2 2 2

    4 1 /1 /

    Rt t R cc R c

    = =

    . (32)

    2 1t t = , K t , t , K [5]. (+) (),

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    K K , , t t (14), ,

    2 0 2 1 2 ,vt t lc

    = (29).

    , , [11] . A B= K (30) , , K , (29). [10-11] ( [4]) .. [12] . .. [13].

    5.

    [1]. . , . . , . , , . . , . , . - , [6], [3]

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    161

    , . , . , . . , , , , (), () .

    6. ,

    , , . , 2L R= , R. .

    6.1. . ,

    [3], , , , . , , .