Компьютерные сети: Учебный курс

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Lectures/LAN-Lec01-Introduction.ppt



1

..

2007


. ..

-

"" (, , )

("" )

( )


( ) (CD/DVD-ROM, flash- ..)

,

file.txt


,


, ,

(+)

(-) ,

(-)

MSOffice

MSOffice

MSOffice

MSOffice


-



-

,

,

, (, )

,

, -


-

, ,

,


-

-

C:

D:

E:

C:

D:


-




-

,

-

; ,

..


,

,


Windows , (Remote Registry, MMC,)

Web- (swat)


,

(, Windows XP/Vista)

(Remote Desktop, PC Anywhere, RAdmin ..)


,

telnet/ssh (UNIX)

X Window , (), ,

Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server Windows


,

(, )

..

, ,

, ,


, ,

,


(1)

, (, )

(, MPI)


(2)

,

,


(2)

,

,


Message Passing Interface (MPI, ) ,

MPI , ,

MPI

MPI,




- (ICQ, MSN-messenger,)

(Skype,)


..

- .

.. , .. . . , , . : , 2001.

TCP/IP. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. .: , 2001.

Lectures/LAN-Lec02-Architecture.ppt



2

..

2007


. ..

Windows

/;

;

;

;

,

?

(, )


DOS

ipx.com

ipx.com

(, net.exe)


DOS

ipx.com

:

?

?

DOS?

N

1

( )

N-1

2

( )


DOS (2)

lsl.com

3c509.com -

ipxodi.com -

(, net.exe)

lsl.com

ipxodi.com

3c509.com


DOS (2)

lsl.com ipxodi.com

, (),

?

lsl.com, ipxodi.com

3c509.com

Windows

Windows

( NT/2000/XP/)


TDI


NDIS

Windows

(Network Interface Card, NIC) ,

NIC

(IRQ number)

- (I/O Base)

Windows

Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) ,

NDIS

NIC

Windows

Transport Driver Interface (TDI) .

TCP/IP

NWLink ( IPX/SPX, Microsoft Windows)

NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)

(DLC, IrDA,)

Windows

API

Winsock API

NetBIOS API

Telephony API

Messaging API

WNet API

Windows

(InterProcess Communication, IPC)

DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model)

RPC (Remote Procedure Call)

Pipes

MailSlots

Windows

Windows

""

" "

Windows

( NT/2000/XP/)


TDI


NDIS

DCOM

RPC

Pipes

MailSlots

Winsock

TAPI

NetBIOS API

TCP/IP

NetBEUI

NWLink

Windows

(binding)

(, ), ,

a 1


NIC1


TDI

TCP/IP

NetBEUI

a 2


NIC2


NDIS

N

1

N-1

2


, ;

, ;

, ;

, ;

,


. , , ,



,

,


, , (header) / (trailer),

,

N

1

N-1

2


, ,

,

N

1

N-1

2


/

, , i- , i- , ()


/

N

1

N-1

2

N

1

N-1

2


/


N- N

, ,

, ,

(Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model), 1

TCP/IP. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. .: , 2001.

.. , .. . . , , . : , 2001.

Lectures/LAN-Lec03-OSIRM-1.ppt



3

ISO/OSI (.1)

..

2007


. ..

(Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model)

ISO/OSI

(IBM, Honeywell, Digital .) , , ,

1978 . (International Standards Organization, ISO) , Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model

ISO/OSI

,

, ,

ISO/OSI

OSI , - -

,

,

,

, , ,

ISO/OSI

(Application)

(Data Link)

(Presentation)

(Session)

(Transport)

(Network)

(Physical)

ISO/OSI Reference Model

OSI ( )

( )

(TCP/IP)


ISO/OSI

, , ,


( , , , )


( )


( )


t

U

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0


/

(transmitter-receiver) , ,


10Base5, 10Base2, 10BaseT Ethernet


ISO/OSI

(frame)



, , ,

MAC- (MAC Media Access Control)

A

B


MAC- MAC-

A

B

MACA

MACB

MACA

MACB


,

A

B

MACA

MACB


CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check)

CRC ,

CRC , , (, Ethernet 2-32)


A

B

MACA

MACB


,


, ( ) . .

, , . .


, ,


( ), , ,


Ethernet

Token Ring

FDDI

ISO/OSI

(Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model), 2

TCP/IP. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. .: , 2001.

.. , .. . . , , . : , 2001.

Lectures/LAN-Lec04-OSIRM-2.ppt



4

ISO/OSI (.2)

..

2007


. ..

(Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model)


ISO/OSI

, , ,

A B?

A

B

C D

,

A

B

C

D


- ,

,

(hop)


,


,

1

A

B

2

3

C

D

1

2

1

1

2

2


A: 1.1

C: 1.2 2.1

D: 2.2 3.1

B: 3.2

1

A

B

2

3

C

D

1

2

1

1

2

2


,

,


,

, (" ")

()


" ", ,


, , ,

, , , ,


() ;

( )

,


A

1

A

B

2

3

C

D

1

2

1

1

2

2

..

11.11

21.22

21.23


( )

, ( )



A (1.1) 1.2 , MAC- 1.2

1

A

C

1

2

MACA

MACB


, , (MTU Maxim