Parts of Speech Nouns AdjectivesConjunctions Pronouns AdverbsInterjections Verbs Prepositions
Nouns Nouns may name persons, animals, places, things, plants, or ideas for example, Tom, horse, flower, love.
Pronouns I, me, myself, that, who, whom each, everyone, nobody this, that, these, those This is my pen. which, what Which is the best piano?
Verbs Being Verbs: is, am, was, were I am a student. Action Verbs : Vt, Vi She washes her clothes everyday. A: Has the mail come yet? B: Ill look and see.
Verbs Helping Verbs: can, should, could, will Can you come to my party? Verse phrase: be+ving, have/has/had +PP My sister is singing now. My sister had sung this song many times.
Adjectives dirty dress my doll five persons an apple a dog the door
Prepositions at, in, on, with, over, below The book is on the table. because of, according to, instead of They come to your party because of me.
Adverbs Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. She walks slowly. (adv) She is very beautiful. (adv) (adj) She walks very slowly. (adv) (adv)
Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.(FANBOYS) She is beautiful and smart. Subordinating conjunctions: because, after, before, if, until, when Because she is sick, she doesnt go to school.
Kinds of Sentences 1. Type Simple 2. Definition One independent clause 3. Example She works hard.
Kinds of Sentences 1. Type Compound 2. Definition Two or more independent clauses 3. Example She works hard, so she gets a promotion.
Kinds of Sentences 1. Type Complex 2. Definition One independent clause and one or more dependent clauses 3. Example Because she works hard, she gets a promotion.
Kinds of Sentences 1. Type Compound-Complex 2. Definition Two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses 3. Example Because she works hard, she gets a promotion, and she was satisfied.
Kinds of Sentences Compound Sentences A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses with no dependent clauses.
Kinds of Sentences He broke the vase. He cleaned the fragments. Here are three ways to join the independent clauses to form a compound sentence.
Kinds of Sentences 1. Connect the two independent clauses using a connecting word called a coordinating conjunction. The coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS). He broke the vase, and He cleaned the fragments. He broke the vase, so He cleaned the fragments.
Kinds of Sentences Use a comma before the coordinating conjunction between two independent clauses. 2. Put a semicolon between the clauses. He broke the vase; he cleaned the fragments.
Kinds of Sentences Use a transitional word, such as however or therefore. Place a semicolon before the word and a comma after. He broke the vase; therefore, he was sad.
Kinds of Sentences Complex Sentences A complex sentences consists of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. After Jerry had had breakfast, he began his work as usual. (one dependent clause and one independent clause)
Kinds of Sentences Because the weather was wonderful last week, we decided to go to beach that could play beach volleyball. (one independent clause and two dependent clauses) A relative clause can be the dependent clause in a complex sentence. I knew the singer who sang that in the1970s.
Kinds of Sentences Compound-Complex Sentences A compound-complex sentence consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
Kinds of Sentences Judy worked in China, and Mary, who was her younger sister, visited her a day later. Because Rick was a talented student, he got a good grade, and his mother proud of him.
Kinds of Sentences Exercise: Combine each set of sentences to make an effective compound or complex sentence. 1. It was boring yesterday. I went to cinema with my best friend. ( ) 1. It was boring yesterday, so I went to cinema with my best friend. (Answer)
Kinds of Sentences 2. John didnt feel good. He ate too much food last night. ( ) 2. John didnt feel good, because he ate too much food last night. (Answer)
Correcting Comma Splices Run-On Fragments
Dependent Clauses as Fragments: Clauses with Subordinating Conjunctions Dependent Clauses as Fragments: Clauses with Relative Pronouns Prepositional Phrases Phrases as FragmentsAppositive Phrase
Fragments Dependent Clauses as Fragments: Clauses with Subordinating Conjunctions (because, after, although, since, and before) While the teacher was angry. Incorrect: I stopped talking. While the teacher was angry. Correct: I stopped talking while the teacher was angry. Correct: While the teacher was angry, I stopped talking. Correct: The teacher was angry. I stopped talking. Correct: The teacher was angry; I stopped talking.
Fragments Dependent Clauses as Fragments: Clauses with Relative Pronouns Who is standing on the right. Incorrect: That pretty girl is my sister. Who is standing on the right. Correct: That pretty girl, who is standing on the right, is my sister.
Fragments Phrases as Fragments Incorrect: Having worked hard every day. Amy wanted to take a break. Correct: Having worked hard every day, Amy wanted to take a break.
Fragments Prepositional Phrase Incorrect: Before the movie started. We went to the bathroom. Correct: Before the movie started, we went to the bathroom.
Fragments Appositive Phrase Incorrect: He received a gift on his birthday. A beautiful sweater. Correct: He received a gift on his birthday, A beautiful sweater.
Comma Splices and Run-ons The weather was wonderful, we decided to play soccer. (CS) The weather was wonderful we decided to play soccer.(RO)
Correcting Comma Splices and Run-ons 1.Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.) 2. Use a subordination conjunction 3. Use a semicolon 4. Make each clause a separate sentence
Comma Splices and Run-ons Incorrect: We decided to play soccer the weather was wonderful. (run-on) Correct: We decided to play soccer, for the weather was wonderful. (use a comma and a coordinating conjunction for)
Parallelism Nonparallel: Either we will clean the house, or lets go out. Parallel: Either we will clean the house, or we will go out shopping.
Parallelism Nonparallel : Yesterday, I bought a lace dress, went to hair salon, and was seeing a movie. Parallel: Yesterday, I bought a lace dress, went to hair salon, and saw a movie.
Adjectives and Adverbs The order of adjectives Opinion : ugly, beautiful Size : big, little Shape :round, square Age :old, young Color : blue, yellow Origin :American, English Material :plastic, silk
The order of adjectives I want to buy a new dress. I want to buy a beautiful dress. I want to buy an American dress. I want to buy a pink dress. I want to buy a beautiful, new, pink, American dress
The order of adjectives Exercise: 1. Helen has ______________________. ( red, beautiful, thick) 2. She has a ___________________dress. (cotton, dirty, old) 1. beautiful, thick, red 2. dirty, old, cotton