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Democracy, Democratization and De-Democratization in Thailand* **

9 2 2551 ** Yoshifumi Tamada, Asafas (Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies) *

98

.. 2510 (Association of Southeast Asian Nations: ASEAN) 5 .. 2520 .. 2530 .. 2540 9 .. 2529 .. 2540 .. 2540 .. 2549

.. 2547 .. 2548 ( )

1.

99

? - (liberal democracy) () ()1 1

1.1

(fair free) 3 ... []

- () 100

2 (fair honest) (periodic) 3 4 5 6 2

.. 2533 Peoples Action

Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), p. 6. 3 Ibid., p. 7. 4 Larry Diamond, Developing Democracy: Towards Consolidation (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), pp. 8-10. 5 Ibid., p. 8. 6 Valerie Bunce, Comparative Democratization: Big and Bounded Generalizations, Comparative Political Studies, 33 (6/7) (2000), p. 714.101

Party 7

( ) ( ) 8

( ) 25 2529 29 2530 21 2541 2520-2530 24 2475 14 2516 2535 2540 19 2549

1.2

Charles Tilly, Democracy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 10, 23. (increasing integration of trust networks into public politics, increasing insulation of public politics from categorical inequality, and autonomy of major power centers from public politics) ibid., p. 23.7 8

102

(1) (2) (3) .. .. 2476 25 ( ) 10 6 2489 ( 4) 5 2489 ( 5) 26 2518 ( 12) 4 2519 ( 13) 24 2531 ( 17) 13 2535 ( 19) 2 2538 ( 20) 17 2539 ( 21) 6 2544 ( 22) 23 2550 ( 25) .. 2535 5 35 .. ( 6 2548 ) 3 .. 9

.. ( .. .. 9) 1 1 .. 2488 .. 2501 30 .. .. 2501 .. 2518 .. 2518-2519 .. 100 14 .. 2516 6 .. 2519 .. .. .. (transition) .. 2535 (consolidation) 35 .. 2540 ..

.. ( ) ( ..) 103

2540 10 (1) .. 2519 (2) .. 2521 .. 2531 (3) .. 2535 (4) .. 2540 (5) .. 2549 (6) 11

.. 2535 12 13 .. 2535 10

1.3

.. 2535 .. 2535 (.) .. 2534

Yoshifumi Tamada, senkyo seido no kaikaku [], in Yoshifumi Tamada and Funatsu Tsuruyo (eds.), Thailand in Motion: Political and Administrative Changes, 19912006 (Chiba: IDE, 2008). 11 , , , 17 2551, http:// www.prachatai.com/05web/th/home/14129; , , (25 .. 2551), http://www.bangkokbiznews.com/2008/06/25/news_ 269927.php 12 Fred W. Riggs, Thailand: The Modernization of a Bureaucratic Polity (Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1966). 13 Anek Laothamatas, Business Associations and the New Political Economy of Thailand: From Bureaucratic Polity to Liberal Corporatism (Boulder: Westview Press, 1992).

104

100.0%

10.0%

15.0%

20.0%

25.0%

30.0%

35.0%

40.0%

45.0%

50.0%

55.0%

60.0%

65.0%

70.0%

75.0%

80.0%

85.0%

90.0%

95.0%

.. 2487 .. 2488 .. 2488 .. 2488 .. 2489 .. 2489 .. 2489 .. 2489 .. 2490 .. 2490 .. 2491 .. 2491 .. 2492 .. 2494 .. 2494 .. 2495 .. 2500 .. 2500 .. 2501 .. 2502 .. 2506 .. 2512 .. 2515 .. 2516 .. 2518 .. 2519 .. 2519 .. 2522 .. 2523 .. 2524 .. 2526 .. 2529 .. 2531 .. 2534 .. 2535 .. 2535 .. 2535 .. 2538 .. 2539 .. 2540 .. 2544 .. 2548 .. 2549 .. 2551

0.0%

5.0%

.. 105

1 ..

/ ( ) ( ) .. 2535 ( ) 14

.. 2535 ? 14 ()

trust () social capital106

...15 ... 16 [] 15 16

() ... 17

18

Valerie Bunce, Comparative Democratization: Big and Bounded Generalizations, p. 707. Ibid., p. 709. 17 Ibid., p. 709. 18 C.D. Rueschemeyer, E.H. Stephens and J.D. Stephens, Capitalist Development and Democracy (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992), pp. 287, 296-297.107

14 .. 2516 .. 2535 .. .. 2540 .. 2548

2. (transitional period): .. 2516-25352.1

14 .. 2516 19

.. 19 .. .. 2521 .. .. ... .. 2524 .. ..

Katherine A. Bowie, Rituals of National Loyalty: An Anthropology of the State and the Village Scout Movement in Thailand (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), p. 107.108

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2535 20 .. .. .. .. 2518-2519 20

.. .. .. 2518 2512 28 .. 2519 2518 37 50 .. 60 .. 253521 .. ..

, , (), (: , 2544), 102-110 21 Horikoshi Hisao, Tai ni okeru puremu shusho jidai no seito no hatttatsu [ ], Gaimusho Chosa Geppo, 2 (1997), p. 52.109

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. (1) (2) .. .. (3) .. .. (4) (5) .. 2526 .. 2544 .. 22

.. .. .. ( ) .. 2535 .. 22 4 ..

2 .. 110

(party politics) .. 2521 .. 2521 (transition) 1 .. .. 8 .. .. .. .. 16 .. 2529 23

23

2.2

.. 27 .. 2531 99 1.

, 726 (: , 2532), 65111

2. - --

24

.. 99 .. 2531 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ( 1) 47 .. 25

, 8 378 (1-7 2531), 17; , , , 4: 1 (- 2551), 110 25 () 2523 .. 24

112

.. .. .. .. 8 .. .. .. ( 1) .. .. 5 .. 2529 .. 86.7 .. ... .. .. 26

.. 8 .. .. () .. .. Minsin Pei Pei (managed transition) 26

Minsin Pei, The rise and fall of democracy in East Asia, in Lary Diamond and Marc F. Plattner (eds.), Democracy in East Asia (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), chapter 5.113

3. ([unsuccessful] consolidation period): .. 2535-25493.1 .. 2535

(.) 23 .. 2534 .. 2521 2535 .. 2535 .. .. 2534 .. .. 35 (1) (2) (3) .. (4) () 114

(1) .. .. .. .. .. .. ( ) ..

.. .. .. 2516 .. 50 10 10 .. 2516 .. .. .. .. .. .. 2535 .. .. .. 27

27 2) 2535 .. 2529 28

Yoshifumi Tamada, Myths and Realities: The Democratization of Thai Politics (Kyoto: Kyoto University Press, 2008), chapter 2. 28 William A. Callahan, Imaging Democracy: Reading The Events of May in Thailand (Singapore: ISEAS, 1998).115

( ) 29 2530 30 2535 ( ) 29

31 .. 253532 ( )

Yoshifumi Tamada, Democracy and the Middle Class in Thailand: The Uprising of May 1992, Shiraishi Takash