DOCUMENTATION AND MONITORING OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
RICHARD UZONNA AKAIGWEDepartment of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Nigeria
TABLE OF CONTENTS Title page .i Certification ..ii Dedication .iii Acknowledgement ..iv Table of contents .v List of tables ...viii Abstract ..x CHAPTER ONE:1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
Background to the study..1 Statement of the problem.3 Aim and Objectives.4 Significance of the study..4 Research Questions...5 Scope and delimitation..6 LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER TWO:2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4.1
2.1 Introduction.7 Project Production Information..12 Contract Document...13 Production Management Documents16 Architects Instruction18 Records Management....19 Document Control..20
2.5 Information Management using Computers..21
2.5.1Information Systems and Technology..22 2.5.2Computer Integrated Construction...22 2.5.3The Internet and Web23 2.5.4Building Information Modeling (BIM)242.5.4.1
Anticipated Future Potential of BIM.25
2.5.5The concept of Interoperability..26 2.5.6Benefits of interoperability..27 2.5.7Data sharing and exchange ......28 2.5.8Potential of interoperability....29 2.5.9The future of interoperability in the construction industry.....29 2.6 Application of documentation.30 2.6.1 Documentation for claims purposes.30 2.6.2Documentation for changes.32 2.6.3Documentation for reference purposes33 2.6.4Documentation for dispute resolution.33 2.7 Roles of construction professionals in monitoring a construction project34 2.7.1The Architect.34 2.7.2Engineering consultants .....34 2.7.3The Builder35 2.7.4The Quantity Surveyor..35 2.8 Areas of monitoring35 2.8.1 Monitoring quality..36 2.8.2Monitoring cost36 2.8.3Monitoring time37 2.9 Monitoring techniques..37 2.9.1Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)...38
2.9.2The Gantt chart38 2.9.3The Critical Path Method..39 2.9.4Progress curves40 2.10 Progress Report ..41 2.10.1 Summary of project status..41 2.10.2 Construction status41 2.10.3 Schedule status42 2.10.4 Cost report status42 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLGY 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Introduction..43 Area of study.43 Population.43 Sample and sampling technique44 Method of data collection.44 Instrument for data collection44 Validity and reliability45 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
CHAPTER FOUR: 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
Introduction..46 Data Presentation46 Data Analysis46 Findings.58
CHAPTER FIVE: 5.1 Conclusion.59 5.2 Recommendations..59 5.3 Further studies60
References.61 Appendices64 Table 4.2.2 Table 4.2.3 LIST OF TABLE Important of documentation and monitoring of construction projects...... Necessity of keeping records of all information that proceeds from a construction project. Awareness of Computer Integrated Construction.
.4 7 .4 8 .4 8
Table 4.2.4 Table 4.2.5
Employment of information technology in the management of construction projects .4 . 8 Necessity of checking performance of a construction project against set standard/plan .4 9 Documentation as an evidential or reference material. .. .5 .. 0 Commencement of Monitoring in a construction project. .. .5 .. 0
Adherence to the information contained in the contract document and production management document. .5 1 Table 4.2.10 Relationship between documentation, accountability and financial discipline in a construction project.. .5 1 Table 4.2.11 Documentation, monitoring and waste reduction in a construction .5 project.. 2
Table 4.2.12 Monitoring of a construction project and the quality of personnel in a construction project. . .5 2 Table 4.2.13 Reduction of corrupt practices, over invoicing, dubious manipulation and other vices in a construction site. .5 3 Table 4.2.14 Effect of documentation and monitoring on the time .5 budget. 3 Table 4.2.15 Documentation and monitoring as tools to reduce delays, abandonment and non-completion of a construction project. .5 4 Table 4.2.16 Influence of documentation and monitoring of quality, time and cost to the successful completion of a .5 project. 4 Table 4.2.17 Involvement of site foremen should in the documentation and monitoring of a construction .5 project............ 5 Table 4.2.18 Effect of documentation and monitoring of construction project to the commitment and efficiency of tradesmen and artisans Table 4.2.19 Keeping of record of all contract documents, production management documents, architects instructions, change orders and all other site activities and transactions by the contractor
Table 4.2.20 Documentation of a construction project as tools for achieving a just, equitable and fair resolution of disputes. Table 4.2.21 Documentation of a construction project as tools for establishing the validity of a contractual claim
.5 6 .5 7
Table 4.2.22 Difficulties experienced in the documentation and monitoring of construction projects.. .5 7 Table 4.2.23 Impact of documentation and monitoring of construction project on effective project .5 delivery 8 ABSTRACT This study deals with the documentation and monitoring of construction projects. To achieve the research objectives, the study extensively reviewed written literatures on the subject. Questionnaires relating to were also distributed and oral interviews the importance, impacts and effects of conducted. The research respondents were asked questions documentation and monitoring of construction projects. They were also asked on their application of information technology to the documentation and monitoring of construction projects. Data obtained were analyzed through simple frequency distribution table. Among major findings of the research is that documentation and monitoring contributes in meeting defined needs to the required standard and the budget. The research also revealed that the use of information technology in the documentation and monitoring of construction projects is under-exploited. Based on the above findings, the studyvii
recommends the design of standard format and template for the documentation and monitoring of construction projects should and that the use of information systems and technology in the design and management of construction should be encouraged.
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Over the years, there has been a significant demand for a positive attempt to ensure that construction projects are executed in accordance with the original intention for which such projects were conceived. Project documentation and monitoring has been identified as management tools for achieving the above objectives and ideals. For the avoidance of doubts, documentation is defined as: The process of providing written information Document provided as a reference or evidential material. Monitoring on the other hand is defined as the process that ensures that actual performance proceeds according to plan and that any deviation from plan is communicated to management and required actions undertaken to restore it to the original plan. Documentation plays a major role in every construction project. The nature of a construction project is such that necessitates the generation of a wide range of information. These information must be collected and stored not only because they define the unique nature of a construction project, but also to preserve memory and act as a reference or evidential material.
A construction project is such that it cannot be totally defined at pre-construction stage. Contingencies arises everyday that could not have been foreseen and may disrupt the original plan and schedule (Kamang, 1992). This could lead to deviation from the original plan, disputes, variation and sometimes, claims. Experiences in the past concerning disputes and contractual claims and its effects on the parties to a construction project has made it necessary to identify documentation as a prominent aspect of a construction project. Monitoring on the other hand is one aspect of
construction management that cannot be avoided if a construction project is to meet defined needs to the required standards within time and to budget. This is because monitoring involves the measurement of actual performance against planned performance. Effective monitoring will therefore provides management with upto-date information on the construction project cost, stage of work performance as performed by the contractor from which decisions can be made. The advent of information systems and technology is changing the face of documentation and monitoring of construction projects. According to Ajator (1999), the present millennium presents a glimpse of greater challenges to the construction professionals than ever before. The tempo of technological advancement will
therefore compel the use of a more accurate, detailed, efficient and advanced management and monitoring of information than the conventional method presents. The need for an accurate and detailed documentation and monitoring of construction project cannot be over emphasized. Their presence in most cases determines the success level of construction project and they should therefore be taken seriously.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Most construction project departs from the original objectives for which they were conceived and this has exposed clients and contractors to risks. It is known that some clients and contractors have forfeited the employment of construction and project managers in a bid to cut cost. Even when they do employ construction managers, these managers have little or no knowledge in the areas of documentation and monitoring. If these managers become responsible for the production of a construction projec