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    IS : 1198 - 1992Indian Standard

    CODE OF PRACTICE FORLAYING, FIXING AND MAINTENANCE OFLINOLEUM FLOORS

    (First Revision)First Reprint JUNE 1996

    UDC 69.025.355.2 : 006.76

    @ Cobyright 1982RUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDSMANAK BHAVAN.9 BAHADUR SHAH WAR MARC

    NEW DELHI 110002

    Gr 4 December 1982

    ( Reaffirmed 1996 )

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    IS t 1198 1982Indian Standard

    CODE OF PRACTICE FORLAYING, FIXING AND MAINTENANCE OF

    LINOLEUM FLOORS(First Revision)

    Flooring and Plastering Sectional Committee, BDC 5Chaimuzn

    SWRI . P. MITTALC4/56 Safdaxjung Dcvelo ment AresNew Delhi 11OB 6Mombsfs Rt$rmnting

    Smu IL T. Ahnu Concrete Association of India, BombaySIW M. G. DANDAVATE Al&r& )SHRX . K. B~RJEE National Test House, CalcuttaSwar P. R. DM .( Al&n& )BRIOP. M. BHA~A Institution of Engindrs ( India ), CalcuttaSmu - A. Ckolrrun Arcor

    Industries, AhmadabadSRIU - A. CHOKIW AhmatrDumnm Maharaahtra Engineering Research Institute, NasikR&lEARaH-,MATExIAL, TIBT&ODWIS~ON( Al-)DR V. &GUPTA * The LFi$tilili~( Planning & Development ) IndiasHxrsK&,v~G+muWmw4MY Indian &l Corporation Ltd, New Delhi-(A1bnab)JoINTD~&&AILCM)RDSO Railway Board ( Miitry of Railway )DmTYDIuKmoR.(~)

    RDSO, ( Akmnate)SHRIs. c. KAPOOR [email protected]+crn Tile & Marbla, New DelhiSxw A. C. hOR ( Alfrmab ) *: I+ -:sz%z Builders Asmciation of India, BombaySk T. 5. BXLWATAltmab ) Enginea India Ltd, New DelhiSHlu K. IL s. MANI Bhor Indurtria Ltd, BombaySHRIWH D. PATRL ( Altwnak )

    ( ConriW~ on [email protected]#2 )Q Q&right 1982BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS

    Thil publication ir protected under the Indian Cojpight Act ( XIV of 1957 ) andreproduction in whole or in M by any meam except with written permirion of thepublirharhdlbedermedtobeaninfrineanentofcopyri%ltuadathenidAct.

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    IS:1198-1982( Conhwd from page

    M&SDRMOHANRAI

    1)

    DR R. K. JAIN ( Albrnn& )SEXRIM.V. Mu~uati~~N!hu R. SlUNNAsAN Alkraob )SIiRI 0. P. RATaASxim D. B. SEN

    Ccnt~l&3lilding Raearch Institute ( CSIR ),Coromandal Prodorite P-t Ltd, Madras National Buildings Organization, New [email protected] Institute of Architects, BombaySmu S. B. S~ROMANY Altern&LT-COLM. P. SHAIUUSmtx A. P. JAIN ( Alternab ) bf ineer-in-Chiefs Branch, Army HeadquartersSxim A. K. SHRIV~AVA Public Worhs Departtnent, Governmen t of Uttar

    Smu D-HAN SINOHSuaraxzwrno ENO~EER(Alfernars )Pradab, Luclmow

    ( PLANNINo t Dmmris @tam ) Publ~a~or~artment, Government of TamilExlrouTNB EN~XNIZER 9( Bumnmo Can-rmtDXWJXON ) (&A&a&IPRRINTENDINO&RYSYOROF A,WORIcs(CB) blic Works Department, New DelhiSuRvavOROF WORRll I ( cz ) (Akrnafs )SHRKG. RAXAN,Director ( Civ Engg ) Director General, ISI ( &-&io Me&r)

    SHRI K. M. MATHURDeputy Director ( Civ Bngg ), ISI

    Linoleum Subcommittee, BDC 5 : 2convnw

    DR R. K. Jm Centrara~ilding Raearcb Institute ( CSD%)

    M&8YSSHRX A. T. w Directorate General of Supplies and DispcsalrSIIRIB. B. CHOWDHURY (Akwmk )SHRI T. S. BIDMPPAD~A.B.Dms(Al&mata) National Organic Chemical Industria Ltd, BombayizX&-SrmrH:ti. NANDRBOLYAR

    N&ationa&fre~HtH~, CalcuttaIndiaLi&ums Ltd, Birlapur

    2

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    Istll!M-x482Indian Standard

    CODE OF PRACTICE FORLAYING, FIXING AND MAINTENANCE OF

    LINOLEUM FLOORSf F irst R& & n)0. FOREWORD

    0.1 This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the IndianStandards Institution on 2 February 1982? after the draft finalized by theFlooring and Plastering Sectional Committee had been approved by theCivil Engineering Division Council.0.2 Linoleum provides a satisfactory floor for residential and public build-ings, railway coaches, ships, etc. It is also suitable for most types of non-industrial floors. In light industry, such as in electronic industry, linoleumflooring may be used, as the risk of damage by cutting, to which linoleumis vulnerable, is small. However, if linoleum gets wet, it expands and eventu-ally rots. This standard has been prepared with a view to guiding the usersin regard to laying, fixing and maintenance of linoleum floors.0.3 This standard was first published in 1958. It is being revised toincorporate improvements found necessary in the light of usage of thestandard and the suggestions made by various bodies implementing it.In this revision a separate clause on:suitability of linoleum for variouscouditions of use has been added and the materials used as underlays foraspects like preparation of subfloors, fixing of underlays, laying of linoleumhas been dealt with, in detail. This revision also suggests the laying andfixing method of linoleum in tile form.0.4 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular rcquircment of thisstandard is complied with, the fmal value, observed or calculated, expressingthe result of a test or analysis, shall bc rounded off in accordance withIS : 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded offvalue should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard..C$l__._.___ --

    ~Rulcs for rounding OK numerical valurs ( mst-d ).3

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    xs:1198-19821. SCOPE1.1 This standardinitial treatment,_ ._ -

    recommends details of work necessary for laying, fixingand subsequent maintenance of linoleum flooring insheet and tile form.

    2. TERmN0L0GY20 For the purpose of this code, the following definitions shall apply.21 sub-Floor- The surface on which flooring is to be laid.2.2 Underlay -A layer of prefabricated material or in-& filling on thesub-floor to provide a smooth level surface to receive the flooring.3. NECEWARY INPORMATION3.1 For the efhcient planning and execution of the work, detailed infor-mation with regard to the following is necessary:

    a) Purpose for which the floor is to be used;b) Floor area to be covered ;c) Location and size of openings and ducts, drainage outlets, if any,to be left out;d) Details of the sub-floor;e) Type of soil in the sub-base and any seepage problem.

    32 All the information stated in 3.1 shall be made available by the appro-priate authority responsible for the construction of the whole building tothose who are entrusted with the work of laying linoleum floor finish beforethe work is started; Necessary drawings and instructions for preparatorywork shall also be given where required.3.3 Arrangements shall also be made for the proper exchange of informationbetween those engaged in laying the floor and all others whose work willaffect or will be affected.4. SUITABILITY4.1 Linoleum is suitable for use in domestic buildings, and those of non-mdustrial character where the traffic is expected to be essentially pedestrian.However, the following factors must be considered before it is being laid.The thicknesses recommended are 4.5 and 3.2 mm for commercial andinstitutional buildings respectively and 1.6 mm for domestic or wheretraffic is low.

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    IS : 1198 19824.1.1 Resistance to Rising Damp - Linoleum requires an adequately drysub-floor. If inconvenience of clamp proofing are not acceptable, linoleumshould not be used.4.1.2 Ex$osure to Weather - Linoleum is not suitable for installationexcept where it is wholly inside a building.4.1.3 Resistance to Chemicals - Linoleum is resistant to oils, fats andgreases. Thicker gauges shall be used where heavy traffic is expected.4.1.4 I ndentation Resistance - Linoleum is not resistant to indentationsparticularly from heels or static load. Cork tile will withstand heavy foottraffic but indents if heavy objects are left in one position for some timeor pushed.4.1.5 Slip Resistance - Linoleum when highly polished or wet can becomedangerously slippry. The polish with a reduced tendency to slipprinessmay be used. The cork tile flooring provide a slip resistant surface exceptwhen liquid wax polish is applied over a seal.

    5. MATERIAL5.1 Flooring - The flooring shall comply with the requirement specifiedin IS : 653-1981*.5.2 Underlay - The underlay may be as given below:

    a) For Timber Subfloors:i) Plywood at least 4 mm thick ( see IS : 303-1975t );ii) Hardboard at least 3 mm thick ( see IS : 1658-1977: ); andiii) Fibre based bitumen felt 1 mm thick ( see IS : 1322-19708 ).b) For Concrete Subf loors:

    i) Bitumen mastic ( see IS : 1195-1978 ), and11ii) Bitumen ( see IS : 1580-19697 ).5.3 Adhesives - The type of adhesive to be used and the manner of useshall be those recommended by the floor covering manufacturer and theadhesive shall be compatible with the floorcovering and suitable for bondingthe floor covering to the underlay or sub-floor. Adhesives shall not be consi-dered effective as damp-proof membrane. Information on types of adhesivesis given in Appendix A.

    *Specification for linoleum sheet and tiles ( second &ion ).tSpecification for plywood for general purposes ( second evirion ).:Specification for fibre hardboards ( second revi.& ).OSpeci6cation for bitumen felts for waterproofing and damp-proofing ( secondrmision ).f]Specification for bitumen mastic for flooring (first revision .7Specification for bitwninous compounds for waterproofing and caulking purposes( jii#s:msion ) ,

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    6. PREPARATION OF SUBFLOORS6.1 The linoleum flooring gives maximum service if laid on a firm base.Evaporation of the moisture from the subfloor cannot take place oncelinoleum is laid. Therefore, it is important that subfloors should be tho-roughly dry before laying of the linoleum. An irregular subfloor surfacecreates poor adhesion between the subfloor and the linoleum. Therefore,the subfloor should always be smooth and level. Recommended treatmentsfor different subfloors are given under 6.2 to 6.4.6.2 Timber-All timber subfloors shall be sound, rigid, level and dry.The timber should be at equilibrium moisture content at the time it iscovered with the underlay or the floor covering. A timber floor shouldalways be well-ventilated, to discourage fungal attack.

    6.2.1 .New Timber F loors - In the case of new construction, seasonedand treated timber shall be used and shall be of tongued and groovedboarding. Boards shall be narrow and of equal width ( say 100 mm ).Boards of unequal width have various degree of shrinkage. Before fixingthe linoleum, all nail heads on the timber subfloor shall be punched down,irregulations planned off and the holes filled with plaster, plastic wood orsimilar fillers. After the boards have been nailed to the joists, the floor isusually firm enough for direct laying of.the linoleum, but however, under-lays such as plywood or hardboard or fibre based bitumen felt may beused prior to fixing of the linoleum to prevent any movement in the boards.Suspended timber floor shall be adequately ventilated with a minimumair gap below the underside of the joist to stop the growth of rot. Woodblocks and boarded floor on concrete on the ground shall not be coveredwith linoleum unless an efficient damp-proof membrane in the concretebelow the blocks or boards has been provided.

    6.2.2 Existin,o Timber F loor -- In the case of an existing timber floor,covered with boarding when it is not possible to obtain an even surfaceor in cases of dry rot, the use of diagonal boarding is.recommended, afterremoving and replacing some of the badly affected boarding and fillingin the cracks with plastic wood or similar filler and after disinfecting thefloor. Alternatively, plywood topping on the existing boarding also givesan even surface. It is important, however, to see that the floor is well-ventilated, and if it is a ground floor, by means of air-ducts in the outerwalls and sleeper walls with honeycombed pattern for free circulationof air.6.3 Concrete - All concrete subfloor may be finished with a cement andsand or fine conqrete screed laid according to the recommendations ofIS : 2571-1970*. &e subfloor surface shall be smooth and flat. Coricrete

    *code of practice for laying in situ cement concrete flooring (firs; rwih ) .6

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    IS : 1198 - 1982is not completely impervious. As moisture either in liquid or in vapourform and rising damp may cause damage to linoleum, concrete subfloorintended as a base for linoleum shall contain an effective damp-proofcoarse. The damp-proof course shall be laid in any one of the ways givenbelow.

    6.3.1 The most efiectivc treatmems ftir existing lloors to protect itagainst rising damp is a layer of bitumen mastic not less than 15 mu1thick laid over the subfloor according to the recommendations given inIS : 1196-1978*.6.3.2 For new work the subfloor shall be laid as per the recommendationgiven in IS : 2571-19707. Information on the limitations of damp-proof

    materials is given in Appendix B.6.3.3 Waterproofing materials mixed with concrete do not produce aneffective barrier against rising damp.6.3.4 Before linoleum is laid, ample time shall be allowed for the waterto dry from both suspended and ground concrete floors. It is difficult .tospecify the period required as this depends on weather and on the qualityand thickness of the concrete, but.a period of 4 to 8 weeks at least shallbe allowed for drying under normal conditions. This time may be reduced

    if the building is heated and if the ventilation is good.6.3.5 In new work, the finish required for laying linoleum shall beusually produced with a steel trowel on a screed applied to the base concrete.The finish may, however, be produced on the base concrete itself if a power-float is used. With old concrete, if the surface is only slightly uneven, theholes shall be filled with a skim layer of proprietory bitumen-cement orlatex-cement levelling coat. For rougher surfaces, an underlay of asphalt,bitumen-cement or latex-cement is necessary. Of these, latex-cement canbe used in the least thickness. If sub-floors are dusty, it is a safe practiceto use a primer such as bitumen emulsion before using an adhesive. Concretehardeners or densifiers may also be used with advantage to bind the surfaceof the screed.6.4 Other Subfloors - Some bases such as clay tiles, concrete tiles orterrazo are unaffected by dampness, but may be sufficiently ,porous toallow moisture to pass through to the back of the floor finish. These basesshall be damp-proofed when necessary by using underfelt. Bases such asmagnesium oxychloride in good conditions are suitable for receiving lino-leum but are adversely affected by dampness rising through concrete fromthe ground and shall not be covered with a damp-proof layer. Unless it

    *Code of practice for layingbitumenmastic flooring sucoadeui.+ ).tCode of practice for laying n situ ementconcreteflooringJkd nvision ).7

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    IS 2 1198 -1982can be established that there is an effective damp course below thesematerials, they shall be removed before laying the linoleum. Bitumenmastics are excellent bases to receive linoleum but solvent type adhesivesmay soften the mastic and mastics which are soft and are likely to be dentedare not suitable for linoleum.7. LAYING7.1 Gelieral -Linoleum should be stored in room temperature of notless than 20C for at least 48 hours before it is unrolled. It shall be laid outflat for several days before it is cut to size because, after being unrolled,it shrinks in length and expands in width. As the humidity in the room isusually greater than that at which the linoleum was rolled, it absorbsmoisture and being unrestrained, expands. If the linoleum is cut to fitclosely round the skirting, it will often be found necessary after a time toretrim the material. When two widths of linoleum meet, they shall be leftwith one overlapping the other until expansion has stopped and then cutto fit. Cork tile should be dimensionally stable in the condition of use.In order to achieve this, tiles should be removed from the cartons at least48 hours before laying is to commence and be distributed in the room inhumidity and temperature conditions similar to those likely to prevail inoccupation.

    7.1.1 Before starting to lay the linoleum, the position and depth ofcables, water pipes in the floor screed, etc, should be ascertained and allpreliminary work should be completed. The subfloor should be firm anddry and tested for dampness as given in Appendix C. Dusty subfloorshould be swept and porous subfloors should be primed as recommendedby the adhesive manufacturer.7.2 Adhesives -The linoleum shall be laid either loose or fixed to thesubfloor by means ofsuitable adhesives. Any priming coat should be allowedto dry before the adhessive is spread. Adhesives are spread with a closelynotched trowel as recommended by the manufacturer to ensure even thecoverage of the subfloor to the correct thickness. It is essential that wherelow flash solvent adhesive ( containing petroleum or naphtha ) are used,the use of naked lights should be prohibited in the vicinity of the layingoperations. The area shall be well ventilated even when non-flammablesolvents are used in the adhesives. Smoking shall be prohibited.7.3 Fixing of Underlays- Plywood, hardboard shall be securely fixedto the subfloor in the form of sheets using staple, and nails. Fixing shallstart at the centre of the sheet and secured at 100 mm intervals aroundthe side. All nail heads shall be finished flush with the surtace. Joint linesshall be staggered and every effort shall be made to prevent coincidencein joints in the sheet and timber base. A suitable gap shall be left betweenthe sheets for possible expansion due to atmosphereic changes. Except

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    Is:1198-1983where recommended, hardboard may be laid with the smooth face upper-most. When a felt underlay is used all surfaces to be covered shall bethoroughly cleaned free from dust .and dirt. No surface shall be cleanedwith water as dryness is essential. Bitumen felts shall be cut to size a$dfixed with the adhesives as recommended by the manufacturer. It shallbebutt jointed and laid across the boards so that the joints run in a directionat right angle to the joints in linoleum. The joints shall not coincide withthose in linoleum sheets. After &ring, the felt shall be smoothed down andwell rolled. Bitumen mastic shall be laid in accordance with the recommen-dations as given in IS : 11961978*; where the mastic is used as underlayand damp-proof coarse, care shall be taken to connect it with the dampproof course in the wails. Other underlay as given in 5.2 should be laidas per the recommendations of the manufacturer.7.4 Fting- The base over which the linoleum is to be fixed shall bethoroughly cleaned free from dirt and dust, chemicals, oils, paints, etc.The adhesive shall be spread evenly with a trowel as recommended by themanufacturer. The linoleum shall be firmly pressed into the adhesivewithin the recommended setting time of adhesive. To give maximum adhesivecontact and to secure a bond, the material shall be well rolled with a floorroller weighing approximately 70 kg working from centre to the walls.If necessary the linoleum may lo. loaded with sand bags at various pointsuntil the adhesive has gripped. When laid directly on concrete, it is desirableto prime the back of the linoleum with the adhesive. Cork tiles shall befixed with the adhesive which should be spread evenly with the trowelin sufficient quantity for laying only a few square metres at a time. Eachtile shall be carefully placed in position to exclude air beneath the tile andalso to attain proper joints between the tiles. It is advisable to use headlesssteel pins in conjunction with the adhesive in order to maintain contactbetween subfloor or screed and tile. The pins shall be driven below thesurface of the tile with a hammer. If the subfloor or screed is too hard forpins, it may be necessary to weight down any lipping tiles.

    7.4.1 Coving and Skir ting - Linoleum coving and skirting shall be formedfrom sheet material on the job in grades up to 3.2 mm thick. First, covestick shall be fixed in the angle between floor and wall to give the correctcontour to the cove. The linoleum, in the lengths up to 2.5 m is tl~rncd15 cm up the wall and runs 15 cm on to the floor. It is a skilled operationand even the best craftsman may have difficulty with angles. For thickermaterials, some floor layers make their coving in the workshop in 2 mlengths but each coving is purpose-made for ajob. Radius of curvatureof coving and skirting shall not be less than 12.5 cm.

    *Code of practice for laying bitumen mastic flooring ( second eoi sion .9

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    Isr1198-19827.5 Finish - After laying and fixing, all traces ofadhesive shall be removedfrom the surface as the work proceeds within the setting time. Care shalltie taken to avoid the severing of adjacent surfaces. The surplus adhesiveshall never be allowed to remain longer than 24 hours. The surface may befinished with a wax polish recommended by the manrifacturer. Alternativelya coal of emulsion polish may be applied. The joints.in case of cork tilesshall be lightly sanded with a fine grade abrasive paper. All traces bf adhe-sives and dirt should be removed and the surface brushed clean. Afterbrushing, the surface shall $e wiped with a clean damp cloth to removeany further traces of dust or dirt when dry the surface may then be treatedwith two coats of concentrated paste wax polish as recommended by themanufacturer.7.6 Protection - When laying and finishing are completed, the flooringshall be protected with hardboard or other sheeting till completion of thebuilding.8. MAINTENANCE8.1 General - A period of at least seven days should elapse after installa-tion of the flooring before the start of the maintenance work. During thistime the flooring shall be covered and protected from the effect of other con-tract work in progress in the site. ,Preventive measures are essential part offlooring maintenance and since dirt and dust are mainly trafficked into abuilding from the outside it is important to remove these materials by use ofdustretaining mats at all door entrance extending to the full width of thedoor and of sufficient length. The practices stated below should be avoided :

    a) Incorrect use of cleaning agents,b) Application of polishes and seals on dirty and wet surfaces,c) Attempts to build up high thickness of polish or seal by reducingthe number of applications, andd) Excessive use of water.

    8.2 Linoleum Sheet or Tiles - The linoleum sheet or tile surfaces shallbe swept clean preferably using a mop sweeper and then washed with acloth dampened with an aqueous solution of neutral detergent. Whendry the surface shall be buffed using suitable pad and two coats of drybright water-based emulsion polish shall be applied. The surface shall beregularly maintained by sweeping, washing with neutral detergent solution,followed by polishing with a coat of water-based emulsion polish.8,3 If the traffic is light, the floor shall be given frequent brushing, regularpolishing and an application of new polish every three to six weeks..Undcrmoderate traffic conditions, the floor shall be given an occasional washwith a wet mop but no detergents shall be used so that the polish is notremoved. Application of polish shall be done every one to three weeks.

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    IS t ii98 - 1982previously rendered dry. As the spirit evaporates, a skin forms on thesurface; the linoleum is pressed into the adhesive before the skin becomestoo thick. The linoleum can, therefore, be spread only a few square metresat a time. Any ejtcess of spirit evaporates slowly through the linoleum or isabsorbed by the sub-floor. Gum-spirit adhesives are resistant to dampbut are likely to be attacked by dilute alkaline solutions such as those+at rise through wet concrete.A-4. BITUMEN-RUBBER EMULSIONSA-4.1 This type of adhesive is a dark coloured emulsion of rubber andbitumen or coal-tar pitch in water. There is no smell of solvent in this case.The water in the adhesive must evaporate before the linoleum is laid, asthere is a risk of blistering if the linoleum absorbs the water. The evaporationis noted by tile colour of the adhesive which changes from chocolate toblack. When the dolour is black, it is safe to lay the linoleum. This type ofadhesive and the solution type described under A-S are what may becalled one-chance adhesives; when the linoleum is placed on them it isfixed and cannot be slid into position. The bitumen-rubber emulsions areresistant to water and, when set, are water-repellent. When used as adhesivesthey should not, however, be taken to serve as damp-proof courses.A-5. BITUMEN-RUBBER SOLUTIONA-5.1 Bitumen-rubber solution adhesive is dark coloured, of thick con-sistency and is recognizable by the strong smell of petroleum solvent. Thesolution is applied both to the back of the linoleum and to the floor and thesolvent allowed tozvaporate before the linoleum is laid. During this period,as a precaution against fire, the room shall be well-ventilated and nosmoking or naked flame shall be allowed. As adhesives, they are resistantto water and are water-repellent but do not serve as damp-proof courses.

    INFORMATION

    APPENDIX B(Claw 6.3.2 )ON THEI~&ON OF DAMP-PROOF

    A. Water Proofing Mat& h Projwtics~Limitati1) Bitumen mastic laid Impervious to the transmission ofaccording to IS : 1196-1978 moisture. May be used as &orfinish or as an underlay; whereconcrete is laid direct to earth,an isolating membrane should beused.

    *Code of practice for laying bitumm maatic flooring ( sucond &i on ) .12

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    IStll!M-198!2B. Sandu& Mm6 r a w s1) Bitumen Mastic

    2) Bitumen feltsImpervious to moisture.When joints are properly sealed, itis impervious.

    3) Hot applied bitumen When laid on a primed surfacewith suitable thickness it may beregarded as impervious; careshall be taken to avoid pin holes.Cold applied bitumen,bitumen rubber emulsion

    Repeated application can form animpervious layer; care in work-manship and maintenance isneeded.

    APPENDIX C(Clause 7.1.1 )

    TESTS FOR DETERMINATION OF DAMPNESS OF FLOORSC-l. GENERALC-1.1 The tests as described under C-2, C-3 and C-4 shall be conductedto determine the dampness of floor while laying linoleum.C-2. RUBBER TESTC-2.1 Place one square metre of rubber matting and place it loosely, withthe smooth side down, on the floor to be tested. The matting shall be leftfor twenty-four hours for ordinary floors and forty-eight hours for unusuallysmooth floors. If, after this period, on removing the matting the concreteshows a dark patch, it is an indication that the floor is not sufficiently dryto receive linoleum.C-3. ANHYDROUS COPPER SULPHATE TESTC-3.1 This test is much .more rigorous than the rubber test and is thusmore certain. Take an ordinary piece of window glass about 40 cm square,lay the glass on the area of the floor to be tested and mark the floor roundthe glass with pencil. Remove the glass and lay an even beading 12 mmthick, of well-worked putty inside the pencil line. Spread evenly one tea-spoonful of anhydrous copper sulphate powder inside the putty and cover

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    IS$ll!l8-19S2immediately with the glass, pressing the glasr Brmly into the putty, so thatthe copper [email protected] is kept air-tight. The coplzr sulphate should be whitewhen it is put m position; if after six hours rt s turned green or blue it isclear indication that the concrete is still too damp to receive linoleum.C-4. MOISTURE METER TESTC-4.1 Floors qay be tested for dampness by means of a pocket h gromcterplaced in contact with the floor. The edges shall be sealed wit E putty ifthe floor is rough. The humidity of the enclosed air is read directly on thescale of the hygrometer. The air usually takes not less than the instrumentin position overnight and take the reading in the morning. As a generalrule, a value of 70 to 75 shall be below 80 before it can be assumed thatthe concrete above the damp-course has dried sufficiently for it to be suitablefor the fixing of linoleum.

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    BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDSHeadquarters:Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, NEW DELHI 110002Telephones: 331 01 31, 331 13 75 Telegrams: Manaksanstha( Common to all Offices)Regional Off ices: TelephoneCentral : Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg,

    I331 01 31NEW DELHI 110002 331 1375

    *Eastern : l/l 4 C. I. T. Scheme VII M, V. I. P. Road, 36 24 99Maniktoia. CALCUTTA 700054Northern : SC0 445-446, Sector 35-C,I

    2 18 43CHANDIGARH 160036 3 1641

    (

    41 24 42Southern : C. I. T. Campus, MADRAS 600113 41 25 1941 2916tWestern : Manakalaya, E9 MIDC, Marol, Andheri ( East ), 6 32 92 95BOMBAY 400093

    Branch Off ices:#Pushpak. Nurmohamed Shaikh Marg, Khanpur,

    I2 63 48AHMADABAD 380001 2 63 49+,Peenya Industrial Area 1 st Stage, Bangalore Tumkur Road 38 49 55BANGALORE 560058 138 49 56Gangotri Complex, 5th Floor, Bhadbhada Road, T. T. Nagar, 667 16

    BHOPAL 462003Plot No. 82/83, Lewis Road. BHUBANESHWAR 75100253/5. Ward No. 29, R.G. Barua Road, 5th Byelane,GUWAHATI 7810035 36 273 31 77

    5-8-56C L. N. Gupta Marg ( Nampally Station Road ),HYDERABAD 500001 23 1083R14 Yudhister Marg, C Scheme, JAIPUR 302005 i

    6 34 716 98 32117/418 B Sarvodaya Nagar, KANPUR 208005 1

    21 68 7621 82 92Patliputra Industrial Estate, PATNA 800013 6 23 05T.C. No. 14/1421. University P.O.. Palayam 16 21 04TRIVANDRUM 695035 16 21 17inspect ion Off ices ( With Sale Point ):Pushpanjali, First Floor, 205-A West High Court Road, 2 51 71Shankar Nagar Square, NAGPUR 440010Institution of Engineers ( India ) Building,.1 332 Shivaji NBgtir, 5 24 35PUNE 411005- *Sdles Office in Calcutta is al 5ChowrinOhre Approach, P. 0. Princep 27 68 00Street. Calcutta 700072tSales Office in Bombay is at Novelty Chambers, Grant Road, 89 65 28Bombay 400007$Sales Office in Bangalore is at Unity Building, Narasimharaja Square, 22 36 71Bangalore 560002

    Reprography Unit, BIS, New Delhi, India,d