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Imagine a tug of war between two hydrogen atoms to form a diatomic molecule of hydrogen (H2)How does the pull of one hydrogen atom on electrons compare to the pull of another hydrogen atom on electrons?What would happen during a tug of war over valence electrons between two hydrogen atoms?
covalent bondingOccurs when electrons are shared between atomsWhen it comes to covalent bonding, sharing is pairing.Unpaired electrons pair in such a way that each atom completes its outer shell.Draw electron dot diagrams for each of the hydrogen atoms in the hydrogen molecule.How many electrons does each hydrogen need to complete its outer shell?
The hydrogens are bonded because they are holding on to the same electrons.
Its obvious that sodium and chlorine bond is ionicbecause sodium is a very active metalchlorine is a very active nonmetalIt is obvious that diatomic molecules such as H2 contain covalent bonds two identical atoms have the same pull on electronsBut what type of bond is found between hydrogen and oxygen in water?Oxygen is a nonmetal.Hydrogen, being at the top of the family, is a metalloid.They are not as different as sodium and chlorine, nor are they as similar as two hydrogens.Some measure is needed to show how different atoms pulls on electrons are. It iselectronegativity.
The most metallic element is . . . Its electronegativity is . . .The most nonmetallic element is . . . Its electronegativity is . . .The electronegativity difference is . . .THIS IS THE LARGEST ELECTRONEGATIVITY DIFFERENCE POSSIBLE.francium.0.7, the lowest.flourine.4.0, the highest.3.3
The largest electronegativity difference possible is that between francium and fluorine. It is 3.3This represents the greatest ionic character.The smallest electronegativity possible is that found within diatomic molecules or between other very similar atoms. It is 0This represents the least ionic character.The midpoint is about This represents 50 percent ionic character.It is the dividing line between ionic and covalent.An electronegativity difference of 1.7 or more represents an ionic bond. Less than 1.7 is covalent.
Fill in the table below to determine the bond type in water:
The electronegativity difference is less than 1.7The bonds between hydrogen and oxygen are covalent.
Not all covalent bonds are created equal.In the bond between chlorine atoms in a chlorine molecule (Cl2), the electronegativity difference is 0.0, and the atoms share equally.In a hydrogen chloride (HCl) molecule, the electronegativity difference is not 0.0, and the atoms dont share equally. Fill in the table below:
The bond is covalent, but the atoms dont share equally. Chlorine is more electronegative. It has a stronger pull on electrons.The shared electrons will be displaced closer to the chlorine.This will make the charge on the chlorine side of the bond slightly negative, and on the hydrogen side of the bond slightly positive.
In hydrogen chloride the hydrogen side of the bond is slightly positive, and the chloride side of the bond is slightly negative.
The earth has opposite ends just like the hydrogen chloride molecule. The opposite ends of the earth are called . . . The adjective used to describe the bears living at the poles is . . .Bonds with oppositely charged ends are called polar bonds.
Three types of chemical bonds:ionic,polar covalent, andnonpolar covalentBond type is determined by electronegativity difference.