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5230601 Компютърна техника и технологии

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  • 523

    523060 M

    5230601

    09-35 / 04.01.2008 .

    , 2008

  • 2

    . 523060 5230601 . 6 .

    , 5230601 .

    . 36 () , 21 6 2003 . , , . , . 7 / 27.01.2004 .

    3 15.04.2003 . .

    . : 1. /:

    . - . . .

    2. /: . . . .

    3. . 4. . 5. :

    a. /.

    . . . /

    1. - 2.

    523060 .

    , .

  • 3

    1: IBM / I8088

    -: IBM/ 8088, - 8 ISA. . - .

    . Intel 8088, , , .

    RAM , . FPM DRAM , 30 pin - SIMM. ROM , . PROM EPROM .

    . /FDD/, , . / /.

    . CRT , - , , . , . (Monochrom Adapter) CGA (Color Graphics Adapter).

    . , , , .

    , . 3

    . : IBM/ Intel

    8088? ? , DRAM , , , - , , - .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 4

    2: IBM / I8086

    -: IBM/ 8086, , , - 8 ISA. - .

    Intel 8086. I8088 I8086. . , , . . .

    8 ? RAM , , ? RAM ? SRAM , . FPM DRAM . SIMM

    , . /FDD/, , . FAT? . ?

    . CRT , - , , . . , . (Monochrom Adapter) CGA (Color Graphics Adapter).

    . , , . . . : IBM/ Intel

    8086. . ? , DRAM , , , - , , - .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 5

    3: IBM / 80286

    -: IBM/ 80286. , , . - 16 ISA. - .

    Intel 80286, , , . , . .

    RAM , . FPM DRAM . 30 pin - SIMM. ROM , , , PROM EPROM. POST. Parity check 1 Parity check 2.

    , . /FDD/, , . . ?

    . CRT , , - . . . , . (Monochrom Adapter) CGA (Color Graphics Adapter).

    . , , . . . , . : IBM/A Intel

    80286. IBM/XT 8086 IBM/AT 80286. - BIOS Setup. . , DRAM , , , , - , , - .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. ka . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 6

    4: IBM / 80386

    -: IBM/ 80386. , . MCA EISA. - .

    Intel 80386, , , . i80386, . . i80386dx i80386sx.

    RAM . ? SRAM . ? EDO DRAM . SIMM 72 pins.

    . /HDD/, , . , /, . FAT? . ?

    . CRT , , - , . . , . GA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter).

    . , , . - peer to peer,

    . . . : IBM/A Intel

    80386. IBM/XT 80286 IBM/AT 80386. , , DRAM , , , - , , - . 16 -ISA 32 EISA.

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . - peer to peer.

    5

    7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 7

    5: IBM / 80486

    -: Intel 80486. , , . VESA.

    Intel 80486, , . 486 SX,DX, DX2, DX4. 80486 Over Drive. i80486. i80486DX2 i80486DX4. CISC .

    RAM , SRAM , . EDO DRAM . SIMM 72 pins. ROM , . POST Parity check 1 Parity check 2.

    , . /HDD/, , , . HDD. .

    . CRT , , - , , . . , . VGA (Video Graphics Adapter).

    , , , . , , ,

    . 3

    . : IBM/T 80386

    IBM/AT 80486. , , , DRAM , , . - , .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 8

    6: Pentium.

    -: Intel Pentium, Socket 7, Chipset

    430 . Chipset - (North-South Bridge). PCI, .

    Intel Pentium, , , , , , . Socket 7 ? RISC .

    RAM . . , , SRAM , , SDRAM . DIMM 168 pins.

    , . /HDD/, , , /, . FAT? . ?

    . CRT , - , , , . , . VGA (Video Graphics Adapter).

    - , , , . , ,

    . 3

    . : IBM/T 80486

    IBM/AT Pentium. , , , DRAM , , , - , - . 32- VESA 32- PCI.

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 9

    7 : Pentium Pro MMX.

    -: Intel Pentium Pro, Socket 8. Chipset 430, Chipset, (North-South Bridge). , , DMA . PCI, .

    Intel Pentium Pro MMX, , , , , . . . Socket 7 ? RISC .

    RAM , . , , SRAM . , HMA , , HMA. SDRAM . DIMM 168 pins.

    , . /HDD/, , , / /, . /HDD/ . , ?

    . CRT , , - , , . , . VGA (Video Graphics Adapter). VGA .

    - , , , . , ,

    . . : Pentium,

    Pentium Pro Pentium MMX. , , , DRAM , , , - , , - .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 10

    8: Pentium II.

    -: Intel Pentium II, Slot 1, Chipset 440 , Chipset. ROM-BIOS, . Flash ROM-BIOS, , Update. AGP , , 1x.

    Intel Pentium II, , , , , , . , , . RISC .

    RAM , , , SRAM , . UMA, ? , ? SDRAM , , DIMM 168 pins.

    , . /HDD/, , , /, /, , . FAT? ? IDE EIDE , . FAT16 FAT 32.

    . CRT , . - , , . . , . VGA (Video Graphics Adapter). VGA . 2D .

    , , , . 7 OSI , . . : Pentium

    Pentium II. , FSB /Front Side Bus/, , , DRAM , , , - , , - . AGP PCI .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. OSI . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 11

    9: Pentium III.

    -: Intel Pentium III, socket 370. Chipset 800, a Chipset (IHA). , , . AGP , , 2/ 4.

    Intel Pentium III, , , , , . , . , Pentium III. AMD Pentium III .

    RAM , . , , SRAM . , . SDRAM , , DIMM 168 pins.

    , , . CD-ROM DVD-ROM, , , , . HDD CD-ROM DVD-ROM. IDE EIDE HDD CD/DVD , ATAPI.

    -. LCD , , . LCD . CRT LCD . , . SVGA (Video Graphics Adapter), . 3D .

    , , , . -LAN , Hub, Repeater, . . : .

    , DRAM . Intel Chipset - (IHA).

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 12

    10: ( 1) Pentium 4.

    -: Chipset Intel 850 Intel Pentium 4. Chipset 800, Chipset (IHA). RTC/CMOS-RAM , . AGP , , 4 8.

    Intel Pentium 4, , , , , . , Pentium 4 . AMD, Pentium 4 .

    RAM , RAM . , . EMM386.EXE. CONFIG.SYS, . RDRAM , , , RIMM 168 pins.

    , , . CD-ROM DVD-ROM, HDD CD, , / , . DVD-ROM . IDE EIDE HDD CD/DVD , ATAPI. RAID ?

    .LCD , , , . CRT LCD . , . SVGA (Super Video Graphics Adapter), . 3D .

    , , , . - (Bridges) (Switches), . . : Pentium

    III Pentium 4. , FSB /Front Side Bus/, , , , DRAM , . Intel Chipset - (IHA).

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 13

    11: ( 2) Pentium 4.

    -: Chipset Intel 845 Intel Pentium 4. Chipset 800, Chipset (IHA). ATX , .. USB , , .

    Intel Pentium 4, , , , , , . , (Instruction pipeline). AMD, Pentium 4 .

    RAM , RAM . AUTOEXEC.BAT, . DDR SDRAM , , , DIMM 184 pins.

    , , . CD-R DVD-R, HDD CD, , / , . SCSI K, , SCSI.

    . LCD , , , . CRT LCD . , . SVGA (Video Graphics Adapter), . 3D .

    , . CCD (Couple Charge Device ) , , , .

    . Internet . Point-to-point Protocol /PPP/. . : Pentium 4

    Intel 850 Intel 845. (IHA) Chipset.

    CPU core ratio. Pentium .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 14

    12: ( 3) Pentium 4

    -: Chipset Intel 865 Intel Pentium 4. Chipset 800, Chipset. , , , . USB , , .

    Intel Pentium 4. , , , , , , HT (Hyper Threading Technology) . , . AMD Pentium 4 .

    RAM , RAM . , . , UMA. HMA? DDR SDRAM , , DIMM 184 pins.

    , , . CD-R DVD-R, CD-R DVD-R. / , . SCSI , , SCSI.

    . LCD , , , . CRT LCD . , , . SVGA (Video Graphics Adapter), SVGA .3D .

    , , , . CIS (Contact Image Censor) , .

    OSI , OSI , , . SMPT .

    . : .

    DRAM . (IHA) Chipset. ?

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. OSI . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 15

    13: ( 4) Pentium 4.

    -: Chipset Intel 915 Intel Pentium 4. Chipset 900, , (FSB). PCI-Express , , .

    Intel Pentium 4. , , , , . Matrix Storage Hyper-Threading . AMD, Pentium 4 .

    RAM , RAM . , UMA. DDR2 SDRAM , DDR2 SDRAM, DIMM 240 pins.

    , , . CD-RW DVD-RW , , /, , . SATA k HDD, , .

    . LCD , , , . CRT LCD . , , . SVGA (Video Graphics Adapter), . SLI .

    , , , .CIS (Contact Image Censor) , .

    IP IPX . DHCP. , . BOOTP , .

    3 .

    : Chipset 900 Intel. BTX

    , ATX . (IHA) Chipset.

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. IP IPX . DHCP. 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 16

    14: ( 5) Pentium.

    -: Chipset Intel 925 Intel Pentium 4. Chipset 900, a, FSB. PCI-Express , , .

    Intel Pentium 4 Extreme Edition, , , , , . . Matrix Storage Hyper-Threading . AMD, Pentium 4 .

    RAM , DRAM . UMA. DDR2 SDRAM , , DIMM 240 pins.

    , , . CD-RW DVD-RW, HDD CD, , / , . SATA k HDD, .

    . , , . LCD . , , . SVGA (Video Graphics Adapter), . SLI .

    , , . , ,

    , , , . 3

    . : .

    DRAM . (IHA) Chipset. ?

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 17

    15: CPU Core Duo.

    -: Chipset Intel 965 Intel Core Duo, .Chipset 900, a. PCI-Express , , . IEEE 1394 , , .

    Intel Core Duo, , , , , . Matrix Storage Hyper-Threading . AMD, .

    RAM , , . DDR2 SDRAM , , DIMM 240 pins.

    , , . HDVD Blue Ray, , / , .

    . , , . CRT . , . SLI .

    , , , . , , . ITU / CCITT RS232C UART.

    TCP/IP , ping, arp, netstat, ipconfig, tracert. . : .

    DRAM . (IHA) Chipset. ?

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. -TCP/IP .

    5

    7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 18

    16: -

    Intel.

    -: Chipset Intel - Intel PC. Chipset, FSB. PCI-Express , .

    Intel PC, , , , , , .

    RAM , , . , , . CONFIG.SYS? , UMA. DDR3 SDRAM , , .

    , , . , , . SATA k HDD, .

    . , , . LCD . , , . .

    , , , , , , .

    (Wireless ) LAN , , , .

    3 .

    :

    , , DRAM , , , , - .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. (Wireless ) LAN . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 19

    17: 64 AMD.

    -: 64 AMD PC - Athlon 64/FX. Chipset, FSB. IEEE 1394 , .

    64 AMD PC, , , , , , .

    RAM , , . , , . DRAM , , .

    , , . , , . RAID k HDD, .

    . OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) , , . , , . .

    , , . DNS , . , UPS

    (Uninterruptable Power Supply). 3

    . : .

    DRAM .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. DNS .

    5

    7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 20

    18: -

    AMD.

    -: - AMD PC. Chipset, FSB. PCI-Express , .

    Intel PC, , , , , , .

    RAM , , RAM. , , . DRAM , , .

    , , . , , . RAID k HDD, .

    . OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) , , . , , . .

    , , , . (Wireless ) LAN , , ,

    . 3

    . :

    , , DRAM , , , , - .

    1. .

    10

    2. . 10 3. DRAM ROM

    . 10

    4. .

    8

    5. - , , .

    5

    6. (Wireless ) LAN . 5 7. . 2 8. . 10

    : 60

  • 21

    IV. / 1. . 2.

    , .

    , , , , , , , BIOS Setup, , .

    , /.

    / , , , , , , . , .

    .

    , . , .

    3. .

    . , , . /.

    V. .

    60 . . , :

    = :10 ( )

    0,01. . 46

    3 .

    . 48 3 .

  • 22

    V. 1. , , 1, 2, 3, 2002 . 2. , , BIOS Setup, , 2000 . 3. , , 1999 . 4. , I II , ,1998 . 5. ., , , 2003 . 6. Microsoft, , , 2001 . 7. , , , 2000 . 8. , , , 1995 . 9. , PC, . , 2007 . Web : http://www.computers.bg http://www.hardwarebg.com http://www.comexgroup.com http://www.webopedia.com http://www.sagabg.net http://benchmarkhq.ru V. . .

  • 23

    V. )

    .. ( / )

    /

    523060 M 5230601

    12

    : Pentium 4.

    -: Chipset Intel 865 Intel Pentium 4. Chipset 800, Chipset. , , , . USB , , .

    Intel Pentium 4. , , , , , , HT (Hyper Threading Technology) . , . AMD Pentium 4 .

    RAM , RAM . , . , UMA. HMA? DDR SDRAM , , DIMM 184 pins.

    , , . CD-R DVD-R, CD-R DVD-R. / , . SCSI , , SCSI.

    . LCD , , , . CRT LCD . , , . SVGA (Video Graphics Adapter), SVGA . 3D .

    , , , .CIS (Contact Image Censor) , .

    OSI , OSI , , . SMPT .

    . :

    . DRAM . (IHA) Chipset. ?

    O a : : .... ......................................................... (, ) () / : .... (, ) ()

    ( / )

  • 24

    )

    .. ( / )

    /

    523060 M 5230601

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    /

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    . /, : .. . : . : . : . 1. ( ,

    , , , , ), , , , .

    2. (/ ) : 5 ,

    . 5 .

    : o ; o ; o ; o ; o - FDD,HDD, CD/DVD; o ; o ; o ; o .

    /: ...........................................

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