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AFAMS The Endocrine System سيستم اندوکرين (دستگاه هورمون ها) EO 003.01 Part 12

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Text of AFAMS The Endocrine System سيستم اندوکرين (دستگاه هورمون ها) EO 003.01...

Endocrine System

The Endocrine System ( )

EO 003.01 Part 12AFAMSLesson Overview Function of the Endocrine System Function of HormonesAnatomy of the Endocrine SystemEndocrine GlandsControl of Hormone ReleaseDisorders of the Endocrine SystemIn-class AssignmentInsert DariAFAMSFunction of the Endocrine System (Insert Dari) A system of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream in order to maintain balance in the body.

A hormone is a chemical released by a gland, or an organ in one part of the body that affects another part of the body. Insert DariAFAMSThe Endocrine System Endocrine and nervous systems work togetherEndocrine systemhormones released into the bloodstream travel throughout the bodyresults may take hours, but last longer Nervous systemcertain parts release hormones into bloodrest release neurotransmitters to excite or inhibit nerve, muscle & gland cellsresults in milliseconds, brief duration of effects

AFAMSGeneral Functions of Hormones Help regulate:Metabolismcontraction of cardiac & smooth muscleglandular secretionsome immune functionsGrowth & developmentReproduction : () ( )AFAMSHormone ReceptorsHormones only affect target cells with specific membrane proteins called receptors

AFAMS

AFAMSAnatomy of the Endocrine System

AFAMS(Insert Dari)

AFAMSEndocrine Glands Defined Exocrine glandssecrete products into ducts which empty into body cavities or body surfacesweat, oil, mucous, & digestive glandsEndocrine glandssecrete products (hormones) into bloodstreampituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pinealother organs secrete hormones as a 2nd functionhypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart & placenta () ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) () AFAMSHypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

Both are master endocrine glands since their hormones control other endocrine glands. Pituitary gland also secretes hormones that control growth.

ThyroidProduces thyroid hormones which are responsible for our metabolic rate. (Insert Dari) Alimentary TractInsert Dari(Insert Dari) Insert Dari(Stomach, Duodenum, Liver, Kidney and Pancreas)Secrete hormones that aid in digestion/absorption of various nutrients (i.e. insulin which allows cells to absorb sugar)Parathyroid(Insert Dari) Insert DariProduces hormones which control calcium absorption. AFAMSAdrenal GlandsSecrete hormones that regulate kidney function as well as releasing hormones in response to stress. (Insert Dari) Insert DariReproductive GlandsTestes produce testosterone, which promotes development of male sex characteristics (i.e. beard growth). Ovaries produce estrogen, which promotes the development of female sex characteristics and controls the menstrual cycle and prepares for milk production. (Insert Dari) ( )

(Testes, Ovaries)AFAMSMiscellaneous Hormones . Local hormones released by all body cellsLeukotrienes influence WBCs & inflammationProstaglandins altersmooth muscle contraction, glandular secretion, blood flow, platelet function, nerve transmission, metabolism etc.

AFAMSControl of Hormone Secretion Regulated by signals from nervous system, chemical changes in the blood or by other hormonesNegative feedback control (most common)decrease/increase in blood level is reversedPositive feedback controlthe change produced by the hormone causes more hormone to be releasedDisorders involve either hyposecretion or hypersecretion of a hormone ( ) ( )/ AFAMSDisorders of the Endocrine System(Insert Dari) Dwarfism Thyroid DisordersDiabetesInsert DariAFAMSPituitary Gland Disorders Hypo secretion during childhood = pituitary dwarfism (proportional, childlike body)Hyper secretion during childhood = giantismvery tall, normal proportionsHyper secretion as adult = acromegalygrowth of hands, feet, facial features & thickening of skin = () = ( ) = ( ) AFAMS

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Acromegaly Insert Dari AFAMSThyroid Gland Disorders Hypothyroidism in adult produces sensitivity to cold, low body temp weight gain & mental dullnessHyperthyroidism (Graves disease)weight loss, nervousness, tremor & exophthalmos (edema behind eyes)Goiter = enlarged thyroid (dietary) () ( ) = ( )AFAMS

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Insert Dari Insert Dari AFAMSDiabetes Mellitus & Hyperinsulinism Diabetes mellitus marked by hyperglycemia (high blood suger)excessive urine productionexcessive thirstexcessive eatingType I----deficiency of insulin (under 20)Type II---adult onsetcells may be less sensitive to hormone

--- ( ) --- AFAMSQuestions? (Insert Dari)AFAMSIn-class Assignment(Insert Dari) AFAMS1. What is the function of the Endocrine System? (Insert Dari) To secrete hormones that maintain balance in the body. Allow for movementAbsorb nutrientsProvide Oxygen to the blood. Insert Dari AFAMS1. Answer: What is the function of the Endocrine System? (Insert Dari) To secrete hormones that maintain balance in the body. Allow for movementAbsorb nutrientsProvide Oxygen to the blood. Insert Dari AFAMS2. Which of the following statements are correct? (Insert Dari) The endocrine and nervous system do NOT work together. The nervous system does NOT cause the release of hormones. Hormones released by the endocrine system achieve results in milliseconds Hormones are released from special glands called endocrine glands.

Insert DariAFAMS2. Which of the following statements are correct? (Insert Dari) The endocrine and nervous system do NOT work together. The nervous system does NOT cause the release of hormones. Hormones released by the endocrine system achieve results in milliseconds Hormones are released from special glands called endocrine glands.

Insert DariAFAMS3. Which of the following is not a function of hormones? (Insert Dari) Regulate metabolismRegulate growth and development Reproduction All the above are functions of hormones

Insert DariAFAMS3. Which of the following is not a function of hormones? (Insert Dari) Regulate metabolismRegulate growth and development Reproduction All the above are functions of hormones

Insert DariAFAMS4. Match the gland with its function(Insert Dari)HypothalamusOvariesAdrenal glandTestesPituitary gland

Growth and developmentFemale sex hormones and reproductionMaster gland Kidney function and stress hormonesMale sex hormones and reproductionInsert DariAFAMS4. Answer: Match the gland with its function(Insert Dari)Hypothalamus (3) Master GlandOvaries (2) Female sex hormones and reproductionAdrenal gland (4) kidney function and stress hormonesTestes (5) male sex hormones and reproductionPituitary gland (1) Growth and developmentInsert DariAFAMS5. Fill in the blank with hyper or hypo(Insert Dari) A) Dwarfism is caused by _____secretion by the pituitary gland. B) Diabetes is caused by _____secretion of insulin. C) _____thyroidism is characterized by weight gain, mental dullness and sensitivity to the cold. D) ______thyroidism is characterized by weight loss, sometimes bulging eyes and tremor. Insert DariAFAMS5. Fill in the blank with hyper or hypo(Insert Dari) A) Dwarfism is caused by hypo secretion by the pituitary gland. B) Diabetes is caused by hypo secretion of insulin. C) Hypothyroidism is characterized by weight gain, mental dullness and sensitivity to the cold. D) Hyperthyroidism is characterized by weight loss, sometimes bulging eyes and tremor. Insert DariAFAMS

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