Amino axit

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Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]

[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]

email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com1

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Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]

Amino axitI. nh ngha, danh php v tnh ch t v t l ...................................................................... 3 1. nh ngha....................................................................................................................................... 3 2. C u t o phn t ............................................................................................................................... 3 3. Danh php....................................................................................................................................... 3 4. Tnh ch t v t l ................................................................................................................................ 8 II. Tnh ch t ha h c ........................................................................................................... 8 1. Tnh l ng tnh ................................................................................................................................ 8 2. Ph n ng c a nhm cacboxyl :.......................................................................................................... 9 a) Este ha : .................................................................................................................................... 9 b) ecacboxyl ha : .......................................................................................................................... 9 3. Ph n ng c a nhm amino ............................................................................................................... 9 a) Ph n ng v i axit nitr (tng t amin b c I) t o thnh hidroxiaxit : ................................................ 9 b) Ph n ng eamin ha :................................................................................................................. 9 c) Ph n ng ngng t v i anehit fomic : ..........................................................................................10 d) Ph n ng ankyl,aryl ha b ng d n xu t halogen ............................................................................10 e) Ph n ng axyl ha (Ph n ng Sotten Bauman)............................................................................10 4. Tnh ch t c a c phn t amino axit : ...............................................................................................10 a) Ph n ng mu v i nihidrin............................................................................................................10 b) Ph n ng t o ph c ......................................................................................................................11 c) Tc d ng c a nhi t ......................................................................................................................11 d) M t s ph n ng mu :................................................................................................................12 e) Ph n ng trng ngng t o peptit : ................................................................................................12 III. i u ch ...................................................................................................................... 13 1. Th y phn protein...........................................................................................................................13 2. Amin ha axit -halogencacboxylic (Phng php Hell-Volhard-Zelinski) ..............................................13 3. Ankyl ha ietyl N-phtalimit maloat (Phng php Gabriel, 1889)........................................................13 4. T ng h p Strecker (1850) ................................................................................................................13 5. T ng h p Bucherer (1943) ...............................................................................................................14 6. Phng php t ng h p qua amiomalonat ........................................................................................14 7. Phng php amino ha -xetoaxit (sinh t ng h p) ...........................................................................14 8. i u ch -amino axit v -amino axit ..............................................................................................15 9. i u ch - v -amino axit .............................................................................................................15 10. i u ch cc amino axit thm.........................................................................................................15 T lu n ............................................................................................................................... 17 Bi 1 :................................................................................................................................................17 Bi 2 :................................................................................................................................................17 Bi 3 :................................................................................................................................................18 Bi 4 :................................................................................................................................................18 Bi 5 :................................................................................................................................................18

[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]

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Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]

Amino axitI. nh ngha, danh php v tnh ch t v t l1. nh nghaAmino axit l lo i h p ch t h u c t p ch c m phn t ch a ng th i nhm amino (-NH2) v nhm cacboxyl (-COOH). V d : H2H-CH2-COOH ; R-CH(NH2)-COOH ; R-CH(NH2)-CH2-COOH; m-NH2-C6H4COOH.

2. C u t o phn ttr ng thi k t tinh t n t i d ng ion l ng c c. Trong dung d ch, d ng ion l ng c c chuy n m t ph n nh thnh d ng phn t :

D ng ion l ng c c

D ng phn t

3. Danh php- N u g c hidrocacbon trong phn t l g c no m ch h , ty theo v tr c a nhm ch c amin i v i nhm cacboxyl m ta phn bi t -amino, -amino, -amino, , -amino axit. - a s cc amino axit trong thin nhin l -amino v chng c trong thnh ph n c u t o protein. - Trong t ng h p h u c s d ng lo i -amino axit (nhm amono cu i m ch, m ch C khng phn nhnh). V d : H2N-[CH2]5-COOH axit -amino caproic : t capron. H2N-[CH2]6-COOH axit -amino enantoic : t enng.

Tn g i c a 20 amino axit th ng g p trong thin nhinCng th c Axit monoaminocacboxylic Tn g i K hi u, vi t t t tan (g/100g H2O) pHI

Glyxin

Gly G

25.5

5.97

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Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]

Alanin

Ala A

16.6

6.00

Valin

Val V

6.8

5.96

Leuxin

Leu L

2.4

5.98

Isoleuxin

Ile I

2.1

6.00

Axit iaminomonocacboxylic

Lysin

Lys K

T t

9.74

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Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]

Arginin

Arg R

T t

10.67

Axit monoaminoicacboxylic

Axit aspactic

Asp D

0.5

2.77

Axit glutamic

Glu E

0.7

3.22

O H2N CH H2N C O CH2 C OH

Asparagin

Asn N

2.5

5.4

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Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]O H2N CH CH2 H2C C H2N O C OH

Glutamin

Gln Q

3.6

5.7

Amino axit ch c nhm OH, -SH, SR Serin S Ser 4.3 5.68

Threonin

Thr T

20.5

5.60

Xistein

Cys C

T t

5.10

Methionin

Met M

3.3

5.74

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Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]Amino axit ch a vng thmOH H2N CH CH2 C O

Phenylalani n

Phe F

2.7

5.48

0.05 Tirozin Tyr Y

5.66

Amino axit d vng

Triptophan

Trp W

1.1

5.89

Histidin

His H

4.2

7.59

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Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]

Prolin

Pro P

162

6.3

Cc g c amino axit R-CH(NH2)-Co- c g i b ng cch i ui in c a tn ring thnh yl. V d : Glyxin Glyxyl

4. Tnh ch t v t lAmino axit l nh ng ch t r n, k t tinh, khng mu, nhi t nng ch y tng i cao (kho ng 220 -290oC). a s tan t t trong n c, khng tan trong dung mi khng phn c c nh benzen, hexan, ete,.

II. Tnh ch t ha h c1. Tnh l ng tnh-

H2N-CHR-COOH H2H-CHR-COO(-) + H+ +H3N-CHR-COO- (ion l ng c c). pH th p (mi tr ng axit): t o ra axit 2 ch c+H3 O H3N-CHR-COO- +H3N-CHR-COOH C c m+

Axit 2 ch c

i n