Ashley Mellor CEP Stories and Cue Cards (connued) Intervention Reading a social story to the boy to teach a skill Removing the social story Replacing the story with a cue card visual reminder of the story

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  • AshleyMellorCEP843

  • Ar#clesReviewed 1SocialStoriesandCueCards

    2PeerMediatedInstructionIntervention(PMII)

    3PECSImprovision

  • SocialStoriesandCueCards Backgroundinformation

    Studydoneonan11yearoldboywithASD increaseuseofverbalsocialgreetings usingsocialstoriesandcuecards

    Thestudyisbasedonsocialstoriesandwasdonetoseeifaskillislearnedwhenthestoryisremovedorisavisualreminderisnecessary

    Researchpurpose Toseeifskillstaughtthroughsocialstoriesarestillpresentoncethestoryisremoved

  • SocialStoriesandCueCards(con#nued) Intervention

    Readingasocialstorytotheboytoteachaskill Removingthesocialstory Replacingthestorywithacuecardvisualreminderofthestory

    Findings/results Baselinetakenofverbalgreetingswithoutasocialstory Whenthesocialstorywasreadtheverbalgreetingsincreased Whenthesocialstorywasnolongerreadthegreetingsdecreased Whenacuecardasareminderwasgivenafteraperiodofreadingthesocialstoryagaintheverbalgreetingsremainedwithonlythepresenceofthecuecard

  • PeerMedia#onInstruc#onInterven#on

    Backgroundinformation donetoincreasethequalityandquantityofsocialinteractionsofstudentswithASD

    tosystematicallyteachthetypicallydevelopingpeersHOWtointeractwithstudentswithASD

    toincreasetheopportunitiesforstudentswithASDtopracticesocialskills

    Researchpurpose Toincreasethequantityandqualityofsocialinteractions Simplybeinginaroomwithtypicallydevelopingpeersdoesnotteachsocialskills

  • PeerMedia#onInstruc#onInterven#on(con#nued) Intervention

    TypicallydevelopingpeersaretrainednotthestudentswithASD Theyaretrainedinsteps

    strategicallychoosefourtofivepeers childrenwithgoodsocialskills abilitytolistentoadultdirections abilitytofocusonanactivityfor10minutes studentsthataregenerallylikedbytheirpeers.

    trainthepeersinvolved teachingthepeersaboutindividualdifferences teachingthepeersaboutthechildwithASDtheywillbeinteractingwith teachingthepeersstepbystepstrategiestoinitiateandinteractwiththechildwith

    ASD thetrainedpeerstointeractinaspecificactivitywiththechildwithASDforashort,15

    minuteperiodoftime playingwithapreferredtoyforthechildwithASD,apretendplaycenter,oranyother

    activitysetupthatwillpromotesocialinteractions. trytohavetheseactivitiesmorethanonetimethroughouttheday

  • PeerMedia#onInstruc#onInterven#on(con#nued) Findings/results

    WhentypicallydevelopingpeersweretaughthowtointeractandtoinitiateinteractionswithstudentswithASD Interactionsincreased Lengthofinteractionsincreased SocialskillsofstudentswithASDincreased

    PMIIalsoincreasedtheunderstandingoftypicallydevelopingpeersoftheirpeerswithASD Learnedtoworkwithandtoleratedifferencesofothers LearnedaboutASD Gainedconfidenceandprideinthemselvesforbeingabletowork

    withthosewithASD

  • PECSImprovisionInterven#on Backgroundinformation

    2childrenand2motherswerechosenforthisstudy BothchildpreviouslyusedPECS Mothersweretrainedintensivelytobetheonesdoingthisinterventionwiththeirchildren

    Researchpurpose Teachchildrentorequestobjectsbasedoncolor,shape,andfunction

    Example:gramcracker color:tan shape:square function:eat

    ThismakescommunicationthroughPECSmoreaccessible

  • PECSImprovisionInterven#on Intervention

    Childrenweretaughtbytheirmotherstosystematicallytousecolortorequestanobject

    Thentousetheshape Thentousethefunction ThiseventuallytooktheplaceofspecificcardsinthePECSsystem

    Findings/results Childrenwereabletosuccessfullyrequestobjectsusingcolor,shape,andfunctioncardsinthePECSsystem

    ThisallowsforchildrentorequestobjectsevenifthespecificPECScardisnotavailable

  • Ar#cleSynthesis Similarities

    Theseresearcharticlesaresimilarbecausetheyarebasedonresearchdoneonsmallnumbersofindividuals

    Theyallhavesocialandcommunicationgoalsinmind Theyareallinterventionsthatcanbeusedinschoolsystems

    Theyareallresearchbaseduponacommoninterventions

    Tweakingittoimprovetheintervention

  • Ar#cleSynthesisDifferences

    Eachstudyhadadifferentgoal Eachstudytraineddifferentpopulation

    SocialStoriesstudentwithASD PMIItypicaldevelopingpeers PECSimprovisionfirsttrainedparentstotrainchildren

    Eachhadadifferentgoal SocialStoriesimprovingskillretention PMIIincreasingopportunitiesforsocialinteractions PECSimprovisionincreasingabilitytousePECSmorefreely

  • ImpactontheField SocialStoriesandCueCards

    studentswithASDoncetheyshowbehaviorsmaybeabletousesimplyvisualreminderstorememberaskill

    thiscanreducetheamountofsocialstorieseachchildneedseachday

    canincreasetheskillstaughtthroughaddingmorestories PMII

    TeachingtypicallydevelopingpeersisjustasimportantasteachingstudentswithASD

    HelpsnotonlychildwithASDbuttypicallydevelopingpeersinunderstandingASD(thisultimatelyimprovessocietiesviews)

  • ImpactontheField(con#nued)PECSimprovision

    ThiscanreducetheamountofpicturesneededforchildrentoeffectivelyusethePECSsystem

    ThisalsomakesitmoreaccessibleforchildrenwithASDtousePECSifthespecificpictureisnotavailable

    ThiscanincreasetheopportunitiesforsuccesswiththePECSsystemisusedaloneorinadditiontothetraditionalPECSsystem

  • ImpactonmyProfessionalCareer SocialstoriesareeffectiveinteachingstudentswithASDaskill Becarefulnottoassumethatonetheskillorbehaviorisbeingshownthatyoucanremovethestoryaltogether

    Usingacuecardasaremindermayhelpsoyoucaneliminateastoryanduseasimplecueandaddanewstory

    Iwanttotrytodothiswithastudentinmyclasswhousessocialstoriestoreducethetimehespendsreadingeachstoryeachday

  • ImpactonmyProfessionalCareer PeerMediatedInstructionInterventionsareeffectivewaystoreachstudents

    withASD BeneficialforstudentswithASD,typicallydevelopingpeers,andteachers

    involved IhavestartedaLINKSgroupinmygeneraleducationclassinwhichwe

    EducatetypicallydevelopingpeersaboutstudentswithASDingeneral Teachthemhowtointeractwiththosestudents(picturecards,students

    interests,keywords,otherstrategies) Givetheminformationonhowtoworkwithstudentsandinteractwith

    studentswithASDinclassandatrecess TeachthemtobemodelersandhelpersforstudentswithASD Thishasgreatlyincreasedtheinteractionsmytypicallydevelopingstudents

    havewithstudentswithASD Morecomfortable Moreknowledgeable Moreconfident

  • ImpactonmyProfessionalCareerPECSimprovision

    Iusepicturevisualcardsinmyclassroommorefordirections

    IamnowmorecomfortableknowingthatifIwastousePECSinmyclassroomthattherewouldpotentiallybeawaytoreachstudentstoimproviseifcardsarenotavailable

    Thisallowsforcommunicationtostilloccurevenifapicturespecificallydoesnot

  • ConclusionEachoftheseinterventionsareusingknowninterventionmethodsandtryingtoseeiftheycanbechangedslightlytoimprovetheireffectiveness

    IthinktheseresearcharticlesshowthedirectionthatresearchinASDisgoing.

    Asmoreinformationcomesandmoreinterventionsareavailabletherearealwaysthoseouttheretryingtomakethemevenbetterandevenmoresuccessful!

  • ReferenceList Reichow,B.,&Sabornie,E.(2009).Briefreport:increasingverbal

    greetinginitiationsforastudentwithautismviaasocialstoryintervention.JournalofAutismandDevelopmentalDisorders,39(12),17401743.doi:10.1007/s1080300908144

    engelhardtWells,K.,Neitvel,J.,&Sperry,L.(2010).Peermediatedinstructionandinterventionstrategiesforstudentswithautismspectrumdisorders.PreventingSchoolFailure,54(4),256264.doi:10.1080/10459881003800529

    alberMorgan,S.,Chaabane,D.,&DeBar,R.(2009).TheeffectsofparentimplementedPECStrainingonimprovisionofmandsbychildrenwithautism.JournalofAppliedBehaviorAnalysis,42(2),671677.doi:10.1901/jaba.2009.42671