Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) - फ़्रांसिसी क्रान्ति

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  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    1/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 1

    bl [k.M esavki i+ zQkalhlh kafr] :lh kafr vkSj ukRlhokn osQ mn; dk bfrgkl i

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    2/24

    2 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    v;k; 3esavki teZuh osQ ckjsesatkusaxsA bl v;k; esafgVyj osQ mn; vkSj ukRlhokn dh jktuhfrdk fo'ys"k.k fd;k x;k gSA ;gkvki ukRlh teZuh esavkSjrksao cPpksadh n'kk vkSj Ldwyksao ;krukx`gksa osQ ckjs esa i

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    3/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 3

    iz+Qkalhlh kafr

    fp=k 1 & ckLrhy dk oal-ckLrhy oal osQ ckn fp=kdkjksa usbl ?kVuk dh ;kn esadbZfp=k cuk,A

    pkSng tqykbZ 1789 dh lqcg] isfjl uxj esavkrad dk ekgkSy FkkA lezkVuslsuk dks'kgj esa?kqlusdk vkns'k nsfn;k FkkA vi+Qokg Fkh fd og lsuk

    dks ukxfjdksa ij xksfy;k pykusdk vkns'k nsusokyk gSA yxHkx 7000 enZ

    rFkk vkSjrsaVkWmu gkWy osQ lkeus,d=k gq, vkSj mUgksaus,d tu&lsuk dk

    xBu djus dk fu.kZ; fd;kA gfFk;kjksadh [kkst esa oscgqr&lsljdkjh

    Hkouksa esatcju izos'k dj x,A

    varr% lSdM+ksayksxksa dk ,d lewg isfjl uxj osQ iwohZHkkx dh vksj

    py iM+k vkSj ckLrhy (Bastille)fdysdh tsy dksrksM+Mkyk tgkHkkjh

    ek=kk esaxksyk&ck:n feyus dh laHkkouk FkhA gfFk;kjksa ij dCksdh bl

    l'kL=k yM+kbZ esa ckLrhy dk dekaMj ekjk x;k vkSj oSQnh NqM+k fy, x,]

    ;|fi mudh la[;k osQoy lkrFkhA lezkV dh fujaoqQ'k 'kfDr;ksadk izrhdgksus osQ dkj.k ckLrhy fdykyksxksadh ?k`.kk dk osaQnzFkkA blfy, fdys

    dks

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    4/24

    4 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    lu~1774 esacwcksjktoa'k dk yqbZXVIkal dh jktxh ij vklhu gqvkAml le; mldh mezosQoy chl lky Fkh vkSj mldk fookg vkWfLV;kdh jktoqQekjh esjh ,Urks,usr ls gqvk FkkA jkT;kjksg.k osQ le; mlusjktdks"k [kkyh ik;kA yacsle; rd pys;qksaosQ dkj.k i+ zQkal osQ fokh;lalkku u"V gks pqosQ FksA olkZ; (Versailles)osQ fo'kky egy vkSjjktnjckj dh 'kkuks&'kkSdr cuk, j[kus dh fIkQkwy[kphZdk cks> vyx lsFkkA yqbZXVIosQ 'kkludky esa i+ zQkal usvesfjdk osQ 13 mifuos'kksa dkslk>k 'k=kqfczVsu lsvkkkn djkus esalgk;rk nh FkhA bl ;q osQ pyrsiz+Qkal ij nl vjc fyozsls Hkh vfkd dk dkZvkSj tqM+x;k tcfd mlij igyslsgh nks vjc fyoszdk cks> p djksa osQ ek;e lsturk ogu djrh FkhA

    u, 'kCn

    fyozs % iz+Qkal dh eqnzk ftls1794 esa lekIrdj fn;k x;kA,LVsV % kafr&iwoZkalhlh lekt esalkkvkSj lkekftd gSfl;r dksvfHkO;Dr djusokyh Js.khAiknjh oxZ % ppZosQ fo'ks"k dk;ksdksdjusokysO;fDr;ksadk lewgAVkbn % ppZ }kjk olwy fd;k tkus okykdjA ;g dj f"k mit osQ nlosafgLls osQcjkcj gksrk FkkAVkby % lhks jkT; dksvnk fd;k tkusokykdjA

    1 vBkjgoha lnh osQ mkjkkZ esa i+ zQkalhlh lekt

    iknjh oxZ

    oqQyhu oxZ

    fdlku vkSj dkjhxj

    NksVsfdlku] Hkwfeghu

    eknwj] ukSdj

    cM+sO;olk;h] O;kikjh] vnkyrh

    deZpkjh] odhy vkfn

    fp=k 2 & ,LVsV~l dk lekt -;ku nsafd rrh; ,LVsVesaoqQN yksx vehj gSarksoqQN xjhc Hkh

    izFke ,LVsV

    r`rh; ,LVsV

    f}rh; ,LVsV

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  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    5/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 5

    ^cspkjk Xkjhc vukt] iQy] iSlk] lykn lc oqQNykrk gSA eksVw kehankj lc oqQN Lohdkj djusdkss

    rS;kj cSBk gSA ij og mldks ,d ukj ns[krk rdughaA*

    ^oqQyhu O;fDr edM+k gSvkSj fdlkueD[khA*

    crk,fd fp=kdkj us oqQyhuO;fDr dksedM+s vkSj

    fdlku dks eD[kh osQ :iesaD;ksa fpf=kr fd;k gSA

    fp=k 3 & edM+k vkSj eD[kh -,d vuke mRdh.kZfp=kA

    ^'kSrku dksftruk nks] mldk ykyp mruk gh c

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    6/24

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    7/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 7

    ksr d

    izkphu jktra=k esagq, vuqHkoksa dk o`kkar

    1- vkxs pydj kafrdkjhjktuhfr esalf; gksus okys tkWtZnkUru us viuh is dbZ egoiw.kZyksxksa dk lkfUu; feyk---A i

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    8/24

    8 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    fiNys Hkkx esavki ns[k pqosQ gSafd fdu dkj.kksals yqbZXVIus dj c

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    9/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 9

    ftl oDr uS'kuy vlsacyh lafokku dk izk:i rS;kj djusesa O;LrFkh] iwjk i+ zQkal vkanksfyr gks jgk FkkA dM+kosQ dh BaM osQ dkj.k I+kQly ekjhxbZFkh vkSj ikojksVh dh dhersavkleku Nwjgh FkhaA csdjh ekfyd fLFkfrdk I+kQk;nk mBkrs gq, tek[kksjhesa tqVsFksA csdjh dh nqdkuksa ij ?kaVksaosQbarkkj osQ ckn XkqLlk;h vkSjrksadh HkhM+ usnqdku ij kkok cksy fn;kAnwljh rjI+kQ lezkV uslsuk dksisfjl esaizos'k djus dk vkns'k nsfn;k FkkAq HkhM+ us 14 tqykbZ dksckLrhy ij kkok cksydj mlsusLrukcwn dj

    fn;kAnsgkrh bykdksa esaxko&xko ;g vI+kQokg iQSy xbZ fd tkxhjksa osQ

    ekfydksa us HkkM+s ij yBSrksa&yqVsjksa osQ fxjksg cqyk fy, gSa tksidh I+kQlyksadks rckg djusfudy iM+s gSaAdbZ fkyksa esa Hk; ls vkkar gksdj fdlkuksausoqQnkyksa vkSj csypksalsxzkeh.k fdyksa (chateau)ij vke.k dj fn,AmUgksaus vUu HkaMkjksadks ywV fy;k vkSj yxku lacakh nLrkoskksa dkstykdjjk[k dj fn;kA oqQyhu cM+h la[;k esaviuh tkxhjsaNksM+dj Hkkx x,]cgqrksausrks iM+kslh ns'kksaesatkdj 'kj.k yhA

    viuh fonzksgh iztk dh 'kfDr dk vuqeku djosQ] yqbZXVIusvarr%

    uS'kuy vlsacyh dks ekU;rk nsnh vkSj ;g Hkh eku fy;k fd mldh lkkij vc ls lafokku dk vaoqQ'k gksxkA 4 vxLr] 1789 dh jkr dksvlsacyh usdjksa] dkZO;ksavkSj cakuksa okyh lkearh O;oLFkk osQ mUewyu dkvkns'k ikfjr fd;kA iknjh oxZosQ yksxksadks Hkh viusfo'ks"kkfkdkjksa dksNksM+ nsusosQ fy, foo'k fd;k x;kA kkfeZd dj lekIr dj fn;k x;kvkSj ppZ osQ LokfeRo okyh Hkwfe kCr dj yh xbZA bl izdkj de ls de20 vjc fyoszdh laifk ljdkj osQ gkFk esavk xbZA

    fp=k 5 & Vsful dksVZesa 'kiFk -

    ,d fo'kky isafVax osQ fy, kkd&yqbZMsfoM}kjk cuk;k x;k 'kq#vkrh js[kkaduA ;g rLohj uS'kuy vlsacyh esayxkbZ tkuh FkhA

    fp=k 6 & Hk; dh ygj dk izlkj -ekufp=k lsirk pyrk gSfd fdl rjg fdlkuksaosQ tRFks ,d txgls nwljh txg iSQyrspys x,A

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    10/24

    10 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    2-1 i+ zQkal laoSkkfud jktra=k cu x;k

    uS'kuy vlsacyh uslu~ 1791 esalafokku dk izk:i iwjk dj fy;kA bldkeq[; ms'; Fkk&&lezkV dh 'kfDr;ksadks lhfer djukA ,d O;fDr osQ gkFkesa osaQnzhr gksusosQ ctk; vc bu 'kfDr;ksadksfofHkUu laLFkkvksafokkf;dk]dk;Zikfydk ,oaU;k;ikfydkesafoHkkftr ,oagLrkarfjr dj fn;k x;kAbl izdkj i+ zQkal esa laoSkkfud jktra=k dh uhao iM+hA fp=k 7 fn[kkrk gSfdu;h jktuhfrd O;oLFkk oSQlsdke djrh FkhA

    lu~1791 osQ lafokku usdkuwu cukus dk vfkdkj uS'kuy vlsacyhdkslkSai fn;kA uS'kuy vlsacyh vizR;{k :i lspquh tkrh FkhA loZizFkeukxfjd ,d fuokZpd lewg dk pquko djrsFks] tks iqu% vlsacyh osQlnL;ksa dkspqursFksA lHkh ukxfjdksadksernku dk vf/dkj ughaFkkA25 o"kZ lsvfkd mezokysosQoy ,slsiq#"kksadks gh lf; ukxfjd(ftUgsaer nsus dk vf/dkj Fkk) dk ntkZ fn;k x;k Fkk] tks de&ls&derhu fnu dh eknwjh osQ cjkcj dj pqdkrs FksA 'ks"k iq#"kksavkSj efgykvksadks fuf"; ukxfjd osQ :i esa oxhZr fd;k x;k FkkA fuokZpd dh;ksX;rk izkIr djus rFkk vlsacyh dk lnL; gksus osQ fy, yksxksa dkdjnkrkvksa dh mPpre Js.kh esagksuk k:jh FkkA

    fp=k 7 & 1791 osQ lafokkuosQ varxZr jktuhfrd O;oLFkk -

    U;k;ikfydk dk;Zikfydk fokkf;dk

    U;k;kkh'k lezkV uS'kuy vlsacyh(745 lnL;)

    fuokZpd(50]000 iq#"k)ea=kh

    lf; ukxfjd %erkfkdkj izkIr yksxA 2-8 djksM+dh tula[;k esa yxHkx 40 yk[k yksxA

    fuf"; ukxfjd %erkfkdkj izkIr ughaA yxHkx 30 yk[k

    iq#"kksa] efgykvksa] cPpksavkSj 25 o"kZ lsde mez osQO;fDr;ksa dkserkfkdkj izkIr ugha FkkA

    oksV

    oksV

    oksV

    fu"ks/

    fu;a=k.k

    fu;a=k.k

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  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    11/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 11

    lafokku ^iq#"k ,oaukxfjd vfkdkj ?kks"k.kki=k* osQ lkFk 'kq: gqvk FkkAthou osQ vfkdkj] vfHkO;fDr dh Lora=krk osQ vfkdkj vkSj dkuwuhcjkcjh osQ vfkdkj dks ^uSlfxZd ,oavgj.kh;* vfkdkj osQ :i esaLFkkfir fd;k x;k vFkkZr~ ;svfkdkj izR;sd O;fDr dks tUeuk izkIr FksvkSj bu vfkdkjksa dks Nhuk ughatk ldrkA jkT; dk ;g dkZO; ekuk x;kfd og izR;sd ukxfjd osQ uSlfxZd vfkdkjksadh j{kk djsA

    kafrdkjh i=kdkj ;k&ikWy ejk (Jean-Paul

    Marat)usvius v[kckj ykfe n iIy(turk

    dk fe=k) esauS'kuy vlsacyh }kjk rS;kj fd, x,

    lafokku ij ;g fVIi.kh dh Fkh %

    ^turk osQ izfrfufkRo dk dk;ZHkkj vehjksadkslkSaifn;k x;k gS--- XkjhcksavkSj 'kksf"krksa dh n'kk osQoy

    'kkafriw.kZrjhdksalsdHkh ughalqkj ldrhA ;g bl

    ckr dk vdkV~; izek.k gS fd kuk

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    12/24

    12 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    ckWDl 1

    jktuhfrd izrhdksaosQ ek;usvBkjgohalnh esa ;knkrj L=kh&iq#"k i

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    13/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 13

    f;kdyki

    1- ckW Dl 1 esa Lora=krk]lekurk ,oacakqRo osQ

    izrhdksadh igpku djsaA

    2- ys ckfcZ;s osQ ^iq#"k ,oa ukxfjd vfkdkj

    ?kks"k.kki=k* (fp=k 8)esa fpf=kr izrhdksadh

    O;k[;k djsaA

    3- 1791 osQ lafokku esaukxfjdksadks fn, x,

    jktuhfrd vfkdkjksa osQ ?kks"k.kki=k (ksr x)

    osQ vuqPNsn 1 ,oa6 esafn, x, vfkdkjksals

    rqyuk djsaA D;k nksuksanLrkosk ,d&nwljsosQ

    vuq:i gSa\ D;k nksuksanLrkoskksals,d gh fopkj

    dk cksk gksrk gS\

    4- 1791 osQ lafokku lsi+ zQkalhlh lekt osQ dkSu&ls

    lewg ykHkkfUor gq, gksrs\ fdu lewgksadks blls

    vlarks"k gksldrk Fkk\ ejk us Hkfo"; osQ ckjsesadkSu&lsiwokZuqeku (ksr [k) yxk, Fks\

    5- i+ zQkal dh ?kVukvksalsfujaoqQ'k jktra=k okysiz'kk]

    vkWfLV;k] gaxjh ;k Lisu vkfn ns'kksaij iM+usokys

    izHkkoksa dh dYiuk dhft,A i+ zQkal esagks jgh

    ?kVukvksadh [kcjksaij jktkvksa] O;kikfj;ksa] fdlkuksa]

    oqQyhuksa,oaiknfj;ksausoSQlh izfrf;k nh gksxh\

    yky kbft;u Vksih %nklksa}kjk Lora=k gksusosQ ckn

    iguh tkusokyh VksihA

    uhyk&lI+ksQn&yky % i+ zQkal osQ

    jk"Vh; jaxA

    MSuksa okyh L=kh %dkuwu dk

    ekuoh; :iA

    fofk iV %dkuwu lcosQ fy, leku gSvkSj mldh ukj esalc cjkcj gSaA

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    14/24

    14 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    i+ zQkal dh fLFkfr vkus okyso"kksesa Hkh rukoiw.kZcuh jghA ;|fi yqbZXVIuslafokku ij gLrk{kj dj fn, Fks] ijUrqiz'kk osQ jktk ls mldh xqIr

    okrkZ Hkh py jgh FkhA i+ zQkal dh ?kVukvksa lsvU; iM+kslh ns'kksaosQ 'kkldHkh fpafrr FksA blfy, 1789 dh xfeZ;ksa osQ ckn gksus okyh ,slh ?kVukvksadksfu;af=kr djusosQ fy, bu 'kkldksa us lsuk Hkstus dh ;kstuk cuk yhFkhA ysfdu tc rd bl ;kstuk ij vey gksrk] vizSy 1792 esauS'kuyvlsacyh usiz'kk ,oa vkWfLV;k osQ fo# ;q dh ?kks"k.kk dk izLrko ikfjrdj fn;kA izkarksa lsgkkjksaLo;alsoh lsuk esa HkrhZgksusosQ fy, tek gksusyxsA mUgksausbl ;q dks ;wjksih; jktkvksa,oaoqQyhuksa osQ fo# turk dhtax osQ :i esafy;kAmuosQ gksBksaij ns'kHkfDr osQ tks rjkus Fks muesa dfojkWtsV fn ykby }kjk jfpr ekflZys Hkh FkkA ;g xhr igyh ckj ekflZysl

    osQ Lo;alsfo;ksa usisfjldh vksj owQp djrsgq, xk;k FkkA blfy, bl xkusdk uke ekflZysgksx;k tksvc i+ zQkal dk jk"Vxku gSA

    kafrdkjh ;qksalsturk dksHkkjh {kfr ,oavkfFkZd dfBukb;k>syuhiM+haA iq#"kksaosQ ekspsZij pystkusosQ ckn ?kj&ifjokj vkSj jkskh&jksVh dhfkEesokjh vkSjrksaosQ dakksaij vk iM+hA ns'k dh vkcknh osQ ,d cM+sfgLlsdks,slk yxrk Fkk fdkafr osQ flyflysdksvkxsc

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    15/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 15

    f;kdyki

    fp=k 10 &ukuhu okySa]fycVhZ (Lora=krk) -;g fdlh efgyk dykdkj }kjk jfpr nqyZHk fp=kksaesals,d gSAkafrdkjh ?kVuke osQ ckn efgykvksaosQ fy, ;g laHko gksx;k fdosLFkkfir fp=kdkjksaosQ lkFk izf'k{k.k izkIr dj losaQ vkSj gj nkslkyesayxusokyh lSykWu uked uqekb'k esaviusfp=kksadksiznf'kZr djlosaQA ;g rLohj Lora=krk dk ukjh :id gS vFkkZr~ ukjh&vkfrLora=krk dk izrhd gSA

    bl fp=k dks ;ku ls ns[ksa vkSj mu oLrqvksa dh lwph

    cuk, ftUgsavkius jktuhfrd izrhdksaosQ :i esa

    ckWDl 1 esans[kk gS(yky Vksih] VwVh gqbZkathj] NM+ksa

    dk cNhZnkj x_j] vfkdkjksadk ?kks"k.kki=k)A fijkfeM

    lekurk dk izrhd gSftls vdlj ,d f=kHkqt osQ

    :i esa fn[kk;k tkrk FkkA buizrhdksa dh lgk;rk ls

    bl fp=k dh O;k[;k djsaA Lora=krk dh izfrewfrZ bl

    efgyk ewfrZosQ ckjs esavkiosQ D;k fopkj gSaA

    blfy, tSdksfcuksadks^lkSaoqQykWr* osQ uke lstkuk x;k ftldk 'kkfCnd

    vFkZgksrk gS & fcuk ?kqVUusokysA lkSa oqQykWr iq#"k yky jax dh Vksih HkhigursFkstksLora=krk dk izrhd FkhA ysfdu efgykvksadks,slk djusdhvuqefr ughaFkhA

    lu~ 1792 dh xfeZ;ksaesatSdksfcuksaus [kk| inkFkksdh egxkbZ ,oavHkko lsukjkk isfjlokfl;ksadksysdj ,d fo'kky fgald fonzksg dh;kstuk cuk;hA 10 vxLr dhlqcg mUgksaus V~;wysfj, osQ egy ij kkokcksy fn;k] jktk osQ j{kdksadks ekj Mkyk vkSj [kqn jktk dksdbZ?kaVksardcakd cuk;sj[kkA ckn esa vlsacyh us'kkgh ifjokj dks tsy esaMky nsusdk izLrko ikfjr fd;kA u;spquko djk;s x,A 21 o"kZlsvfkd mez okys

    lHkh iq#"kksa & pkgs muosQ ikl laifk gks;k ugha & dks ernku dk vfkdkjfn;k x;kA

    uofuokZfpr vlsacyh dksdUosa'ku dk uke fn;k x;kA 21 flracj1792 dksblusjktra=k dk var dj fn;k vkSj i+ zQkal dks,d x.kra=k ?kksf"krfd;kA tSlk fd vki tkurs gSa] x.kra=k ljdkj dk og :i gStgk ljdkj,oamlosQ izeq[k dk pquko turk djrh gSA ;g oa'kkuqxr jkt'kkgh ughagSA vki oqQN vU; x.krkaf=kd ns'kksaosQ ckjsesatkudkjh izkIr djusdhdksf'k'k djsa vkSj ns[ksafd os dc vkSj oSQlsx.kra=k cusA

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    16/24

    16 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    Lora=krk (fycVhZ) D;k gS \ nksijLij fojkskh

    fopkj %

    kafrdkjh i=kdkjoSQfey MsLekWfyUl us lu~1793

    esa;g fy[kkA blosQ oqQN gh fnuksackn vkrad jkt

    osQ nkSjku mlsiQklh nsnh xb

    ^oqQN yksxksadk ekuuk gSfd Lora=krk ,d f'k'kqosQleku gSftlsifjiDo gksusrd vuq'kklu dh

    voLFkk ls xqkjuk vko';d gSA ij lR; oqQN vkSjgSA Lora=krk lq[k&'kkafr gS] foosd gS] lekurk ,oa

    U;k; gS] ;g vfkdkjksadk ?kks"k.kki=k gS---A vki

    'kk;n vius lHkhnq'euksa dk flj dkV nsuk pkgrsgSaA D;k bllscM+h ew[kZrk gksldrh gS\ D;k fdlh

    ,d O;fDr dks]mlosQ nfl;ksa lxs&lacafk;ksadks

    nq'eu cuk;sfcuk iQklh osQ

    r[rs rd ykuk laHko gS\7 I+kQjojh 1794 dksjkscsLI;sj

    us dUosa'ku esa Hkk"k.k fn;ktks y eksuhrsj ;wfuolsZy

    v[kckj esaNikA mlh Hkk"k.k

    dk ,d va'k % yksdra=k dksLFkkfir vkSj lqn`

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    17/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 17

    fp=k 11 &kafrdkjh ljdkj usvusd izdkj lsturk dh oI+kQknkjh gkfly djuh pkgh & muesals,d bl izdkj osQ mRloksadk vk;kstu FkkA ,dxkSjoe; bfrgkl dh vkHkk dkslaizsf"kr djus osQ fy, izkphu ;wuku o jkse dh lH;rkvksaosQ izrhdksadk bLrseky fd;k x;kA eap osQ chpksachp cusik;ksaij fVdk gqvk Dykfldh eaMi vLFkk;h lkexzh dk cuk Fkkftls tc pkgsrksM+k tk ldrk FkkA

    3-2 fMjsDVh 'kkflr i+ zQkal

    tSdksfcu ljdkj osQ iru osQ ckn e; oxZosQ laiUu rcosQ osQ ikl lkkvk xbZA u, lafokku osQ rgr lEifkghu rcosQ dkserkfkdkj lsoafprdj fn;k x;kA bl lafokku esa nks pquh xbZfokku ifj"knksadk izkokku FkkAbu ifj"knksaus ikp lnL;ksaokyh ,d dk;Zikfydk & fMjsDVh & dks fu;qDrfd;kA bl izkokku osQ kfj, tSdksfcuksaosQ 'kkludky okyh ,d O;fDr&osaQfnzr

    dk;Zikfydk lscpus dh dksf'k'k dh xbZA ysfdu] fMjsDVjksa dk >xM+kvdlj fokku ifj"kn~ksalsgksrk vkSj rc ifj"kn~mUgsac[kkZLr djusdhps"Vk djrhA fMjsDVh dh jktuhfrd vfLFkjrk uslSfud rkuk'kkg & usiksfy;ucksukikVZ & osQ mn; dk ekxZ iz'kLr dj fn;kA

    ljdkj osQ Lo:i esabu lHkh ifjorZuksaosQ nkSjku Lora=krk] fofklEerlekurk vkSj cakqRo izsjd vkn'kZ cus jgsA bu ewY;ksa us vkxkeh lnhesa u flI+kZQ i+ zQkal cfYd ckdh ;wjksi osQ jktuhfrd vkanksyuksadks Hkhizsfjr fd;kA

    f;kdyki

    ;gk fpf=kr tulewg] mudh os'kHkw"kk] Hkwfedk ,oa

    f;kdyki dk o.kZu djsaA bl fp=k ls kafrdkjh

    mRlo dh oSQlh Nfo curh gS\

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  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    18/24

    18 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    44444 D;k efgykvksa osQ fy, Hkh kafr gqbZ\

    fp=k 12 & olkZ; dh vksj owQp djrh isfjl dh vkSjrsa -

    ;g fp=k 5 vDVwcj 1789 dh ?kVukvksa osQ dbZ fp=kksa esals,d gSA ml fnu efgyk,isfjl lsolkZ; tkdj jktk dksviuslkFk ysdj ykSVh FkhaA

    efgyk, 'kq: ls gh i+ zQklhlh lekt esa brusvge ifjorZu ykusokyhxfrfofk;ksa esa lf; :i ls 'kkfey FkhaA mUgsa mEehn Fkh fd mudhHkkxhnkjh kafrdkjh ljdkj dksmudk thou lqkkjusgsrqBksl dne mBkusosQ fy, izsfjr djsxhA rhljs,LVsV dh vfkdka'k efgyk, thfodk fuokZg osQfy, dke djrh FkhaAosflykbZ&cqukbZ] diM+ksadh kqykbZdjrh Fkha] ckkkjksaesaiQy&iwQy&lfCk;kcsprh FkhavFkok laiUu ?kjksaesa?kjsywdke djrh FkhaAcgqr lkjh efgyk, os';ko`fk djrh FkhaA vfkdka'k efgykvksa osQ ikli

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    19/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 19

    ^n lkslkbVh vkWI+kQ jsoyw'kujh ,aM fjifCydu foesu* lclse'kgwj DycFkkA mudh ,d izeq[k ekx ;g Fkh fd efgykvksa dksiq#"kksa osQ lekujktuhfrd vfkdkj izkIr gksus pkfg,A efgyk,bl ckr ls fujk'k gqbfd1791 osQ lafokku esa mUgsa fuf"; ukxfjd dk ntkZ fn;k x;k FkkAefgykvksa us erkfkdkj] vlsacyh osQ fy, pqustkus rFkk jktuhfrd inksa

    dh ekx j[khA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd rHkh ubZ ljdkj esamuosQ fgrksa dkizfrfufkRo gksik,xkAizkja fHkd o"kksesakafrdkjh ljdkj usefgykvksa osQ thou esa lqkkj

    ykus okys oqQN dkuwu ykxwfd,A ljdkjh fo|ky;ksadh LFkkiuk osQ lkFkgh lHkh yM+fd;ksa osQ fy, LowQyh f'k{kk dksvfuok;Zcuk fn;k x;kA vcfirk mUgsamudh ekhZ osQ f[kykI+kQ 'kknh osQ fy, ck; ugha dj ldrsFksA'kknh dksLoSfPNd vuqcak ekuk x;k vkSj ukxfjd dkuwuksaosQ rgr mudkiathdj.k fd;k tkusyxkA rykd dks dkuwuh :i ns fn;k x;k vkSjenZ&vkSjr nksuksadksgh bldhvkhZnsus dk vfkdkj fn;k x;kA vcefgyk,O;kolkf;d izf'k{k.kysldrh Fkha] dykdkj cu ldrh Fkha vkSjNksVs&eksVs O;olk; pyk ldrhFkhaA

    fiQj Hkh] jktuhfrd vfkdkjksa osQ fy, efgykvksadk la?k"kZtkjh jgkAvkrad jkt osQ nkSjku ljdkjus efgyk Dycksadkscan djusvkSj mudhjktuhfrd xfrfofk;ksa ij izfrcak yxkusokyk dkuwu ykxwfd;kA dbZtkuh&ekuh efgykvksadksfxj+rkj dj fy;k x;k vkSj muesa lsoqQN dksiQklh ij p

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    20/24

    20 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    f;kdyki

    ksr N

    vksyEi ns xwk osQ ?kks"k.kki=kesamfYyf[kr oqQN ewyHkwr vfkdkj

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    lajf{kr djuk gSA ;svfkdkj gSa Lora=krk] laifk] lqj{kk vkSj lclsc

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    21/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 21

    55555 nkl&izFkk dk mUewyu

    fp=k 14 & nkleqfDr -

    lu~ 1794 osQ bl fp=k esanklksa dh eqfDr dk fooj.k gSA 'kh"kZ ij

    frjaxscSuj dk ukjk gS & ^euq"; osQ vfkdkj*A uhpsvfHkys[k dgrk

    gS & ^xqykeks a dh eqfDr*A ,d i+ zQkalhlh efgyk vi+ zQhdh ,oa

    vesfjdh&bafM;u nklksadks;wjksih; diM+snsdj mUgsa lH;* cukusdh

    ps"Vk dj jgh gSA

    I+kzQkalhlh mifuos'kksaesa nkl&izFkk dk mUewyu tSdksfcu 'kklu osQ kafrdkjhlkekftd lqkkjksa esa ls,d FkkA oSQfjfcvkbZmifuos'k&&ekfVZfud] xkWMsyksivkSj lSu Mksfeaxksa&&rEckowQ] uhy] phuh ,oa dkWI+kQh tSlh oLrqvksa osQegoiw.kZvkiwfrZdrkZFksA vifjfpr ,oa nwj ns'k tkus vkSj dke djusosQizfr ;wjksfi;ksa dh vfuPNk dk eryc Fkk&&ckxkuksa esa Je dh dehA bldeh dks ;wjksi] vi+ zQhdk ,oavesfjdk osQ chp f=kdks.kh; nkl&O;kikj }kjkiwjk fd;k x;kA nkl&O;kikj l=kgoha 'krkCnh esa 'kq: gqvkA I+kzQkalhlhlkSnkxj cksnsZ;k ukUrscUnjxkglsvi+ zQhdk rV ij tgkk ys tkrs Fks] tgkosLFkkuh; ljnkjksa lsnkl [kjhnrs FksA nklksa dksnkx dj ,oa gFkdfM+;kMky dj vVykafVd egklkxjosQ ikj oSQfjfcvkbZ ns'kksa rd rhu ekg dh

    yach leqnzh&;k=kk osQ fy, tgkkksa esa Bwl fn;k tkrk FkkA ogk mUgsackxku&ekfydksa dks csp fn;k tkrk FkkA nkl&Je osQ cy ij ;wjksih;ckkkjksa esaphuh] dkWi+Qh ,oauhydh c

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    22/24

    22 Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'ovkSj ledkyhu fo'o

    f;kdyki

    66666 kafr vkSj jkskkuk dh fkanxh

    bl fp=k dk vius'kCnksa esa o.kZu djsaA fp=kdkj us

    yksHk] lekurk] U;k;] jkT; }kjk ppZdh lEifk dk

    vfkxzg.k vkfnfopkjksa dkslaizsf"kr djus osQ fy,

    fdu izrhdksadklgkjk fy;k gS\

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    D;k jktuhfr yksxksa dk igukok] mudh cksypky vFkok muosQ }kjk i

  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    23/24I+kzQkalhlh kafr 23

    fp=k 16 & ejk turk dks lacksfkr djrsgq,A yqbZ fy;ksiksYM ckWbyh jfpr fp=k -bl v;k; lsejk osQ ckjsesavkidksD;k ;kn gS\ mlosQ bnZ&fxnZekStwn n'; dk o.kZu dhft, rFkk mldh yksdfiz;rk osQ ckjs esale>kb,A fdlhlSykWu esavkus okysfofHkUuoxZ osQ yksxksaij bl isafVax dh D;k izfrf;k gksrh gksxh\

    lkjka'k

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    vxznwr ekurk FkkA mlus futh laifk dh lqj{kk osQ dkuwu cuk, vkSj

    n'keyo ifr ij vkkkfjr uki&rkSy dh ,d leku iz.kkyh pyk;hA

    'kq:&'kq: esa cgqr lkjsyksxksa dksusikfy;u eqfDrnkrk yxrk Fkk vkSj mllsturk dksLora=krk fnykusdh mEehn FkhA ij tYnh gh mldh lsukvksadks

    yksx geykoj ekuusyxsA vkf[kjdkj 1815 esaokWVjywesamldh gkj gqbZA

    ;wjksi osQ ckdh fgLlksa esa eqfDr vkSj vkkqfud dkuwuksa dks iSQykus

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    lkeusvk;kA fp=k 17 & vkYIl ikj djrk usiksfy;uA MsfoM }kjk cuk;kx;k fp=k -

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  • 8/13/2019 Bharat Aur Samkaleen Vishva (1) -

    24/24

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