Boiler fabrication

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Boiler fabrication

Text of Boiler fabrication

  • DAFTAR ISI

    Halaman Judul BAB I : PENDAHULUAN .................................................................................................. 1 1.1 SEJARAH DAN PERKEMBANGAN BOILER ............................................................ 1

    1.2 PENGERTIAN .............................................................................................................. 3 1.3 JENIS BOILER .............................................................................................................. 4 1.3.1 Fire Tube Boiler ................................................................................................. 4 1.3.2 Water Tube Boiler ............................................................................................... 5 1.3.3 Package Boiler (Boiler mini) .............................................................................. 6 1.3.4 Circulated Fluidized Bed (CFB) .......................................................................... 7 1.3.5 Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) Boiler ...................................... 9 1.3.6 Stoker Fired Boilers ............................................................................................ 10 1.3.7 Pulverize Fuel Boiler .......................................................................................... 12 1.3.8 Boiler Limbah Panas HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) .......................... 15

    BAB II : BAGIAN-BAGIAN UTAMA BOILER ............................................................... 16 2.1 WATER & STEAM SYSTEM ............................................................................................ 19 2.1.1 Steam Drum ........................................................................................................ 19 2.1.2 Superheater ........................................................................................................ 22 2.1.3 Reheater ........................................................................................................ 26 2.1.4 Economizer ........................................................................................................ 28 2.1.5 Downcomer ........................................................................................................ 29 2.1.6 Wall Tube/Riser (Pipa-Pipa Air)........................................................................... 30 2.1.7 Boiler Circulating Pump .................................................................................... 30 2.2 AIR & GAS SYSTEM ...................................................................................................... 32

    2.2.1 FD Fan ............................................................................................................... 32 2.2.2 ID Fan ................................................................................................................ 34

    2.2.3 PA Fan .............................................................................................................. 34 2.2.4 Air Heater ........................................................................................................ 34 2.2.5 Steam Coil Air Preheater .................................................................................... 37 2.2.6 Gas Recirculation Fan ........................................................................................ 37 2.3 FUEL & FIRING SYSTEM ............................................................................................. 38

  • 2.3.1 Silo (Bunker) ....................................................................................................... 38 2.3.2 Coal Feeder (Pengumpan) ................................................................................... 39 2.3.3 Pulveriser/Mill .................................................................................................... 40 2.3.4 Burner ............................................................................................................ 42

    2.4 FURNACE CLEANING SYSTEM ................................................................................... 43 2.5 ALAT BANTU LAINNYA ............................................................................................ 47 2.5.1 Safety Valve ........................................................................................................ 47 2.5.2 Valve ................................................................................................................. 48 2.5.3 Blowdown System (Steam Drum) ......................................................................... 53 2.5.4 Chemical Injection System (Steam Drum : Phospat Injection) ............................. 56

    BAB III : SISTEM KERJA BOILER ................................................................................ 59 3.1 BOILER SYSTEM ............................................................................................................ 59 3.2 WATER & STEAM SYSTEM . .................................................................................... 60 3.2.1 Water Steam ................................................................................................... 60 3.2.2 Steam System ................................................................................................... 65 3.3 AIR & GAS SYSTEM ................................................................................................... 66 3.3.1 Proses Pembakaran ............................................................................................. 66 3.3.2 Sirkulasi ............................................................................................................ 67 3.4 FUEL & FIRING SYSTEM ............................................................................................. 69 3.4.1 Coal ................................................................................................................... 69 3.4.2 Oil ................................................................................................................... 70

    BAB IV : PEMELIHARAAN BOILER ............................................................................. 77 4.1 BOILER CLEANING ................................................................................................... 77

    4.2 PEMBERSIHAN OUTSIDE BOILER (BOILER MINYAK) ........................................... 77 4.3 PEMBERSIHAN HP HEATER ...................................................................................... 82

    4.4 EFISIENSI BOILER ....................................................................................................... 85 4.4.1 Metode Langsung ............................................................................................... 87

    4.4.2 Metode Tidak Langsung ..................................................................................... 87

    BAB V : PROTEKSI PADA SISTEM BOILER ................................................................. 91 5.1 PROTEKSI METAL BOILER ........................................................................................ 91 5.1.1 Pembentukan Kerak ............................................................................................ 91

  • 5.1.2 Korosi ............................................................................................................... 93 5.1.3 Pembentukan Deposit ......................................................................................... 94 5.1.4 Priming and Carry Over ..................................................................................... 94 5.1.5 Slagging & Fouling ............................................................................................ 96 5.2 PROTEKSI BOILER ...................................................................................................... 98 5.2.1 Drum Level Very Low ......................................................................................... 98 5.2.2 Drum Level High ................................................................................................ 98 5.2.3 Critical Flame Out .............................................................................................. 98 5.2.4 All Flame Loss ................................................................................................... 98 5.2.5 Hand Trip ................................................................................................... 99 5.2.6 Furnacew Pressure High .................................................................................... 99 5.2.7 Furnace Pressure Low ........................................................................................ 99 5.2.8 Reheat Protection ............................................................................................... 99 5.2.9 Both Force Draught Fan Stop ............................................................................. 99 5.2.10 Both Induce Draught Fan Stop ............................................................................. 100 5.2.11 Both Primary Air Fan Stop .................................................................................. 100

  • Boiler

    1.1. SEJARAH DAN PERKEMBANGAN

    (a)

    Gambar 1.1

    Boiler modern yang digunakan saat ini sudah berkembang dari 1800an. Boiler pada masa lalu pada umumnya sebuahmenambah luas permukaan pemansan, maka diperkenalkan dan dikembangkan s

    BAB I PENDAHULUAN

    DAN PERKEMBANGAN BOILER

    (b)

    (c) Gambar