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Brands Chemistry

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(2)____________________________ 2010 (Fat and Oil) () () (Glycerol) (Fatty acid) H2CHCH2COHOHOHGlycerol+ R COOHFatty AcidH2CHCH2COOOCCCOOORRR3+ 3H2OLipid (Fatty Acid) R COOH ( R) 2 - R - R 1 2010 ____________________________ (3) Myristic acid CH3(CH2)12COOH COOH 53.9 Palmitic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH COOH 63.1 Stearic acid CH3(CH2)16COOH COOH 69.6 Arachidic acid CH3(CH2)18COOH COOH76.5 Oleic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH COOH 13.4 Linoleic acid CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOH COOH -5 1. (Hydrogenation) H2 ( : ) COOHCOOHH2catalyst 2. 2 - (Oxidation) : C O C O C C +O2 (4)____________________________ 2010 - (Hydrolysis) : (> 450C) acrolein H2CHCH2COOCOOCOOCH2OH2CHCH2COHOHOH+ 3 CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOHH2CHCH2COHOHOH450oCHC OCHCH2acrolein+ 2H2O 3. () H2CHCH2COHOHOH+ 3 HO COREsterificationHydrolysisH2CHCH2COOCOOCOOCRRR+ 3 H2O 4. (Saponification) NaOH () H2CHCH2COOOCCCRRROOO+ 3 NaOHH2CHCH2COHOHOH+ 3 R C ONaO 2010 ____________________________ (5) NaOH 12-24 NaCl CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2C O- Na+CO-Na+OO () (6)____________________________ 2010 Ca2+ Mg2+ () Na+ 2C17H35COONa + Ca2+ [C17H35COO]2Ca + 2Na+ () () (Detergent) Ca2+ Mg2+ RSO3Na SOOO-Na+ - Linear Alkyl Sulphonate (LAS) : SOOO-Na+ - Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate (ABS) : SOOO-Na+ 2010 ____________________________ (7) O-NET 2551 1. 4 A B C D 15 18 30 47 . . . . *1) 2) 3) 4) A A D D A C B D O-NET 2550 2. . . E . . 1) . . *2) . . 3) ., . . 4) ., . . (8)____________________________ 2010 3. 2 2 A B 1 2 A B X Y : CH3(CH2)7CH CH (CH2)7CO2H : CH3(CH2)16CO2H . X Y A B . A . B . A 1) ., . . *2) ., . . 3) ., . . 4) . . O-NET 2549 4. A B 1 A B A B . . . 1) . *2) . . 3) . . 4) ., . . 5. 1) CH3(C12H24) CO2H 2) CH3(C14H26) CO2H 3) CH3(C16H26) CO2H *4) CH3(C18H24) CO2H 2010 ____________________________ (9) (Protein) Fe, S, Cu, P (Amino Acid) ( COOH) ( NH2) R CHNH2COOH 20 8 - - - - - - - - 1 (Peptide bond) COOH NH2 COOH + H NHCONH+ H2O (Polypeptide) +H3N CHRCONH CHRCONH CHRCONH CHRCO (10)___________________________ 2010 Methionine (Met) CH3S CH2CH2CHCOOHNH2 Leucine (Leu) CH CHCOOHNH2(CH3)2CH2 Theonine (Thr) CH2CHCOOHNH2H3COH Isoleucine (Ile) CH2CHCOOHNH2CH3CHCH3 Lysine (Lys) (CH2)4CHCOOHNH2H2N Phenylalanine (Phe) CHCOOHNH2CH2 Valine (Val) CH CHCOOHNH2(CH3)2 Trytophan (Try) HC CH2HNCOOHNH2 1. (Hydrolysis) , 2. (Biuret test) ( CuSO4 NaOH) Cu - () - ( ) - 3. UV , 4. (FAO) 2010 ___________________________ (11) 5. 100 100% 6. 3 2 - - , , (Enzyme) 100C 24 37C pH 2-4 E + S ES E + P Enzyme Substrate Enzyme - Substrate Enzyme Product Complex () () () (12)___________________________ 2010 O-NET 2551 1. NHCHHCONHCHHCONHCCHH HCOH 1) 2 2 3 *2) 2 3 2 3) 3 3 2 4) 3 4 3 O-NET 2550 2. H CO CH NH C CH NH C CH NH C CH N H2 2 23CH O OO2 2) (CHH CO23CH *1) 3 3 2) 3 4 3) 4 3 4) 4 4 2010 ___________________________ (13) O-NET 2549 3. 100 75 56 44 1) 100 75 *2) 100 % 3) 4) 4. 1) *2) 3) 4) (14)___________________________ 2010 (Carbohydrate) CnH2nOn (Saccharide) 1. (Monosaccharide, CnH2nOn) - RNA - DNA - - - 2. (Disaccharide) - + - + - + 3. (Polysaccharide) - - - - (Chitin) - (Agar) 1. (Benedict solution) () Cu2O R COH + 2Cu2++ 4OH- RCOOH Cu2O 2H2O + + 2. - - - 2010 ___________________________ (15) O-NET 2549 1. A B C A, B C A B C *1) 2) 3) 4) O-NET 2550 2. . . . . 1) . 2) . 3) . . *4) . . O-NET 2551 1. 1 1) 2 *2) 3 3) 4 4) 4 (16)___________________________ 2010 2. . . . . NaOH CuSO4 1) + 2) + 3) + *4) + 3. A, B C A B C A, B C A B C *1) 2) 3) 4) 4. . . . . 1) . . *2) . . 3) . . 4) . . 2010 ___________________________ (17) O-NET 2551 5. . . . . 1) . 2) . . *3) . . 4) ., . . 6. 3 I2 NaOH CuSO4 A B C 1) A 2) B *3) A B 4) B C O-NET 2549 7. A, B, C D NaOH CuSO4A B C D 110 mg 100 cm3 1) A 2) C *3) A D 4) B C (18)___________________________ 2010 H C - (Alkane) - (Alkene) 1 - (Alkyne) 1 - (Aromatic hydrocarbon) (C6H6) 1 CnH2n+2 CnH2n CnH2n-2 - Br2 KMnO4 2010 ___________________________ (19) (Petroleum) (Crude oil) (Natural Gas) 0.79-0.97 g/cm3 N, S (Natural Gas) 1-5 95 (Condensate) (20)___________________________ 2010 (C) 1-4 35 >500 () () >35 >500 30-65 170-250 2010 ___________________________ (21) (gasoline) SO2 (iso-octane) CH3 CCH3CH3CH2 CHCH3CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 2, 2, 4 () 100 0 - 100 - 0 95 95 5 75 .. 2539 (MTBE) (ULG : Unleaded Gasoline) CH3CH2Pb CH2CH3CH3CH2 CH2CH3 H3CPb CH3H3C CH3 CH3 CCH3CH3O CH3 (MTBE) (22)___________________________ 2010 2 1000 / (Cetane Number) (Diesel) (C16H34) 100 (C11H10) 0 100 0 CH3 (CH2)14CH3 ( 100) ( 0) (CH4) (C2H6) (C3H8) (C4H10) (C5H12) (CO2) (H2S) 1 - 2 - 3 - CO2 K2CO3 (H2O) 4 - & (Liquid Petroleum Gas) 2010 ___________________________ (23) O-NET 2551 1. *1) 2) 3) 4) 2. . LPG . . () 1 : 9 . MTBE 1) . . 2) . . 3) ., . . *4) ., . . O-NET 2550 3. A B 91 75 (1) (2) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 3 2 3CH CH CH C CH 3CH3CH3CH (1) (2) A B . A (2) B . A (1) 91 B (1) 75 . (2) A B . (2) A B 1) . *2) ., . . 3) ., . . 4) ., ., . . (24)___________________________ 2010 O-NET 2549 4. . . . . 1) . . 2) . . *3) . . 4) . . 5. . . LPG . 1) . . 2) . . 3) . . *4) ., . . 2010 ___________________________ (25) (Polymer) () (Monomer) (CH2CH2) (CH3CH CH2) (CH2CHCl) 1. 2 1.1 1.2 2. 2 2.1 (Homopolymer) PVC 2.2 (Copolymer) SBR 3. (Polymerization) 2 3.1 (Addition Polymerization) nCH2CH2 (CH2CH2)n 3.2 (Condensation Polymerization) H2O, NH3 (26)___________________________ 2010 3 3.2.1 (Amide Linkage) 6, 6 6 Kevlar nHO OHOO + N NHHHHn NNHOOHn+ nH2O 3.2.2 n + nH2O+ nnHOOOHOHO OHOOO O 3.3.3 - 2010 ___________________________ (27) PVC, , 2 1. (Thermoplastic) PE, PP, PS, PVC 2. (Thermosetting plastic) , (28)___________________________ 2010 (FIBER) 3 1. 2. , 3. (Rubber) 2 1. (Natural Rubber) () (polyisoprene) CH2C CH3CnH2CCis-1,4-poly isoprene (NR)HCH2CH CCH2CH3Isoprene (Vulcanization) (Cross-link agent) Vulcanized rubber 2. (Synthetic Rubber) - (Polybutadiene) Buna Rubber CH2 CH CH CH2 CH2 CH CH CH2 nNaButadiene Polybutadiene 2010 ___________________________ (29) - (Polychloroprene) Seal Seal CH2 C CH CH2ClCH2 C CH CH2 nClChloroprene Polychloroprenepotassium persulfate - (SBR) - (Styrene-Butadiene Rubber) SBR NR CH2 CH CH CH2 CH2 CH CH CH2 CH2ButadieneH2C CH+Styrene nCHC6H5SBR - (Butyl Rubber) isobutylene isoprene H3C CCH3CH2 + CH2CH CCH2CH3Isoprene IsobutyleneAlCl3-100oC CH2 CCH3CH3CH2 CCH3CH CH2nButyl Rubber (30)___________________________ 2010 O-NET 2551 1. *1) 2) 3) 4) 2. 1) 2) 3) *4) 9 9 - - 9 9 - 9 - - 9 9 3. A B 3 2 3CH CH CH 2006 3 2 3CH CH CH 2600 A B *1) A B 2) A B 3) A B 4) B A 594 2010 ___________________________ (31) O-NET 2550 4. . . . . 1) 2) 3) *4) 5. . . . . IR 1) ., . . *2) ., . . 3) ., . . 4) ., . . 6. . . . . 1) . . 2) . . *3) . . 4) . . O-NET 2549 7. 1) *2) 3) 4) 8. A B C D *1) A C 2) B C 3) C B 4) D B (32)___________________________ 2010 - - - - () () (+ ) (amu) p+ 1.00 +1 n 1.00 0 e- 0.0005 -1 2010 ___________________________ (33) - - K (n = 1) - L (n = 2), M (n = 3), O (n = 4), XAZ (Atomic number ; Z) = = (= ) (Mass number, A) = = + (34)___________________________ 2010 Ex. C126 C136 C146 B105 B115 N147 N157 O168 Ex. + 3 2713Al -Cl3517 +Na2311 - 2 168O (Isotope) C126, C136, C146 2n2 n = 1 (n = 1) = 2 2 (n = 2) = 8 3 (n = 3) = 18 4 (n = 4) = 32 - ( n = 4) - ( 8 ) - 20 H 1 Li 2, 1 Na 2, 8, 1 K 2, 8, 8, 1 He 2 Be 2, 2 Mg 2, 8, 2 Ca 2, 8, 8, 2 B 2, 3 Al 2, 8, 3 C 2, 4 Si 2, 8, 4 N 2, 5 P 2, 8, 5 O 2, 6 S 2, 8, 6 F 2, 7 Cl 2, 8, 7 Ne 2, 8 Ar 2, 8, 8 - - 2010 ___________________________ (35) (Periodic table) .. 1817 3 (Triads) 2 .. 1864 8 1 () .. 1869 (Periodic Law) () .. 1913 1. 2. (period) 1 ( H) 1 2 ( Li) 2 3. (group) 2 ( IA - VIIIA) ( IIIB - IIB) (36)___________________________ 2010 IA IIA IIVA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA 2010 ___________________________ (37) O-NET 2551 1. A, B, C, D E A B C D E 9 9 10 11 11 10 10 12 10 11 9 10 10 11 10 . A B B . C C2210 D D2111 . D E D . B, C E B E *1) . . 2) . . 3) . . 4) . . 2. 40 21 1) 2, 8, 9 *2) 2, 8, 8, 1 3) 2, 8, 18, 8, 4 4) 2, 8, 9, 2 3. A B C D 4 2 3 3 1A 4A 1A 4A 1) A C 2) C D *3) A, B C 4) A C 8 (38)___________________________ 2010 4. A B C D 11 18 31 38 1) A D 2) D *3) B 4) C D O-NET 2550 5. X 7A 5 129 X . X12953 . 7 . 2 8 18 18 5 . I12753 1) . . 2) . . 3) . . *4) . . 6. 4 5 5 ( P 15, 31) *1) Na+ 2) Na 3) Mg2+ 4) Al3+ 7. A73 B147 X3216 Y3919 1) A B 2) X Y *3) A Y 4) B X 8. F Ca 9 20 1) *2) 3) 4) 2 8 8 2 8 8 2 8 8 2 2 8 8 1 2 8 2 2 8 2 7 2 8 1 O-NET 2549 9. A B A 10 20 B A 2 B 1) B2012 *2) B2210 3) B128 4) B1210 10. 1 3 11 19 37 1) 2) 3) *4) 2010 ___________________________ (39) (Element) 3 (Metal) (Non-Metal) (Semi-Metal or Metalloid) - - + H2 H2 - B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te IA () - 1 - - - M + H2O MOH + H2 - - e- +1 - - IA (40)___________________________ 2010 IIA () - 2 +2 - IA VIIA () - = 7 - F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 - - - - - - AgNO3 F- : AgNO3 Cl- : AgNO3 Br- : () I- : (Main Transition Series) (Inner Transition Series) - 1 Sc (+3), Zn (+2), Cd (+2) - ( IA IIA ) - - - - - 2010 ___________________________ (41) (Radioactive elements) ( ) (amu) , He42 +2 4.00 , e01 - -1 0 100 0 0 +, e01 + +1 0 - n, n10 0 1.00 - p, H11 +1 1.00 - - : 82 Ra22688 Rn22286 + He42 U23892 Th23490 + He42 - : Pb21082 Bi21083 + e01 - P3215 S3216 + e01 - (42)___________________________ 2010 - : Ra22688 Rn22286* + He42 Rn22286 + (t1/2) (Half Life) C-14 5730 C-14 1 5730 (1 ) C-14 0.5 5730 ( 11460 2 ) C-14 0.25 5730 ( 17190 3 ) C-14 0.125 2 1. (Fission reaction) 2. (Fusion reaction) H21 + H21 He32 + n10 + Energy He32 + H21 He42 + H11 + Energy E 0.18 MeV 2010 ___________________________ (43) 1. U-238 2. C-14 3. Co-60 Ra-226 I-131 4. Co-60 5. (Compound) 2 (H2O) (Chemical Bonding) 3 1. (Ionic Bouding) 2. (Covalent Bouding) 3. (Metallic Bouding) (Ionic Bonding) - () - () 1A 7A NaCl, CaF2, MgCl2 NaCl x xCl Na + Na +Cl - MgCl2 x x+ Mg 2+Cl -MgxClClxCl - (44)___________________________ 2010 - - Ax+ + By- AyBx 1A 2A 3A 5A 6A 7ALi+ N3- O2- F- Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ P3- S2- Cl- K+ Ca2+ Br- Rb+ Ba2+ l- 1A 7A 1 : 1 NaCl KF LiBr 1A 6A 2 : 1 Na2O K2S 1A 5A 3 : 1 Na3N 2A 7A 1 : 2 CaBr2 MgCl2 2A 6A 1 : 1 CaO MgS 3A 6A 2 : 3 Al2O3 2010 ___________________________ (45) (Covalent Bonding) ( BeCl2) 8 ( H 2) 3 1. (Single Bond) 1 1 CH4 2. (double Bond) 2 1 CO2 3. (Triple Bond) 3 1 N2 , < < > > (Octet Rule) H2O 1 6 2 (He = 2) (46)___________________________ 2010 1. Be, B, Al Hg 7A 8 BeCl2, BF3, AlCl3, HgCl2 BCl3 HgCl2 2. 8 PCl5, SF6 xxxx PCl5 SF6 3. NO, NO2 xx xxx xN Oxx NOOxx xx NO NO2 ( ) - (C) : - (C) : - (SiO2) : B Si C Sb As P N H Te Se S At I Br Cl O F Cl O N H C O 1e- 2e- 3e- 1e- 4e- 2e- Cl2O NH3 C2O4 = CO2 Hg 2010 ___________________________ (47) (Metallic Bonding) ( EN e-) () O-NET 2551 1. X Y X 1) X X *2) X 2A 3) Y X2O 4) X 2. M, N, O P (g) () (g) M N O P 40 30 16 2 32 60 36 100 2.5 1.875 0.25 0.125 1) M 2) N *3) O 4) P (48)___________________________ 2010 O-NET 2550 3. A, B C 19, 34 53 *1) A2B AC BC2 2) A2B AC2 B2C 3) AB AC B2C 4) AB A4C BC2 4. 1) -131 8.1 -131 20g 8.1 8.1 2) *3) -60 4) O-NET 2549 5. 1) KMnO4 2) K2Cr2O7 *3) MgSO4 4) [K4Fe(CN)6] 6. 9A 11B 12C 15D 17E 1) A B A C 2) A D B D 3) B E B D *4) A C A E 2010 ___________________________ (49) 1. (AgNO3) - (NaCl) (AgCl) AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) 2. Mg(s) + HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) 3. - N2O4(g) NO2(g) (50)___________________________ 2010 - - - - - - - 2 1. (Endothermic reaction) CaCO3(s) + heat CaO(s) + CO2(g) 2. (Exothermic reaction) C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(l) = = 2010 ___________________________ (51) A + B C + D = A = B = C = D 2 1. = 2. = C D D 8 cm3 105 50 ( A) = D = s 105cm 83 = 0.076 cm3/s (52)___________________________ 2010 50 ( A) = D = s 20 100cm 3.4 8.93-- = 0.069 cm3/s ( Collision Theory ) 2 1. 2. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 2010 ___________________________ (53) O-NET 2551 1. 1) *2) 3) 4) 2. H2 , cm3 2 4 6 8 10 , s 20 45 90 140 200 . 0.05 cm3/s . . H2 . 1) . . 2) ., . . 3) ., . . *4) ., ., . . 3. 1) 2) 3) *4) (54)___________________________ 2010 O-NET 2550 4. . . . . . . *1) ., . . 2) ., . . 3) ., . . 4) ., . . 5. 1) 2) 3) *4) 6. Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g) H2 5 cm3 H2 (cm3) (s)1 2 3 4 5 4 6 9 14 20 (cm3/s) H2 3-5 cm3 1) *2) 3) 4) 0.16 0.25 0.50 0.25 0.18 0.18 0.25 0.27 2010 ___________________________ (55) O-NET 2549 7. . . . . 1) ., . . *2) ., . . 3) ., . . 4) ., . . 8. (C) / A 25 B 25 C 25 A B 26 B C 23 A C 25 1) A C *2) B C 3) A C 4) A B 9. pH pH 1) 7 2) 7 3) 7 *4) 7 10. . . . . *1) ., . . 2) ., . . 3) ., . . 4) ., ., . . (56) __________________________ 2010 AXZelement symbolatomic numbermass number 3 ( +1) ( ) ( -1) Z = N = (N = A - Z) A = + X = A Z (Nuclide) 3 (Isotope) (Isotone) (Isobar) 2010 __________________________ (57) .. 435 410 Leucippus Democritus (Atom) 400 Empedoclean 4 Aristotle 1803 John Dalton - - - - - 1818 Jns Jakob Berzelius 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev 65 1876 Eugen Goldstein Canal Ray Positive Ray 1897 Joseph John Thomson Cathode Ray 1906 Plum-Pudding 1911 Ernest Rutherford () 80001 1911 Robert Millikan 1 1.6 10-19 Coulomb 9.1 10-28 1913 Niels Bohr Rutherford (Quantum) 1919 Ernest Rutherford (58) __________________________ 2010 .. 1932 James Chadwick Be 1963 Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Jahannes Hans Daniel Jensen 1981 Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM)

Dalton Thomson Rutherford Bohr

Thomson Goldstein

Energy

+

+Electron Atom Ion+

Anode()Electron beamCathode() cathode ray -lon+electron - + +positive ray 2010 __________________________ (59) F = qE F = mg Oiln- (r) (m) (q) mq cathode ray -1.76 108 C/g mq positive ray Millikan X-ray (E) Ar Ar + X-ray Ar+ + e- Oil + n e- Oiln- (E) () qE = mg E q q = ( ) mq = -1.76 108 gC = -1.60 10-19 C. = 9.11 10-29 g. (60) __________________________ 2010 Rutherford 2+ 1 8000 Rutherford nucleus nucleus Hantaro Nagaoka .. 1903 nucleus Focuser 2010 __________________________ (61) Bohr spectrum (ground state) (excited state) E = hc E = h = Plank = 6.6 10-34 J sec c = = 3 108 m/sec = 2n2 n K, L, M, N, ... 2, 8, 18, 32, ... n = 1, Kn = 2, Ln = 3, Mn = 4, Nn = 5, O (nm) 410434486656 (62) __________________________ 2010 (Hydrogen Energy Level Diagram) n Principal Quantum number Bohr rn = n2a0 rn = n a0 = 53 pm En = 2HnR - En = e- n RH = Rydberg 2.179 10-18 J E = RH|||.|

\|2f2in1n1 - (sub-shell) spectrum s 2 spectrum (sharp) p 6 spectrum (principal) d 10 spectrum (diffuse) f 14 spectrum (diffuse) g 18 spectrum (diffuse) M (P) n = 6 (O) n = 5 (N) n = 4 (M) n = 3 (L) n = 2 (K) n = 1 Pfund series Brackett series Paschen series Balmer series Lyman series 2010 __________________________ (63) Angular Momentum Quantum Number ( l ) s = 0 p = 1 d = 2 f = 3 ... spin Spin Quantum Number (ms) -21 +21 (orbital) s 1 orbital p 3 orbital d 5 orbital f 7 orbital M orbital orbital orbital spin np1 np2 np3 np4 np5 np6 orbital Magnetic Quantum Number (ml) . . ... -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ... . . Quantum number 4 4 1. Principal Quantum Number (n) 2. Angular Momentum Quantum Number ( l ) 3. Magnetic Quantum Number (ml) orbital 4. Spin Quantum Number (ms) spin N S N S (64) __________________________ 2010 4f4d4p3d4s3p3s2p2sNMLK 1s orbital Schrdinger Equation E = e22m 8nh|||.|

\| + +222222z y x - rZe2 E = 2r228nhu

|.|

\||.|

\| + +2222sin1 sin sin1rrr - rZe2 u1 = em1 + nucleusm1 ( e- ) K, n = 1 (2 e-) 1s (2 e-) L, n = 2 (8 e-) 2s (2 e-) 2p (6 e-) M, n = 3 (18 e-) 3s (2 e-) 3p (6 e-) 3d (10 e-) N, n = 4 (32 e-) 4s (2 e-) 4p (6 e-) 4d (10 e-) 4f (14 e-) O, n = 5 (50 e-) 5s (2 e-) 5p (6 e-) 5d (10 e-) 5f (14 e-) 5g (18 e-)M (shell) (sub-shell) 3p M N 4 4s 3d 2010 __________________________ (65) 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 5g : 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, ... Neon 20 : 1s2 2s22p63s23p6 shell 2 8 8 Calcium 20 : 1s2 2s22p63s23p6 4s2 shell 2 8 8 2 Iron 26 : 1s2 2s22p63s23p6 4s2 3d6 shell 2 8 14 2 (66) __________________________ 2010 s s, p p, d d f f s p (representative elements), d (transition elements) f (inner transition) (periodic table of elements) 4 s s-block p p-block representative d d-block f f-block transition 18 (group) (valence) 7 (period) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18K 1s L 2s 2p M 3s 3p N 4s 3d 4p O 5s 4d 5p P 6s 5d 6p Q 7s 6d 7p 4f 5f Neon 20 : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 Calcium 20 : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 Iron 26 : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6 Ne 3p6 p-block 6 Ca 4s2 s-block 2 Fe 3d6 d-block 6 2010 __________________________ (67) (subshell) (orbital) 1 2 s p d f g . . . 1 3 5 7 9 . . . 2 6 10 14 18 . . . (full filled) (half filled) p 3 6 d 5 10 18 d-block 6 11 Chromium 24 1s2 2s22p63s23p6 4s2 3d4 1 4s 3d 3d 1s2 2s22p63s23p6 4s1 3d5 shell 2 8 13 1 Copper 29 1s2 2s22p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d9 1 4s 3d 3d 1s2 2s22p63s23p6 4s1 3d10 shell 2 8 18 1 5 1. 2. 3. (ionisation energy) 4. (electron affinity) 5. (electronegativity) (68) __________________________ 2010 1. : = Fr 2. : = He 3. : 53 31167 112 Calculated Atomic Size (pm.) 87 67 56 48 42 38190 145 118 111 98 88 79 71243 194 184 176 171 166 161 156 152 149 145 142 136 125 114 103 94 88265 219 212 206 198 190 183 178 173 169 165 161 156 145 133 123 115 108298 253 217 208 200 193 188 185 180 177 174 171 156 154 143 135 127 120Fr Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uuo La Ce 247 206 205 238 231 233 225 228 226 226 222 222 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No 2 1. 2. 2010 __________________________ (69) I.E.Maximum = HeMinimum = FrLi Be B C N O F NeRn At Po Bi Pb Ti Ba Cs0.00.51.01.52.02.5I.E. (MJ/mole) 18 18 H HeLi Be Metal and Non-Metal Elements B C N O F NeNa Mg Al Si P S Cl ArK Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br KrRb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I XeCs Ba Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At RnFr Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uuo La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Metal Elements Non-Metal Elements Ionization Energy (I.E.) X(g) X+(g) + e- : E = I.E. 1.31 2.370.52 0.90 Ionisation Energy (MJ / mole) 0.80 1.09 1.40 1.31 1.68 2.080.50 0.74 0.58 0.79 1.01 1.00 1.25 1.520.42 0.59 0.63 0.66 0.65 0.65 0.72 0.76 0.76 0.74 0.75 0.91 0.58 0.76 0.95 0.94 1.14 1.350.40 0.55 0.60 0.64 0.65 0.68 0.70 0.71 0.72 0.80 0.73 0.87 0.56 0.71 0.83 0.87 1.01 1.170.38 0.50 0.52 0.66 0.76 0.77 0.76 0.84 0.88 0.87 0.89 1.01 0.59 0.72 0.70 0.81 0.92 1.040.38 0.51 Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.54 0.55 0.60 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.59 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.59 0.57 0.60 0.60 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.64 (70) __________________________ 2010 Li Be B C N O F NeRn At Po Bi Pb Ti Ba Cs050100150200250E.A. (kJ/mole)300350I.E.Maximum = HeMinimum = FrI.E.Maximum = HeMinimum = Fr Electron Affinity (E.A.) X(g) + e- X(g) : E = -E.A. 72.8 He59.6 Be Electron Affinity (kJ / mole) 26.7 154 7 141 328 Ne52.8 Mg 42.5 134 72.0 200 349 Ar48.4 2.37 18.1 7.60 50.6 64.3 Mn 15.7 63.7 112 118 Zn 28.9 119 78.0 195 325 Kr46.9 5.03 29.6 41.1 86.1 71.9 53.0 101 110 53.7 126 Cd 28.9 107 103 190 295 Xe45.5 14.0 50.0 Hf 31.0 78.6 14.5 106 151 205 223 Hg 15.2 35.1 91.2 183 270 RnFr Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh 48.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Electronegativity (EN) ENAB = BB AA ABBE BE BE - Given : BE = Bond Energy 2.20 He0.98 1.57 Electronegativity (Pauling Unit) 2.04 2.55 3.04 3.44 3.98 Ne0.93 1.31 1.61 1.90 2.19 2.58 3.16 Ar0.82 1.00 1.36 1.54 1.63 1.66 1.55 1.83 1.88 1.91 1.90 1.65 1.81 2.01 2.18 2.55 2.96 3.000.82 0.95 1.22 1.33 1.60 2.16 1.90 2.20 2.28 2.20 1.93 1.69 1.78 1.96 2.05 2.10 2.66 2.600.79 0.89 1.27 1.30 1.50 2.36 1.90 2.20 2.20 2.28 2.54 2.00 1.62 2.33 2.02 2.00 2.20 Rn0.70 0.90 Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh 1.10 1.12 1.13 1.14 Pm 1.17 Eu 1.20 Tb 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 Yb 1.10 1.30 1.50 1.38 1.36 1.28 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 2010 __________________________ (71) PAT2 2552 1. X 53 . X Hg2X2 . X 2 8 18 18 8 . X 2 8 18 18 8 1 *1) . . 2) . . 3) . . 4) . 2. X 103 AgNO3 X 45 X 1) 2 8 8 5 2) 2 8 8 6 *3) 2 8 18 7 4) 2 8 18 8 3. 1) O2 N2 2) O+ Ar 3) S2- Ne *4) S2- Ar 4. 122 g g 1) 1 *2) 2 3) 3 4) 4 1. 1 1230 kJ 1) 9.74 10-8 2) 9.74 10-11 3) 1.62 10-28 *4) 1.62 10-31 2. : 25A2+ 15B 16C2- 44D *1) A2+ 2) B 3) C2- 4) D (72) __________________________ 2010 Covalent Ionic Metallic + - + + EN EN EN : Rojrits Method 1. EN ( H)/ EN 2. 8 3. 4. : 8 - L 8 - 8 EN EN 1 SO2 (Valence Electron : 6 + 2(6) = 18) 1. EN / EN 2. 8 3. S O OS O OS O O 2010 __________________________ (73) N N N N N N1 1N N N1N N N21 (Major)(Minor)1+1- 1+ 1-2-1+ 2 CO (Valence Electron : 4 + 6 = 10) 1. EN / EN 2. 8 3. 4. 8 - 3 N3- (Valence Electron : 3(5) + 1 = 16) 1. EN / EN 2. 8 3. C OC OC OC O C ON N NN N N (74) __________________________ 2010 4 : 1 XeOF4 5 -3I 2 NCO- 6 NO2 3 - 23CO 7 N2O 4 -3ClO 8 - 23 2O S 1 1 2 2 3 4 EN 5 EN 5 : 1 - 23CO 4 +3CH 2 -3ClO 5 N2O 3 -3I 6 NO2 2010 __________________________ (75) 6 : 1. NH3 NCl3 4. - 23SO - 24SO 2. AlCl3 NCl3 5. -3ClO -3IO 3. +3CH H3O+ 7 : 1. CC C2H2 C2H4 4. CO CO CO2 2. NN N2O -3N 5. SO - 23SO - 24SO 3. OO O2 O3 EN Vector 8 : ( 1 ) 1. COCl2 CH2O 4. SO3 SO2 2. NCl3 PCl3 5. CuCl HCl 3. SF4 SF6 1. London Dispersion Force - 2. Dipole-Dipole Interaction - EN 3. Dipole-Induced Dipole Interaction - 4. Hydrogen Bond - a. H EN b. 2 (F, O N) (76) __________________________ 2010 9 : 1. CO2 CS2 4. H2O HF 2. CF4 SF4 5. CuCl HCl 3. SiCl4 SiO2 6. AlCl3 NCl3 Valence Shell Electron Pairs Repulsion (VSEPR) e- Groups Geometrical Structure e- GroupsGeometrical Structure 2 Linear Trigonal Bipyramidal Trigonal Planar Seesaw 3 Bend (V) T-Shape Tetrahedral 5 Linear Pyramidal Octahedral 4 Bend (V) Square Pyramidal 6 Square Planar 2010 __________________________ (77) 10 : 1 1 XeOF4 5 -3I 2 NCO- 6 NO2 3 - 23CO 7 N2O 4 -3ClO 8 - 23 2O S 1. 2 AxBv A B -ide 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... mono di tri tetra penta Hexa hepta octa nona ... 1. 1 mono 2. H octet 11 : 1 N2O 5 H2O 2 NO 6 D2O 3 NO2 7 H2S 4 N2O4 8 HCl 2. (Hydro acid) HxAy (aq) HxAy (g) HxAy (aq) HxAy (g) _____-ide HxAy (aq) _____-ic acid (78) __________________________ 2010 12 : 1 HCN Hydrogen cyanide 2 Hydrofluoric acid 3 Hydrogen selenide 3. (Oxy acid) HxAOy (aq) 4 H2CO3 Carbonic acid H2SO4 Sulfuric acid HNO3 Nitric acid 6H2SO3 Sulfurous acid HNO2 Nitrous acid HClO4 Perchloric acid H3PO4 Phosphoric acid HClO3 Chloric acid H3PO3 Phosphorous acid HClO2 Chlorous acid 5 H3PO2 Hypophosphorous acid 7HClO Hypochlorous acid 13 : 1 Periodic acid 3 HMnO4 2 Arsenic acid 4 H2MnO4 EN (closest packing) C B A 2010 __________________________ (79) 2 ABABAB hexagonal closest pack (hcp) ABCABCABC cubic closest pack (ccp) hexagonal closest pack (hcp) : ABABAB cubic closest pack (ccp) : ABCABCABC EN (electrostatic force) hcp ccp trigonal hole rrhole < 0.155 tetrahedral hole rrhole < 0.225 octahedral hole rrhole < 0.1414 NaCl 1 uniet cell Na+ Cl- 4 Na+ Na+ Cl- (80) __________________________ 2010 Born-Fajans-Haber cycle (Lattice Energy) NaCl Na(s) Cl2(g) Na(s) Na(g) E = +107 kJ 21Cl2(g) Cl(g) E = +122 kJ Na(g) Na+(g) + e- E = +496 kJ Cl(g) + e- Cl-(g) E = -349 kJ Na+(g) + Cl-(g) NaCl(s) E = -787 kJ Na(s) + 21Cl2g NaCl(s) E = -411 kJ Born-Fajans-Haber cycle Na(g) + Cl(g) Na+(g) + Cl(g) + e- Na(s) + 1/2Cl2gNa(s) + Cl(g) Na+(g) + Cl-(g) NaCl 2010 __________________________ (81) (Ay+)x(Bx-)y = AxBy A B -ic acid -ous acid -ide -ate -ite NH4+ Ammonium -4) OH ( Al Aluminate - 24 2O C Oxalate NCO- Cyanate OH- Hydroxide - 22O Peroxide SH- Hydrosulfide (Bisulfide) - 23 2O S Thiosulfate 14 : 1 LiH 5 Na2CrO4 2 Ca2C 6 NaNH2 3 KMnO4 7 Calcium phosphate 4 Na2SiO3 8 Sodium bisulfite 2 (lattice energy : U) - (hydration energy : H) 2 +U -U (82) __________________________ 2010 U = H Isothermic U < H Exothermic () U > H Endothermic () U >>> H U = H (oC) PAT2 2552 1. 1) HI CS2 O2 *2) N2 PCl5 CCl4 3) N2 NH3 SO3 4) O2 SO2 CO2 2. 1) CO2 SO2 CS2 2) NH3 PH3 SO3 *3) CO2 N2 -3N 4) CCl4 - 24SO XeF4 1. AB5 1) *2) 3) A 34 4) B 2. 1) CO2 SO2 2) AsI3 BCl3 3) XeF4 CHCl3 *4) CCl4 POCl3 3. ( kJ/mol) C-C = 348 C-H = 413 C-Cl = 327 C=C = 614 H-Cl = 431 3 3 2 3CHClHC C H HCl CH CH CH + = 1) 284 2) 284 3) 43 *4) 43 2010 __________________________ (83) Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl XCl XCl2 XCl3 XCl4 XCl3 XCl2 XCl Li Na Be Mg K Ca C N Si P S O F B C N Li Na Mg K Ca F O S P Si Be B Al Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl X2O XO X2O3 XO2 X2O5 XO2 X2O Li Na Be Mg B Al Si P N H C S F Cl Mg Si Amphoteric Be Al Li Na B K Ca C N P S Cl F + ( ) - (84) __________________________ 2010 N Cu ionic covalent (ligand) 1 1 Co-ordination sphere Co-ordination sphere Counter ion 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. EN C EN H H 1 2 C EN O O 1 2 C 2 2 = 0 O EN C C 1 2 O 2 0 = -2 H EN C C 1 1 H 0 1 = +1 C EN O O 1 4 C 0 4 = +4 O EN C C 1 2 O 2 0 = -2 NH2NH2NH2CuNH2Cl2O C OO CHH 2010 __________________________ (85) H2O = 0 Cl- 1- = -1 Co = +2 H2O = 0 Cl- 1- = -1 Co-ordination sphere = 1+ Cr = +3 4 Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn + 3 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 2 2 1. 2. ( Co-ordination sphere) H2O Co OH2OH2OH2H2OOH2Cl2H2O Cr OH2ClClH2O+ (86) __________________________ 2010 1. Co-ordination sphere 2. Co-ordination sphere ate 3. o 4. NH3 = amino, H2O = aqua, CO = carbonyl K3[Fe(CN)6] = Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]NO3 = Dichloro-tetraaminocobalt(III) nitrate Na3[Cr(NO2)6] = Sodium hexanitrochromate(III) (amu) 2He4 () 2+ 4.00276 -1e0 () 1- 0.000540 100 0 0 X-ray : 4 2 92U238 90Th234 + 2He4 : 0n1 1p1 + -1e0 1 13Al28 14Si28 + -1e0 2010 __________________________ (87) : 1p1 0n1 + +1e0 1 7N13 6C13 + +1e0 : 83Bi212 81Tl208 * + 2He4 81Tl208 * 81Tl208 + 2 T t1/2 Ra-88 1620 Ra-88 1 1620 0.5 1620 0.25 C-14 5600 C-14 C-14 N = N02-t/T 2 (Fusion reaction) (Fission reaction) 2 92U235 + 0n1 56Ba144 + 36Kr90 + 2 0n1 2 U235 (88) __________________________ 2010 2 1H2 + 1H3 2He4 + 0n1 Fusion Fission 1. 2. 2 108 3. 1 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 1 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. X2 KX F2 Cl2Br2I2 KF KCl KBr KI 2. N Be 3. 8 20 2.5 4. 12.5 C-14 100 C-14 5600 5. 1H2 + 1H2 1H1 + 92U235 + 0n1 54Xe140 + 38Sr94 + 20n1 + 92U235 + 0n1 56Ba141 + 36Kr92 + 6. 90Th230 82Pb210 2010 __________________________ (89) PAT2 2552 1. Co-60 5.3 26.5 Co-60 1) 1/5 2) 1/8 3) 1/16 *4) 1/32 2. Th23290 6 4 1) W20474 2) W20874 3) Pb20482 *4) Pb20882 1. 4 4 A B C D A - B - C - D - 4 A B C D *1) Na2CO3 Pb(NO3)2 KI Ca(NO3)2 2) Ca(NO3)2 KI Pb(NO3)2 Na2CO3 3) Na2CO3 Pb(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 KI 4) Na2CO3 Ca(NO3)2 KI Pb(NO3)2 2. 1) 2) 3) *4) (90) __________________________ 2010 3. A 94 245 X A B + B C + n C D + D X + X 1) 89 236 2) 90 234 *3) 91 236 4) 92 234 4. A B C D A B C D 1) Na Fe P Zn *2) Ca Cu N Si 3) Na Cu K Fe 4) Ca Fe S Cr 5. 1) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl K2Cr2O7 Na2[Ni(CN)4] 2) K3[Fe(CN)6] Na[Au(CN)2] [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl 3) Na[Au(CN)2] K2Cr2O7 K3[Fe(CN)6] *4) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl K2[Ni(CN)4] Na[Au(CN)2] 6. I II 1) NaCl AgNO3 KI Na2CO3 2) Ca(OH)2 Pb(NO3)2 Li2SO4 MgCl2 3) BaCl2 Na2SO4 NH4CN Na4HPO4 *4) AgNO3 KBr Mg HCl 2010 __________________________ (91) metabolism H O N S 1. , , C60 2. (metal carbide) Ca2C, Mg2C 3. CO, CO2 4. (carbonic acid, bicarbonate salt, carbonate salt) H2CO3, NaHCO3, CaCO3 5. cyanide, cyanate thiocyanate KCN, NaOCN, NH4SCN C H (hetero atom) Residue group : C H Functional group : functional group 1. Hydrocarbon 1.1. Alkane R-H - 1.2 Alkene R=R - 1.3 Alkyne RR - 1.4 Benzene R-C6H5 aryl group H C CHH CHHCHHHHXresidue functional group group (92) __________________________ 2010 C C C CHHHHHHHH functional group 2. Alcohol R-OH hydroxyl group 3. Ether R-O-R oxy group 4. Amine R-NH2 amino group 5. Carboxylic acid R-COOH carboxylic group 6. Ester R-COO-R oxycarbonyl group 7. Amide R-CONH2 amide group 8. Aldehyde R-CHO formyl group 9. Ketone R-CO-R carbonyl group 10. etc. DBE : Double Bond Equivalent CaH(2a+2) [H ] + 1 CaH(2a) [H 1 ] H H H 2 1. + 1 2. + 2 3. 2 4. 1 + 1 H double bond equivalent (DBE) degree of unsaturation DBE = C - 2H + 2N + 1 H C C C CHHHHHHHH HH C C C CHHH H HH H 2010 __________________________ (93) Isomerism Isomer isomer 1. Stereoisomer 2. Constitutional isomer (structural isomer) Enantiomer Functional isomer Diastereoisomer Positional isomer Skeleton isomer constitutional isomer C5H12O Functional isomer : functional group Positional isomer : functional group Skeleton isomer : residue group Prefix - Core - Suffix Prefix = - Core = carbon Suffix = functional group R-FG RC(O)-FG Common Name Alkyl FG CarboxylFG IUPAC Name Alk(an)FG Alk(an)FG 1. Core C (Alk) C (Alk) 1 Meth 9 Non 2 Eth 10 Dec 3 Prop 11 Undec 4 But 12 Dodec 5 Pent 13 Tridec 6 Hex 14 Tetradec 7 Hept : 8 Oct 20 Eicos C (Carboxyl) C (Carboxyl) 1 Form 4 Butyr 2 Acet 5 Valer 3 Propion 6 Capr OH OOHOHOHOH (94) __________________________ 2010 2. Suffix Functional Group Common Name IUPAC Name 1. Hydrocarbon 1.1. Alkane R-H Alkane Alkane CH4 Methane Methane Butane Butane 1.2 Alkene R=R Alkylene Alkene H2C=CH2 Ethylene Ethene Propylene Propene 1.3 Alkyne RR Alkylyne Alkyne HCCH Acetylene * Ethyne Butylyne Butyne 2. Alcohol R-OH Alkyl alcohol Alkanol CH3OH Methyl alcohol Methanol C2H5OH Ethyl alcohol Ethanol 3. Ether R-O-R Alkyl(small) alkyl(big) ether Alkoxy(small) alkane(big) CH3-O-CH3 Dimethyl ether Methoxy methane Methyl ethyl ether Methoxy ethane 4. Amine R-NH2 Alkylamine Alkanamine CH3NH2 Methylamine Methanamine Ethylamine Ethanamine 5. Carboxylic acid R-COOH Carboxylic acid Alkanoic acid HCOOH Formic acid Methanoic acid CH3COOH Acetic acid Ethanoic acid Propionic acid Propanoic acid Butyric acid Butanoic acid ONH2OHOOHO 2010 __________________________ (95) Functional Group Common Name IUPAC Name 6. Ester R-COO-R Alkyl carboxylate Alkyl alkanoate HCOOCH3 Methyl formate Methyl methanoate CH3COOCH3 Methyl Acetate Methyl ethanoate 7. Amide R-CONH2 Carboxylamide Alkanamide HCONH2 Formamide Methanamide Propionamide Propanamide 8. Aldehyde R-CHO Carboxylaldehyde Alkanal CH2O Formaldehyde Methanal Butyraldehyde Butanal 9. Ketone R-CO-R Alkyl(small) alkyl(big) ketone Alkanone Acetone * Propanone Methyl ethyl ketone Butanone Diethyl ketone Pentanone 3. Prefix Prefix (Substituent : X) -R Alkyl -Cl Chloro (Halo) -CH=CH2 Vinyl -NO2 Nitro -C6H5 Phenyl -CN Cyano NH2OHOOOOFGXOFGX (96) __________________________ 2010 OFGFG 3.1 Common Name (R-FG) Prefix n-Hexyl FG n = normal iso-Hexyl FG neo-Hexyl FG sec-Hexyl FG sec = secondary tert-Hexyl FG tert = tertiary Cyclohexyl FG ( methyl) 3.2 Common Name (RC(O)-FG) Common Name -Chlorobutyric acid , -Dichlorobutyramide Ethyl -Chloro--cyanobutyrate -Chloro-, -Dimethylbutyraldehyde FGFGFGFGFGOOHClONH2ClClOOCl NCOHCl 2010 __________________________ (97) 3.3 Common Name (benzene derivatives) Toluene Phenol Styrene Benzoic acid Xylene Salicylic acid m-Xylene o-Chlorotoluene m-(iso-Propyl)phenol 3.4 IUPAC Name 1. hydrocarbon functional group core + suffix 2. prefix C functional group C1 3. 4. 3.5 IUPAC Name (Polyfunctional group) functional group 1 (priority) functional group priority Priority Functional group Structure Prefix Suffix 1 Carboxylic acid -COOH carboxy -oic acid 2 Ester -COOR alkoxycarbonyl -ate 3 Amide -CONH2 carbamoyl -amide 4 Nitrile -CN cyano -nitrile 5 Aldehyde -CHO formyl -al 6 Ketone -C(O)- oxo -one 7 Alcohol -OH hydroxy -ol 8 Amine -NH2 amino -amine 9 Ether -O- oxy OHCO2HCO2HOHFGorthometaparaClOHnFG X (98) __________________________ 2010 3 1. : amide > carboxylic > alcohol > amine 2. : ketone > aldehyde > ester > ether 3. : alkyne > alkane > alkene amide > carboxylic acid > alcohol > ketone > amine > aldehyde > ester > alkyne > ether > alkane > alkene 1 2 1. (combustion) oxidation O2 oxide CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O CxHyOz + O2 CO2 + H2O CxHyNz + O2 CO2 + H2O + NO2 CxHySz + O2 CO2 + H2O + SO2 (incomplete combustion) : C CO 1. C=C CC 2. O2 O2 3. O2 2010 __________________________ (99) OHOO DBE = 1 A B C A 2. (substitution) 2.1 halogenation alkane alkane halogenation alkane H halogen F, Cl, Br I UV + Cl2 HCl + free radical halogen alkane + Br2 (l) UV alkane + Br2 halogen halogen 2 litmus UVClBrLitmus HBr Cl (100) _________________________ 2010 2.2 halogenation benzene benzene resonance alkane halogen + Br2 HBr + + Br2 (l) FeBr3 benzene + Br2 alkane UV halogen X2 FeX3 X halogen Cl AlCl3 3. (addition) (multiple bond) alkene alkyne alkyne alkene E (electrophile) 1. EN 2. (H+) FeBr3Litmus HBr BrUVRREBr 2010 _________________________ (101) 3.1 halogenation alkene alkyne UV halogen EN alkene alkyne HX litmus Br2 (1 eq) Br2 (1 eq) Br2 (excess) Litmus + Br2 (l) 3.2 oxidation alkene alkyne oxidation alkene alkyne oxygen EN oxygen O2 KMnO4 () KMnO4 KMnO4 KMnO4 H2O KMnO4 H2O () Br BrBr BrHO OHHO OH O OHHBr BrBr BrBr Br (102) _________________________ 2010 alkane benzene + KMnO4 (aq) alkene alkyne + KMnO4 (aq) 1 hydrocarbon C8H8 KMnO4 hydrocarbon benzene hydrocarbon styrene 3.3 hydrohalogenation alkene alkyne hydrogen halogen HX H+ HCl (1 eq) HCl (1 eq) HCl (excess) 2 1 (major product) HBr () 1,2-dibromocyclopentane = 1, 3-dibromocyclopentane = ClHClClHH 2010 _________________________ (103) 3.4 hydration alkene alkyne H+ alkene alkyne 1. hydration alkene alcohol 2. hydration alkyne ketone 1) H2SO4 (cocn) 2) H2O 1) H2SO4 (cocn) 2) H2O () 3.5 hydrogenation alkene alkyne hydrogen H2 EN Pt Ni alkene alkyne alkane H2 Pt Ni H2 Pt Ni H2 (excess) 3 Hydrocarbon C6H10 1. Br2 C6H10Br4 2. HBr C6H12Br2 3 3. hydrogenation Pt Cyclohexane C6H10 1,3-cyclohexadiene HO HHO H O HHHHHHHH (104) _________________________ 2010 4. redox reduction H2 oxidation Na+ Na(s) + 2 H2O(aq) 2 NaOH (aq) + H2(g) 2 carboxylic acid alcohol carboxylic acid RCOOH + Na RCOONa + H2(g) ROH + Na RONa + H2(g) 5. - (acid-base neutralisation) H+ ionic carboxylic acid amine 5.1 carboxylic acid carboxylic acid NaHCO3 CO2 RCOOH (l) + NaHCO3 (aq) RCOONa (aq) + H2CO3 (aq) H2O (l) + CO2 (g) redox Na carboxylic acid alcohol Na NaHCO3 - - ROH H2 (g) - RCOOH H2 (g) CO2 (g) 4 C2H6O2 1. Na Na C2H4O2Na2 2. NaHCO3 C6H6O2 1, 2-ethane diol 2010 _________________________ (105) R OOH HO H H OR" R OOR" 5.2 amine amine HCl (aq) ionic RNH2 (l) + HCl (aq) RNH3+ Cl- (aq) amine + HCl (aq) + HCl (aq) HCl (aq) 5 CH3ON 1. Na 2. HCl CH3ON formamide 6. (condensation-hydrolysis) functional group 2 functional group hydrolysis functional group 6.1 esterification hydrolysis esterification carboxylic acid alcohol ester hydrolysis esterification hydrolysis + + H+ (106) _________________________ 2010 R OOH HO H H NR"HR ONR"H R OOR" Na OH R OOH "RO Na"RO H R OONa "RO H"RO Na 6.2 amidation hydrolysis carboxylic acid amine amide hydrolysis hydrolysis esterification + 6.3 saponification hydrolysis ester alcohol carboxylate 2 + 6 A D A B C 1,2-Dibromo D cyclohexene A = cyclohexene B = C = D = PAT 2 2552 1. 1 C7H8O 1) 3 *2) 4 3) 5 4) 6 2. *1) NH3+CI- 2) OHSO O 3) HOOOH 4) OHHOOO + H+ KMnO4 (cold) Na Br2 (dark) OOH H , H+ + + 2010 _________________________ (107) 3. 1 1) *2) 3) 4) 4. ONH 1) 2) C4H7NOBr2 *3) H+ C4H9NO2 4) 1. 1 *1) 2) 3) 4) 2. *1) C H33 2CH CH3CHH 2) C CH H2 33CH3 2CH CH3CH 3) C CH H2 33 2CH CH3 2CH CHH 4) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 3. *1) (CH3)2C = C(CH3)2 2) CH3CH = CHCH3 3) CH3CH2CH = CHCH3 4) CH3CH2CH = CHCH2CH3 (108) _________________________ 2010 (Petrochemicals) (petroleum) 2 Petra ( ) Oleum () 2 (crude oil) (natural gas) 1. (crude oil) 3 1.1 (paraffinic crude oil) (paraffin) (cycloparaffin naphthene) (aromatic) Kirkuk Minas () 1.2 (naphthenic crude oil) Tia Juana Bachaquero 1.3 (mixed crude oil) (light crude) (heavy crude) 2. (natural gas) 2010 _________________________ (109) (CH4) 70 6.1 66-80 7-10 - - - - (LNG) 3-5 1-3 - - 0.1-1 (NGL) - - 0.11-1 - 7.9-13 - 2.1 Associated Natural Gas 2.2 Non-associated Gas 320385C (110) _________________________ 2010 (LPG)C1-C4 C5-C7 C10-C19 C14-C19 C19-C35 320-385C < 30C30-110C250-340C170-250C65-170C> 350C> 500C C6-C12 C > C35 (tray) 1 50 14 1. 200C (gasoline fraction) 2010 _________________________ (111) 2. 180-250C (kerosene fraction) 3. 250-370C (gas oil fraction) 4. (residue) (feedstock) (cracking) 1. (cracking process) - 2. (reforming) 3. (alkylation) 4. (oligomerization) () 1-4 100 0 95 95% 5% Isooctane n-Heptane CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 Isooctane Heptane octane number = 100 octane number = 0 91 (compression ratio) 95 91 95 CH3 C CH2CH3CH3 CH CH3CH3 (112) _________________________ 2010 2 - ignition delay - 2 2 100 0 15 n Hexadecane Hexadecane (cetane) Cetane number = 100 Methylnaphthalene Heptamethylnonane Methylnaphthalene 2, 2, 4, 4, 6, 8, 8 Heptamethylnonane (isocetane) Cetane number = 0 Cetane number = 15 (gasohol) .. 2528 () ( ) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3CH3CH3 C CH2CH3CH3 C CH2CH3CH3 CH CH2CH3C CH3CH3CH3 2010 _________________________ (113) .. 2539 95% 99.5% 91 1 9 (ethyl alcohol ; C2H5OH) (oxygenate) (MTBE ; CH3C(CH3)2OCH3) 99.5% 10-11% 95 65 kPa ( ) 95 MTBE 0.50-0.70 10% ( E10) E15 ( 15% 85%) E85 ( 85% 15%) E100 ( 4%) 15% 15% E20-100 Flexible-Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Dual-Fuel Vehicle Flex-Fuel (biodiesel) (transesterification) (catalyst) (ethyl ester) (methyl ester) RCOOR + ROH RCOOR + ROH 3 () 1) ( ) ( ) catalyst (114) _________________________ 2010 2) ( ) (coco diesel) 20 1 3) 7 / CH2CHCH2OOOC ROC RC ROO + 3CH3OH R COOCH33 +KOH CH2CHCH2OHOHOH 2010 _________________________ (115) (repeating unit) n monomers polymerpolymerization C C C CH HH HnnHHHHpolymerizationethylene polyethylene 2 H2N R NH2 HO COR COOH + HN R HN COR COOH H + (2n-1)H2Onn n C CHHHH C CH HH H n (polyethylene) -- C CFFFF C CF FF F n (poly(tetrafluoroethylene)) (Teflon) C CHClHH C CH HH Cl n (polyvinyl chloride) (PVC) C CClClHH C CH ClH Cl n (poly(vinyllidene chloride)) (saran) C CHCH3HH C CH HH CH3 n (polypropylene) (herculon) (116) _________________________ 2010 C CHCNHH C CH HH CN n (polyacrylonitrile) (orlon) C CHCHHCC CCCHHH HH C CH HH n (polystyrene) -- 2 2 4 A B -A-B-B-B-A-A-B-B-A-A-A-B-A-B-A-B-A-A-A-B-A- -A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-A- -A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B- -A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A- B B B B B B B B B 2 2010 _________________________ (117) 2 - - - - PAT 2 2552 1. N NNNH2H2N NH2 HOH 1) 2) 3) *4) 2. 1) nOOOO *2) OOnHHNN 3) n 4) n (118) _________________________ 2010 1. CH2CHCH2OOOC C15H31OC C15H31C C15H31OO C15H31COO CH2CHCH2OHOHOH+ 3 +3CH3OH CH3 *1) 2) 3) 4) 2. 3 () X 100 10 Y 90 15 Z 80 25 1) 83 *2) 87 3) 91 4) 95 3. A * *n B *OOOO *n C * *n D * *Cl n 1) A 2) B *3) C 4) D 2010 _________________________ (119) 4. 1) *2) 3) 4) 5. (Superglue) * CHCO2CH3CNHn* 1) *2) 3) 4) CO2CH3CN 6. 95 1) MTBE 2) 91 *3) 95 5 4) (120) _________________________ 2010 metabolism (proteins) polymer amino acids amide peptide bond (carbohydrates) monomer dimer/oligomer/polymer polyhydroxy aldehyde polyhydroxy ketone (lipids) carbohydrates proteins nucleic acids (nucleic acids) 2 ribonucleic acid RNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNA (neurotransmitter) 1. 50 1 - (L-isomer) - (D-isomer) (zwitterions) 2 3 ( 50 ) H2N HC CROOH H NH HCR COOH + H2N HC CRO HN HCR COOHpeptide bonddipeptide+ H2O 2010 _________________________ (121) (N-terminal) (C-terminal) 2 1 20 (essential amino acid) * 20 - (-carbon) R (R side chain) 1.1 4 H2NCOOHH Rside chaincarboxyl groupamino group-carbon (122) _________________________ 2010 (primary structure) 2 2 2 H2N HC CHO HN HCCH3COOH H2N HC CCH3O HN HCH COOH Gly-Ala Ala-Gly 3 (secondary structure) (C=O) (N-H) 4 (C=O) (N-H) 2 (tertiary structure) - 2010 _________________________ (123) (quaternary structure) 3 3 2 (prosthetic group) 3 (globular protein) (coil) (fibrous protein) (124) _________________________ 2010 2-3 37 pH 100 24 - 2 (active site) 1.2 (denaturation of protein) pH Pb2+, Hg2+, Ag+, Cd2+ CuSO4 NaOH Cu2+ 2. Cn(H2O)n polyhydroxylated aldehyde ketone 2010 _________________________ (125) (monosaccharide) (disaccharide) (polysaccharide) 3 - () () - triose (C3) tetrose (C4) pentose (C5) hexose (C6) - D-sugar L-sugar Fischer H OHCH2OHO H HO HCH2OHOCH2OH D-aldotriose L-ketotetrose (-CHO) (C=O) (-OH) 5 (furanose) 6 (pyranose) (126) _________________________ 2010 2 2 2 + + + ( CuSO4, Na2CO3 Cu2+/OH- ) 2 2010 _________________________ (127) I2 9 8 9 () 8 8 9 8 9 8 8 3. lipids : steroids, terpenes, fatty acids fatty acids : waxes triacylglycerols (fats, oils) glycerol glycerophospholipids glycerol () 3 HOHHHHHOHOOOHOHHOHHHOHHOOHOHOOHHOHHHOHHOHOHHHHHOHO16OHHOHHHOHHOOH HOHHHHHOHOOOHOHOHOHHHHHOHOOHHOHHHOHOHOHOHOHHOHHHOHOHHOOHHHHHOHOOH (128) _________________________ 2010 12 () [CH3(CH2)10COOH] [CH3(CH2)16COOH] ( ) [CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH] [CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOH] 1. (Antioxidiant) E C BHT 2. : (magarine) + H2/ 3. : I2 4. Saponification : 2010 _________________________ (129) (sponification) - (carboxylate) 4. 2 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ribonucleic acid (RNA) DNA 2 nucleotides 3 (130) _________________________ 2010 DNA RNA 5 (adenine, A) (thymine, T) (cytosine, C) (guanine, G) (uracil, U) DNA A T C G RNA A U C G - 2 (code) 5 3 (ACGT) RNA DNA RNA A U C G 2010 _________________________ (131) PAT 2 2552 1. Na+O-O *1) HCl(aq) 2) 3) 4) 2. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone OH2NOOOHHNNNHNN 1 1) 1 2) 2 *3) 3 4) 4 3. 1 H2NOHO (Gly) H2NOHO (Ala) 1) 1 2) 2 3) 3 *4) 4 (132) _________________________ 2010 1. A, B C A B C A, B C 1) A : B : C : *2) A : B : C : 3) A : B : C : 4) A : B : C : 2. 1) 2) *3) 4) 3. CUSO4/NaOH *1) 2) 3) 4) 4. 12.0 82.8 CH3(CH2)14COOH CH3(CH2)5CH = CH(CH2)7COOH CH3(CH2)16COOH CH3(CH2)7CH = CH(CH2)7COOH *1) 2) 3) 4) 2010 __________________________ (133) 1 1 = 1 ()121 C-12 1 () 121 C-12 1 = 1.66 10-24 1 C-12 1 1 (90.51)25Ne2010 ()507510020 21 22Ne2110Ne2210(0.27)(9.22) Ne = 10022) (9.22 21) (0.27 20) (90.51 + + = 100202.84 5.67 1810.2 + + = 20.1871 (134)__________________________ 2010 2 X 10 5 4 X * 1) 24 2) 32 3) 35 4) 40 4 = 121 C-12 4 10 = 410 121 C-12 4 410 121 = 5 = 24 1. = 1 ()121 C-12 1 () 2. Na2B4O7 10H2O = 2(23) + 4(11) + 7(16) + 10(18) = 382 C-12 12 6.02 1023 1 = 22.4 dm3 STP = () = 22.4STP ) (dm 3 = 2310 6.02 3 - Y 3 4 -12 - X 2 14X 15X - 14X = 14.00 = 99.6 15X = 15.00 XY 6.02 1023 1 = 121 C-12 1 Y 3 = 3 Y 121 C-12 1 3 Y 121 = 4 Y = 16 X = 10015(0.4) 14(99.6) + = 1006 1394.4 + = 14.004 XY = 14 + 16 = 30 2010 __________________________ (135) gXY = 210 6.0223 XY XY 10 6.02gXY 3023 = 15 g 4 Mg3(PO4)2 P a (Mg = 24, P = 31, O = 16) * 1) 2.18 10-22 a 2) 4.36 10-22 a 3) 131 a 4) 293 a Mg3(PO4)2 = 262 P 2 Mg3(PO4)2 1 P 2 6.02 1023 Mg3(PO4)2 262 P a Mg3(PO4)2 2310 6.02 2a 262 1. 100 (pph), (ppm), (ppb) A = A () () 100 A = A () () 100 / A = A () () 100 2. , = (m) = (kg) (mol) = (M) = L) (dm (mol) 3 A = (mol) (mol) A A = A 100 (136)__________________________ 2010 1. mol = 1000mv = mol 2. M1V1 = M2V2 5 NaBr a b g/cm3 50.0 cm3 250.0 cm3 (Na = 23, Br = 80) 1) 103b a M 2) 103b a m * 3) 103b a 2 M 4) 103 b a 2 m M1V1 = M2V2 103ba 10 50 = M2 250 M2 = 103b a 2 mol/dm3 6 HCl 0.40 500 HCl 0.10 500 HCl 0.20 500 1) HCl 0.40 200 HCl 0.10 300 2) HCl 0.40 300 HCl 0.10 200 * 3) HCl 0.40 200 HCl 0.10 200 100 4) HCl 0.40 200 HCl 0.10 100 200 MV = M1V1 + M2V2 0.2 500 = (0.4 200) + (0.1 200) 2010 __________________________ (137) 1. 2. 3. (mol/kg) 4. (mol/kg) Tb = Kbm = Kb 21 W Mw 1000 W Tf = Kfm = Kf 21 W Mw 1000 W (138)__________________________ 2010 Tb = Tf = m = Kb = Kf = W1 = () W2 = () Mw = 7 A 1.5 B 100 cm3 5.021C B = 0.9 g/cm3 = 5.533 C Kf = 5.12 C/m A = 300 B = 250 * 1) 1.00 2) 1.25 3) 2.00 4) 2.50 B x mol A = 3001.5 = 0.005 mol B = 250x Tf = Kf 21 W Mw 1000 W 5.533 - 5.021 = 5.12 |.|

\|+250x0.005 0.9 1001000 B = 1 8 (mol/kg) (C) A - 80.0 B - 75.5 X A 0.5 81.5 Y B 1.5 78.5 X B 2 mol/kg Y A 1 mol/kg (3.5C) 2010 __________________________ (139) 9 80.6C (XmYn) 0.51 10.2 78.9C XmYn ( Kf = 6.80C kg/mol X = 100, Y = 50) 1) XY * 2) XY2 3) X2Y 4) XY3 Tf = Kf 21 W Mw 1000 W 80.6 - 78.9 = 6.8 10.2 Mw 1000 0.51 A = 100 A 10 Na2XH20O14 1.5 X 15.2 X (Na = 23, H = 1, O = 16) 1) 45.0 * 2) 52.0 3) 59.1 4) 62.6 X = 100 X 15.2 = 14(16) 20(1) X 2(23)100 X + + + X = 51.98 11 heachlorophene Cl 6 Cl a hexachlorophene (Cl = 35.5) * 1) a100 6 35.5 2) a100 6 10 6.02 35.523 3) 100a 6 35.5 4) 100a 6 10 6.02 35.523 (140)__________________________ 2010 - 2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) O2 NO O2 NO O2 : NO = 1 : 2 - = 100 2010 __________________________ (141) 12 NH3(g) + O2(g) NO(g) + H2O(g) () NH3 a O2 a NO (N = 14, H = 1, O = 16) * 1) 0.75 a 2) a 3) 1.25 a 4) 1.76 a 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g) O2 2O mol NO mol = 54 mol NO = 54 mol O2 NO = 54 mol O2 30 13 Ag2CO3 (Ag = 108) Ag2CO3(s) Ag(s) + CO2(g) + O2(g) ... () Ag2CO3 3.36 dm3 STP 1) 16.2 * 2) 21.6 3) 32.4 4) 41.1 2Ag2CO3(s) 4Ag(s) + 2CO2(g) + O2(g) mol Ag mol = 34 mol Ag = 34 mol Ag = 34 mol 180 14 Zn(OH)2 HBr 0.550 mol/dm3 400 cm3 NaOH 0.500 mol/dm3 NaOH a cm3 Zn(OH)2 (Zn = 65, O = 16, H = 1) 1) 10.89 - a0.025 *2) 10.89 - 0.025 a 3) 21.78 - a0.050 4) 21.78 - 0.050 a Zn(OH)2 + 2HBr ZnBr2 + 2H2O ...(1) HBr + NaOH NaBr + H2O ...(2) 2 ; mol HBr = mol NaOH = 1000a 0.5 1 ; mol HBr = 1000400 0.55 - 10000.5a mol Zn(OH)2 = |.|

\| 10000.5a1000400 0.5521 - Zn(OH)2 = mol 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1mol 3 (142)__________________________ 2010 15 MgCO3(s) MgO(s) CO2 (g) MgCO3(s) MgO(s) 16.00 11.60 MgCO3(s) (Mg = 24, C = 12, O = 16) 1) 4.4 2) 5.9 3) 7.6 * 4) 8.4 16 0.620 HCl H3PO4 Mg2+ +4NH MgNH4PO4 6H2O Mg2P2O7 0.222 (Mg = 24, P = 31, O = 16) 1) 5 * 2) 10 3) 15 4) 20 Mg2P2O7 = 222 17 Zn2+ 0.4 Zn 13 HCl Zn HCl (Zn = 65) 1) 0.4 500 2) 0.8 1,000 * 3) 1.2 500 4) 18 AX2 A () AX2 + O2 AO3 + XO2 AO3 + H2 A + H2O AX2 1600 g 560 g 120 g A ( X = 32, A = 96) 480 g 2010 __________________________ (143) = = 2A + 3B 4C = -21

t[A] = -31

t[B] = 41

t[C] 1 N2O4 N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) (atm) (s)N2O4 NO2 0.0 0.050 0.000 20.0 0.033 A 40.0 B 0.050 60.0 0.020 C A, B C A B C 1) 0.025 0.028 0.075 * 2) 0.034 0.025 0.060 3) 0.040 0.026 0.060 4) 0.045 0.030 0.075 (144)__________________________ 2010 1. Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(g) + S(s) - 23 2O S (aq) + 2H+(aq) H2O(l) + SO2(g) + S(s) = 2. 3. E1 2T T >1T2T 4. (II) H2O2 (E)Ea2 Ea1 Ea1 = Ea2 = 2010 __________________________ (145) Ea Ea+cEa > Ea+cEa (E) Ea (E) Ea 2 A + B C + D *1) 2) 3) x + y 4) y Ea = Ea+c = (E)A + BC + D[A + B C + D]*yx (146)__________________________ 2010 3 A + BXC + DIII 1) I II 2) *3) II 4) X A B 4 A B A + 2B 3C + 4D A 1 B 2 1 10 C 3 1) A 10 0.1 * 2) B 10 2.0 3) C 10 0.3 4) C 1 B 0.67 5 A2(g) + 2B2(g) 2AB2(g) 1 B2 A2 2 1 B2 . A2 . B2 2 . A2 . B2 1) . . * 2) . . 3) . . 4) . . 2010 __________________________ (147) 6 A B C 1 A + 2B 2C () A () B () C ( 1 ) 0.10 0.10 0.04 0.10 0.20 0.04 0.20 0.20 0.08 B 1.00 1 A A 1) 0.50 2) 2.50 3) 5.00 4) 10.00 7 Zn 1.3 HCl 0.5 40 H2 2.24 STP HCl 1) 2 10-4 2) 2 10-3 * 3) 5 10-3 4) 5 10-2 8 HCl 0.1 mol/dm3 100 cm3 x 4 3 HCl x . HCl 0.1 mol/dm3 100 cm3 . HCl 0.1 mol/dm3 50 cm3 . HCl 0.2 mol/dm3 50 cm3 ., . . *1) 1, 5 2 2) 2, 5 1 3) 2, 1 3 4) 1, 3 2 123450 (148)__________________________ 2010 96C 2 S8 1. 2. 3. 4. AgCl KNO3 CaF2 1 G 1 G ( ) (C)AabBCDEF 2010 __________________________ (149) 1) G bC * 2) E F G 3) A B G 4) B C G 1 (mmHg) (C)20 40 60 80 100 12002004006008007601000 100C 78.4C 56.5C 34.6C 2 A, B C (atm) A B C2.01.51.00.5ABCT1T2 1) A, B C T1 T2 * 2) 1.5 atm A B 3) 1 atm A 4) 1 atm C B A (150)__________________________ 2010 3 A () () () () A() () 1) A () () * 2) A () () 3) A () () 4) A A () () 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. V P1 () P1V1 = P2V2 2010 __________________________ (151) V T () 11TV = 22TV V P1 () V T () V PT 11 1TV P = 22 2TV P () () V P1 () V T () V n () V PnT V = PnRT (R = ) PV = nRT 4 (C2H5OC2H5) 1 1,000 80C 38.0 mmHg 3 500 80C 1) 0.05 2) 0.15 * 3) 0.30 4) 0.45 PV = nRT 1 ; 76038 10001000 = nRT ...(1) 3 ; P 1000500 = 3nRT ...(2) (2) (1) ; P 1000500 38760 = 3 (152)__________________________ 2010 5 1.0 12 1 2.0 2.0 69 608 1) 3.0 *2) 6.0 3) 7.9 4) 14.4 PV = nRT 1 2 = Mw1 R (273 + 12) ...(1) 760608 V = Mw2 R (273 + 69) ...(2) (2) (1) ; 2 760V 608 = 285342 2 6 H2 4 He X 5 dm3 27C 24 atm X (H = 1, He = 4) 1) 8 2) 10 * 3) 12 4) 14 PV = nRT 24 5 = |.|

\|+4X240.08 (273 + 27) 7 O2 He a g/dm3 0.72 atm 300 K O2 (O = 16, He = 4) 1) 7a 800 96 - 2) 7aa 800 96 - 3) 796 a 800 - * 4) 7a96 a 800 - O2 X g = 32X mol He 100 - X g = 4X 100 - mol PV = nRT 0.72 V = |.|

\|+4 X 10032X - 0.08 300 V = 32 0.727X)24 (800- dm3 a = = V100 2010 __________________________ (153) 8 (NO) 2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g) NO O2 25C NO4.00 L2.00 L0.500 atm1.00 atm2O R = 0.08 atm L mol-1 K-1 *1) 0.5 2) 1.0 3) 1.5 4) 2.0 9 1.12 4.48 (N = 14, C = 12, F = 19) 1) CF4 2) C2F4 3) C2F6 * 4) C3F4 = = 112 HCl(g) + NH3(g) NH4Cl(s) , M1 21rr = 12MM = 12DD () 10 X 30.0 2.0 Y 216 8.0 X 10 1.34 10-21 Y 1) 14 *2) 25 3) 44 4) 260 X = 1010 6.02 10 1.3423 21 - = 81 yxrr = xyMM 230 2168 = 81My (154)__________________________ 2010 1. I2(s) I2(g) 2. I2(s) I2(ethanol) 3. 2Fe3+(aq) + 2I-(aq) 2Fe2+(aq) + I2(aq) [Cu(H2O)4]2+(aq) + 4Cl-(aq) [CuCl4]2-(aq) + 4H2O(l) Fe3+ NH4SCN Fe3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) [FeSCN]2+(aq) Fe3+ K3Fe(CN)6 Fe3+(aq) + [Fe(CN)6]3-(aq) Fe[Fe(CN)6](aq) Fe2+ K3Fe(CN)6 Fe2+(aq) + [Fe(CN)6]3-(aq) + K+(aq) KFe[Fe(CN)6](s) I2 (mol/dm3) 2.01.51.00.5[H2] [I2][HI]0.22te1.6H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g)0 H2 I2 2010 __________________________ (155) te[CO2] [H2] CO2(g) + H2(g) CO(g) + H2O(g)1.000.730.500.270 (mol/dm3)[CO] [H2O] CO2 H2 teH2O(g) + CO(g) H2(g) + CO2(g)H2(g) + CO2(g) H2O(g) + CO(g) H2O(g) + CO(g) H2(g) + CO2(g) 1. 3A(g) + 2B(g) C(g) ; K = a C(g) 3A(g) + 2B(g) ; K = a1 2. A(g) + 2B(g) 2C(g) ; K = b 21A(g) + B(g) C(g) ; K = (b)1/2 3. A(g) + B(g) 3C(g) ; K = x 2B(g) C(g) ; K = y A(g) + 3B(g) 4C(g) ; K = xy (156)__________________________ 2010 1 25C 2P(g) + 2Q(g) 3R(g) + S(g) : K = 1.0 10-4 A(g) + 3P(g) 2S(g) + R(g) : K = 1.0 10-2 A(g) + 5R(g) P(g) + 4Q(g) 1) 1.0 10-2 2) 1.0 3) 50 * 4) 1.0 106 2 A(g) + 3B(g) C(g) K1 = 30 3D(g) + 2E(g) 2C(g) K2 = 20 2A(g) + 6B(g) 3D(g) + 2E(g) K3 = x x 1) 10 2) 40 * 3) 45 4) 50 3 . S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) ; K = a . 2S(s) + 3O2(g) 2SO3(g) ; K = b . 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) 1) a2b 2) a2 + b * 3) 2ab 4) 2ab 4 CO 0.05 Cl2 0.06 500 cm3 COCl2 3.96 CO(g) + Cl2(g) COCl2(g) ( COCl2 = 99) 1) 6.7 2) 13.3 * 3) 100 4) 200 CO(g) + Cl2(g) COCl2(g) 0.1 0.12 - (mol/dm3) - 0.08 - 0.08 + 0.08 0.02 0.04 0.08 *K K = ] [CO][Cl] [COCl22 2010 __________________________ (157) 5 SO3 2SO3(g) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) SO3 SO3 2 2 SO3 20 * 1) 0.006 2) 0.025 3) 0.125 4) 0.200 2SO3(g) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 1 - - (mol/dm3) - 0.2 +0.2 + 0.1 0.8 0.2 0.1 *K 6 N2O5 108 NO2 O2 1 N2O5 50 ( N2O5 = 108) 1) 0.25 * 2) 1.00 3) 4.00 4) 8.00 7 ammonium hydrogen sulfide (NH4HS) NH4HS(s) NH3(g) + H2S(g) NH4HS 10.200 4.00 dm3 27C 0.960 atm 27C (N = 14, S = 32) 1) 4.0 10-3 2) 8.0 10-3 * 3) 4.0 10-4 4) 8.0 10-4 NH4HS(s) NH3(g) + H2S(g) 0.2 - - (mol) - x + x + x 0.2 - x x x (mol) PV = nRT 0.96 4 = (2x)0.08 (273 + 27) x = 0.08 mol [NH3] = [H2S] = 40.08 = 0.02 mol/dm3 K = [NH3][H2S] 8 SO2 0.5 O2 1.0 SO3 1.3 1) SO2 80 2) O2 20 3) 20 * 4) 86.67 (158)__________________________ 2010 9 2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g) 30C 1.6 10-3 5 dm3 H2 0.4 mol, I2 1.6 mol HI HI ( 20 mol) 1. 2. 3. 10 250C ACl5 (A ) ACl5(g) ACl3(g) + Cl2(g) ACl5(g) 0.201 mol 1 dm3 Cl2(g) 0.001 mol ACl5(g) 0.200 mol ACl3(g) *1) 0.001 2) 0.002 3) 0.023 4) 0.003 1 ; ACl5(g) ACl3(g) + Cl2(g) 0.201 - 0.001 0.001 0.001 (mol/dm3) K = 0.2(0.001)2 = 5 10-6 2 ; ACl5(g) ACl3(g) + Cl2(g) 0.2 - x x x (mol/dm3 ) 2 5 10-6 = x 0.2x2- 2010 __________________________ (159) 11 A B 2 C D Ea 1 : A + B C Ea = 200 kJ ; H = +100 kJ 1 : A + B D Ea = 400 kJ ; H = -100 kJ A B 1) 1 2) 2 3) 1 2 *4) 2 1 12 X(g) + Y(g) Z(g) ; H < 0 kJ t2 * 1) 2) 3) X(g) 4) Z(g) 13 1) 2CO(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g) H < 0 kJ 2) 2HCl(g) H2(g) + Cl2(g) H > 0 kJ *3) 2NO2(g) 2NO(g) + O2(g) + 182 kJ 4) 2SO3(g) + 197.6 kJ 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 14 PCl5 PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) PCl5 500 250 PCl5 0.0625 Cl2 0.0375 300 PCl3 0.0400 1) 2) 300 0.053 3) 300 PCl5 0.12 * 4) 1), 2) 3) XYZ 1t2t3t4t (160)__________________________ 2010 15 COCl2(g) COCl2(g) CO(g) + Cl2(g) 230C K = 1.3 10-5 430C K = 3.2 10-2 1) 2) 430C Cl2 230C 3) 230C CO Cl2 *4) 230C CO 16 A(g) B(g) AB 1) * 2) B 3) B 4) B 17 CO(g) + H2O(g) CO2(g) + H2(g) 1) K 2) CO2 K * 3) He K 4) K 2010 __________________________ (161) - , HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4 H2SO4 LiOH, NaOH, KOH Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2 Ba(OH)2 , - 1. - HCl O H2 H+ + Cl- NaOH O H2 Na+ + OH- 2. -- 3. - - HA(aq) + B(aq) (aq) A (aq) HB -++ 1 2 2 1 aKC > 103 [H3O+] = C Ka % = CKa 100 bKC > 103 [OH-] = C Kb % = CKb 100 (162)__________________________ 2010 Kw = [H3O+][OH-] = 1.0 10-14 25C pH pH = -log [H3O+] [H3O+] = A 10-B mol/dm3 pH = B - log A pH + pOH = 14 25C 1 HCl 0.10 1.10 / 100 pH (H = 1, Cl = 35.5, log 3 = 0.4771) *1) 1.52 2) 2.48 3) 2.52 4) 3.48 mol/dm3 = Mdx 10 [H3O+] = 36.50.1 1.1 10 = 0.03 = 3 10-2 mol/dm3 pH = 2 - log 3 2 HA 0.1 pH 3.0 HA 100 900 pH 1) 2.5 * 2) 3.5 3) 4.0 4) 4.5 pH HA = 3 [H3O+] = 10-3 mol/dm3 [H3O+] = C Ka C = a23K] O [H + M1V1 = M2V2 a2 3K] [10- 100 = a23K] O [H + (100 + 900) 2010 __________________________ (163) 3 HCl pH = 4 400 cm3 HNO3 pH = 2 100 cm3 pH ( log 2 = 0.301 log 3 = 0.477) 1) 2.3 * 2) 2.7 3) 3.0 4) 3.3 [HCl] = 1 10-4 mol/dm3 [HNO3] = 1 10-2 mol/dm3 MV = M1V1 + M2V2 M 500 = (1 10-4 400) + (1 10-2 100) 4 pH 1) OH- 0.002 200 cm3 pH 12 *2) (HA) Ka = 1.0 10-7 0.001 mol/dm3 1000 cm3 pH 6.5 3) HCl pH 2.0 100 cm3 900 cm3 pH 3.0 4) HNO3 0.63 100 cm3 pH HCl 0.1 mol/dm3 500 cm3 [H3O+] = C Ka = 3 710 10 1 - - = 10-5 mol/dm3 pH = -log [H3O+] 5 1) -3HSO - 23SO -3HSO H2SO3 2) H3PO4 > -4 2PO H > - 24HPO *3) CH3NH2(Kb = 4 10-4) C6H5NH2(Kb = 4 10-10) 4) NaHCO3 + Ba(OH)2 BaCO3 + NaOH + H2O NaHCO3 Kw = Ka Kb HA )` (164)__________________________ 2010 - HIn(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + In-(aq) 6 (Cresol red) NH3 0.20 - pH 7.2-8.8 NH3 Kb = 2.0 10-5, log 5 = 0.699 1) 2) * 3) 4) [OH-] = C Kb = 0.2 10 2.05 - = 2 10-3 mol/dm3 [H3O+] = 5 10-12 mol/dm3 pH = 12 - log 5 7 HIn HIn pH 4.0 20 cm3 NaOH 0.01 mol/dm3 40 cm3 pH pH = (pKa - 1) (pKa + 1) - pH 5.0 ( log 2 = 0.3) 1) *2) 3) 4) 8 X pH X - - - - - 3.1-4.4 4.4-6.2 5.0-8.0 6.0-7.6 6.8-8.4 X pH 1) 4.4-6.2 * 2) 4.4-5.0 3) 5.0-6.0 4) 6.8-7.6 2010 __________________________ (165) H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq) 2H2O(l) H3O+ OH- + - + NaClO4 KNO3 + NH4Cl NH4NO3 + NaHCO3 K2CO3 + NH4NO2 NH4Cl CH3COONH4 NH4CN (NH4)2CO3 Ka > Kb Ka = Kb Ka < Kb 9 - 1) NaH + H2O NaOH + H2 2) Na + H2O NaOH + H2 3) Co2+ + H2O [Co(H2O)6]2- * 4) 1 10 1) 0.10 M NaOH + 0.10 M HCl * 2) 0.10 M KCN + 0.10 M HCl 3) 0.10 M NaOH + 0.10 M HCN 4) 0.10 M KCN + 0.10 M NH4OH 11 1) 0.50 HCN 200 + 0.50 NH3 200 2) 0.20 HCl 200 + 0.10 NaOH 400 * 3) 0.40 HNO3 100 + 0.10 NH3 400 4) 0.10 CH3COOH 200 + 0.20 NaOH 100 (166)__________________________ 2010 - 1. H2SO4 + Ba(OH)2 2. HCl + NaOH 12 (HA) a Ka b *1) pH -log (ab) 2) H3O+ a 4ab) (b b2+ + - 3) OH- a10 1.014 - 4) 25.00 cm3 NaOH 0.20 NaOH 250 a cm3 [H3O+] = C Ka = (ab) pH = -log [H3O+] = -log (ab) 13 H2SO4 NaOH H2SO4 H2SO4 NaOH NaOH 0.1 mol/dm3 H2SO4 mol/dm3 *1) 0.05 2) 0.1 3) 0.2 4) 0.4 0) (cm SO H34 20 5 10 15 20 2551015202530354045) NaOH(cm3 2010 __________________________ (167) 14 KOH 0.15 mol/dm3 80.00 cm3 HA 25.00 cm3 HCl 0.20 mol/dm3 HCl 22.50 cm3 HA 1) 0.15 2) 0.20 3) 0.25 * 4) 0.30 KOH + HA KA + H2O KOH + HCl KCl + H2O mol KOH HA = 100080 0.15 - 100022.5 0.2 mol HA = 0.012 - 0.0045 = 0.0075 HA = 0.0075 251000 = 0.3 M 15 NH3 25.0 cm3 HCl 0.1 mol/dm3 40.0 cm3 HCl NaOH 0.05 mol/dm3 20.0 cm3 NH3 1) 0.08 * 2) 0.12 3) 0.26 4) 0.35 16 2 H2SO4 0.1 60 HCl 0.2 50 NaOH 0.4 1) 40 2) 45 3) 50 * 4) 55 17 0.1 mol/dm3 200 cm3 0.20 mol/dm3 250 cm3 pH = 12 ( 2.55 dm3) 18 10-6 0.02 NaOH pK1 1) 6 2) 8 3) 9 4) 10 (168)__________________________ 2010 pH 1. CH3COOH + CH3COONa, H3PO4 + NaH2PO4 pH = pKa - log [][] 2. NH3 + NH4Cl pOH = pKb - log [][] 3. + (-) NaH2PO4 + Na2HPO4, NaHCO3 + Na2CO3 19 - 1) * 2) 3) 4) 20 HCl 0.30 NH3 0.20 4 () HCl 0.30 NH3 0.20 1) 200 300 2) 200 100 3) 200 200 * 4) 100 200 21 HCN Ka = 5.0 10-10 HCN 0.005 500 HCN(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + CN-(aq) KCN 0.005 pH 1) 6.8 2) 7.2 3) 8.5 * 4) 9.3 2010 __________________________ (169) CuSO4 Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e- Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) 1 1) 2K2CrO4 + 2HCl K2Cr2O7 + 2KCl + H2O *2) 2CuSO4 + 4KCN Cu2(CN)2 + 2K2SO4 + (CN)2 3) [Co(NH3)5Br]SO4 + BaCl2 [Co(NH3)5Br]Cl2 + BaSO4 4) Zn2[Fe(CN)6] + 8NaOH 2Na2ZnO2 + Na4[Fe(CN)6] + 4H2O 2 a CaCr2O7 + b H3PO4 + c AlBr3 d Ca3(PO4)2 + e CrPO4 + f AlPO4 + g H2O + h Br2 a = 3 h 1) 3 2) 5 3) 7 * 4) 9 1. 2. 3. - O H2O - H H+ - OH- - O H2O (170)__________________________ 2010 3 X Y X Y -4aXO (aq) + - 23bYO (aq) 2cXO (s) + - 24dYO (aq) 1) a + b = 5 2) OH- 3) -4XO - 23YO * 4) 5 - 23YO + 2OH- - 24YO + H2O + 2e- -4XO + 2H2O + 3e- XO2 + 4OH- -42XO + - 233YO + H2O 22XO (s) + - 243YO + 2OH- ZnSO4 1 mol/dm3 Zn(s)Pt(s)H2(1 atm)HCl 1 mol/dm30.76 Ve-e- Zn(s)'Zn2+(aq, 1 mol/dm3)''H+(aq, 1 mol/dm3)'H2(g, 1 atm)'Pt(s) Mg(s)'Mg2+(aq, 1 M)''Fe3+(aq, 1 M), Fe2+(aq, 1 M)'Pt(s) oE oE oE = oE - oE 4 Ni(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Ni2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) 1) Ni(s) ' Ag+(aq) '' Ni2+(aq) ' Ag(s) 2) Ag(s) ' Ag+(aq) '' Ni2+(aq) ' Ni(s) 3) Ag(s) Ni2+(aq) *4) Ag(s) Ni(s) ' Ni2+(aq) '' Ag+(aq) ' Ag(s) 2010 __________________________ (171) 5 E A B C D H E (V)1 C2+ + 2D2+ C + 2D3+ -0.912 C2+ + B C + B2+ -0.483 3B2+ + 2A 3B + 2A3+ 2.82 4 2A + 6H+ 2A3+ + 3H2 2.48 A/A3+//D3+, D2+/Pt E 1) 1.57 2) 1.91 * 3) 3.25 4) 3.73 1. E E 2. 3. 6 E 298 K E(V) A+(aq) + e- A(s) +0.80 B3+(aq) + e- B2+(aq) +0.77 C2(s) + 2e- 2C-(aq) +0.54 D3+(aq) + 3e- D(s) -0.04 E2+(aq) + 2e- E(s) -0.13 1) oE A(s) / A+(aq, 1 mol/dm3) // E2+(aq, 1 mol/dm3) / E(s) 2) Pt(s) / B2+(aq, 1 mol/dm3), B3+(aq, 1 mol/dm3) // E2+(aq, 1 mol/dm3) / E(s) * 3) D3+ E 4) D3+ C- C2 (172)__________________________ 2010 7-8 J2+(aq) + 2e- J(s) E = +0.20 V K+(aq) + e- K(s) E = -0.30 V 2L+(aq) + 2e- L2(g) E = -0.20 V M3+(aq) + e- M2+(aq) E = +0.10 V 7 1) K < L2 < M2+ < J * 2) J < M2+ < L2 < K 3) J2+ < M3+ < L+ < K+ 4) 8 K M3+ J2+ 1) J K 2) J K M2+ * 3) J K M2+ 4) 9 Ni3+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) E = -0.25 V O2(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e- H2O2(s) E = +0.68 V Ag+(aq) + e- Ag(s) E = +0.80 V H2O2 O2 1) Ag 2) Ni * 3) Ag+ 4) Ni2+ 10 Fe3+(aq) + 3e- Fe(s) E = -0.44 V Sn2+(aq) + 2e- Sn(s) E = -0.14 V Fe2+(aq) + 2e- Fe(s) E = -0.04 V Sn4+(aq) + 2e- Sn2+(aq) E = +0.15 V 1) Fe Sn2+ 2) Fe Sn4+ 3) Sn Fe2+ * 4) Sn Fe3+ E E 2010 __________________________ (173) 11 Zn2+(aq) + 2e- Zn(s) E = -0.76 V Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) E = +0.34 V Ag+(aq) + e- Ag(s) E = +0.80 V 2H+(aq) + 2e- H2(g) E = 0.00 V . HCl 1 . HCl 1 . CuSO4 1 . AgNO3 1 1) ., . . * 2) . . 3) . . 4) . . 12 Pb2+ + 2e- Pb E = -0.13 V Zn2+ + 2e- Zn E = -0.76 V + 2PbPb+ 2Zn + 2Pb + 2ZnPb ZnZnV3mol/dm 1.03mol/dm 1.03mol/dm 1.03mol/dm 1.0 1) 0.63 2) 0.89 *3) 1.26 4) 1.53 13 36 12 HCl 0.96 (H = 1, Mg = 24, Al = 27, Cl = 35.5) Cu2+ + 2e- Cu ................... E = 0.34 V 2H+ + 2e- H2 ................... E = 0.00 V Al3+ + 3e- Al ................... E = -1.68 V Mg2+ + 2e- Mg ................... E = -2.36 V 1) 33.75 *2) 45 3) 64 4) 67.5 (174)__________________________ 2010 14 X+(aq) + e- X(s) E = -0.10 V Y2+(aq) + 2e- Y(s) E = +0.50 V Ecell = ocellE - n0.060 log Q n Q Q E +0.54 V 1) Q = [X+]/[Y2+] = 10 2) Q = [X+]2/[Y2+] = 10 3) Q = [X+]/[Y2+] = 100 *4) Q = [X+]2/[Y2+] = 100 Cu(s) ' Cu2+(aq, 0.1 M) '' Cu2+(aq, 1 M) ' Cu(s) Pt(s) ' H2(g, 1 atm ' H+(aq, 1 M) '' H+(aq, 1 M) ' H2(g, 2 atm) ' Pt(s) Pt(s) ' H2(g, 1 atm) ' H+(aq, 0.1 M) ''H+(aq, 1 M ' H2(g, 1 atm) ' Pt(s) () e-e-- +H+H2O() e- e- CuSO4 () 21 - 28 2O S (aq) + e- - 24SO (aq) ; E = +2.01 V 21O2(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e- H2O(l) ; E = +1.23 V () Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) ; E = +0.34 V 2H2O(l) + 2e- H2(g) + 2OH-(aq) ; E = -0.83 V 2010 __________________________ (175) CuSO4 H2O(l) 21O2(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e- Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) 2Cu2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) 2Cu(s) + O2(g) + 4H+(aq) KI 2I-(aq) I2(s) + 2e- 2H2O(l) + 2e- H2(g) + 2OH-(aq) 2H2O(l) + 2I- (aq) H2(g) + 2OH-(aq) + I2(s) CaCl2 Ca2+(l) + 2e- Ca(s) 2Cl-(l) Cl2(g) + 2e- Ca2+(l) + 2Cl-(l) Ca(s) + Cl2(g) e-e-Cl-(l)Ca2+(l) CaCl2 ZnSO4e-e- 1. () 2. () 3. 4. (176)__________________________ 2010 1 . . . . . . . . 1) Na Fe P Zn * 2) Ca Cu N Si 3) Na Cu K Fe 4) Ca Fe S Cr 2 . . ZrO2 . SO2 Ca(OH)2 . 1) . . 2) . . *3) . . 4) . . - 54-65 - 0.1-1.25 3 1) CaO PbO 2) SiO2 NaF * 3) SiO2 B2O3 4) CaO Na2O Cr2O3 (SiO2) B2O3