Brands Chemistry

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(2)____________________________ 2010 (Fat and Oil) () () (Glycerol) (Fatty acid) H2CHCH2COHOHOHGlycerol+ R COOHFatty AcidH2CHCH2COOOCCCOOORRR3+ 3H2OLipid (Fatty Acid) R COOH ( R) 2 - R - R 1 2010 ____________________________ (3) Myristic acid CH3(CH2)12COOH COOH 53.9 Palmitic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH COOH 63.1 Stearic acid CH3(CH2)16COOH COOH 69.6 Arachidic acid CH3(CH2)18COOH COOH76.5 Oleic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH COOH 13.4 Linoleic acid CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOH COOH -5 1. (Hydrogenation) H2 ( : ) COOHCOOHH2catalyst 2. 2 - (Oxidation) : C O C O C C +O2 (4)____________________________ 2010 - (Hydrolysis) : (> 450C) acrolein H2CHCH2COOCOOCOOCH2OH2CHCH2COHOHOH+ 3 CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOHH2CHCH2COHOHOH450oCHC OCHCH2acrolein+ 2H2O 3. () H2CHCH2COHOHOH+ 3 HO COREsterificationHydrolysisH2CHCH2COOCOOCOOCRRR+ 3 H2O 4. (Saponification) NaOH () H2CHCH2COOOCCCRRROOO+ 3 NaOHH2CHCH2COHOHOH+ 3 R C ONaO 2010 ____________________________ (5) NaOH 12-24 NaCl CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2C O- Na+CO-Na+OO () (6)____________________________ 2010 Ca2+ Mg2+ () Na+ 2C17H35COONa + Ca2+ [C17H35COO]2Ca + 2Na+ () () (Detergent) Ca2+ Mg2+ RSO3Na SOOO-Na+ - Linear Alkyl Sulphonate (LAS) : SOOO-Na+ - Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate (ABS) : SOOO-Na+ 2010 ____________________________ (7) O-NET 2551 1. 4 A B C D 15 18 30 47 . . . . *1) 2) 3) 4) A A D D A C B D O-NET 2550 2. . . E . . 1) . . *2) . . 3) ., . . 4) ., . . (8)____________________________ 2010 3. 2 2 A B 1 2 A B X Y : CH3(CH2)7CH CH (CH2)7CO2H : CH3(CH2)16CO2H . X Y A B . A . B . A 1) ., . . *2) ., . . 3) ., . . 4) . . O-NET 2549 4. A B 1 A B A B . . . 1) . *2) . . 3) . . 4) ., . . 5. 1) CH3(C12H24) CO2H 2) CH3(C14H26) CO2H 3) CH3(C16H26) CO2H *4) CH3(C18H24) CO2H 2010 ____________________________ (9) (Protein) Fe, S, Cu, P (Amino Acid) ( COOH) ( NH2) R CHNH2COOH 20 8 - - - - - - - - 1 (Peptide bond) COOH NH2 COOH + H NHCONH+ H2O (Polypeptide) +H3N CHRCONH CHRCONH CHRCONH CHRCO (10)___________________________ 2010 Methionine (Met) CH3S CH2CH2CHCOOHNH2 Leucine (Leu) CH CHCOOHNH2(CH3)2CH2 Theonine (Thr) CH2CHCOOHNH2H3COH Isoleucine (Ile) CH2CHCOOHNH2CH3CHCH3 Lysine (Lys) (CH2)4CHCOOHNH2H2N Phenylalanine (Phe) CHCOOHNH2CH2 Valine (Val) CH CHCOOHNH2(CH3)2 Trytophan (Try) HC CH2HNCOOHNH2 1. (Hydrolysis) , 2. (Biuret test) ( CuSO4 NaOH) Cu - () - ( ) - 3. UV , 4. (FAO) 2010 ___________________________ (11) 5. 100 100% 6. 3 2 - - , , (Enzyme) 100C 24 37C pH 2-4 E + S ES E + P Enzyme Substrate Enzyme - Substrate Enzyme Product Complex () () () (12)___________________________ 2010 O-NET 2551 1. NHCHHCONHCHHCONHCCHH HCOH 1) 2 2 3 *2) 2 3 2 3) 3 3 2 4) 3 4 3 O-NET 2550 2. H CO CH NH C CH NH C CH NH C CH N H2 2 23CH O OO2 2) (CHH CO23CH *1) 3 3 2) 3 4 3) 4 3 4) 4 4 2010 ___________________________ (13) O-NET 2549 3. 100 75 56 44 1) 100 75 *2) 100 % 3) 4) 4. 1) *2) 3) 4) (14)___________________________ 2010 (Carbohydrate) CnH2nOn (Saccharide) 1. (Monosaccharide, CnH2nOn) - RNA - DNA - - - 2. (Disaccharide) - + - + - + 3. (Polysaccharide) - - - - (Chitin) - (Agar) 1. (Benedict solution) () Cu2O R COH + 2Cu2++ 4OH- RCOOH Cu2O 2H2O + + 2. - - - 2010 ___________________________ (15) O-NET 2549 1. A B C A, B C A B C *1) 2) 3) 4) O-NET 2550 2. . . . . 1) . 2) . 3) . . *4) . . O-NET 2551 1. 1 1) 2 *2) 3 3) 4 4) 4 (16)___________________________ 2010 2. . . . . NaOH CuSO4 1) + 2) + 3) + *4) + 3. A, B C A B C A, B C A B C *1) 2) 3) 4) 4. . . . . 1) . . *2) . . 3) . . 4) . . 2010 ___________________________ (17) O-NET 2551 5. . . . . 1) . 2) . . *3) . . 4) ., . . 6. 3 I2 NaOH CuSO4 A B C 1) A 2) B *3) A B 4) B C O-NET 2549 7. A, B, C D NaOH CuSO4A B C D 110 mg 100 cm3 1) A 2) C *3) A D 4) B C (18)___________________________ 2010 H C - (Alkane) - (Alkene) 1 - (Alkyne) 1 - (Aromatic hydrocarbon) (C6H6) 1 CnH2n+2 CnH2n CnH2n-2 - Br2 KMnO4 2010 ___________________________ (19) (Petroleum) (Crude oil) (Natural Gas) 0.79-0.97 g/cm3 N, S (Natural Gas) 1-5 95 (Condensate) (20)___________________________ 2010 (C) 1-4 35 >500 () () >35 >500 30-65 170-250 2010 ___________________________ (21) (gasoline) SO2 (iso-octane) CH3 CCH3CH3CH2 CHCH3CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 2, 2, 4 () 100 0 - 100 - 0 95 95 5 75 .. 2539 (MTBE) (ULG : Unleaded Gasoline) CH3CH2Pb CH2CH3CH3CH2 CH2CH3 H3CPb CH3H3C CH3 CH3 CCH3CH3O CH3 (MTBE) (22)___________________________ 2010 2 1000 / (Cetane Number) (Diesel) (C16H34) 100 (C11H10) 0 100 0 CH3 (CH2)14CH3 ( 100) ( 0) (CH4) (C2H6) (C3H8) (C4H10) (C5H12) (CO2) (H2S) 1 - 2 - 3 - CO2 K2CO3 (H2O) 4 - & (Liquid Petroleum Gas) 2010 ___________________________ (23) O-NET 2551 1. *1) 2) 3) 4) 2. . LPG . . () 1 : 9 . MTBE 1) . . 2) . . 3) ., . . *4) ., . . O-NET 2550 3. A B 91 75 (1) (2) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 3 2 3CH CH CH C CH 3CH3CH3CH (1) (2) A B . A (2) B . A (1) 91 B (1) 75 . (2) A B . (2) A B 1) . *2) ., . . 3) ., . . 4) ., ., . . (24)___________________________ 2010 O-NET 2549 4. . . . . 1) . . 2) . . *3) . . 4) . . 5. . . LPG . 1) . . 2) . . 3) . . *4) ., . . 2010 ___________________________ (25) (Polymer) () (Monomer) (CH2CH2) (CH3CH CH2) (CH2CHCl) 1. 2 1.1 1.2 2. 2 2.1 (Homopolymer) PVC 2.2 (Copolymer) SBR 3. (Polymerization) 2 3.1 (Addition Polymerization) nCH2CH2 (CH2CH2)n 3.2 (Condensation Polymerization) H2O, NH3 (26)___________________________ 2010 3 3.2.1 (Amide Linkage) 6, 6 6 Kevlar nHO OHOO + N NHHHHn NNHOOHn+ nH2O 3.2.2 n + nH2O+ nnHOOOHOHO OHOOO O 3.3.3 - 2010 ___________________________ (27) PVC, , 2 1. (Thermoplastic) PE, PP, PS, PVC 2. (Thermosetting plastic) , (28)___________________________ 2010 (FIBER) 3 1. 2. , 3. (Rubber) 2 1. (Natural Rubber) () (polyisoprene) CH2C CH3CnH2CCis-1,4-poly isoprene (NR)HCH2CH CCH2CH3Isoprene (Vulcanization) (Cross-link agent) Vulcanized rubber 2. (Synthetic Rubber) - (Polybutadiene) Buna Rubber CH2 CH CH CH2 CH2 CH CH CH2 nNaButadiene Polybutadiene 2010 ___________________________ (29) - (Polychloroprene) Seal Seal CH2 C CH CH2ClCH2 C CH CH2 nClChloroprene Polychloroprenepotassium persulfate - (SBR) - (Styrene-Butadiene Rubber) SBR NR CH2 CH CH CH2 CH2 CH CH CH2 CH2ButadieneH2C CH+Styrene nCHC6H5SBR - (Butyl Rubber) isobutylene isoprene H3C CCH3CH2 + CH2CH CCH2CH3Isoprene IsobutyleneAlCl3-100oC CH2 CCH3CH3CH2 CCH3CH CH2nButyl Rubber (30)___________________________ 2010 O-NET 2551 1. *1) 2) 3) 4) 2. 1)