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    Division 44

    Environment and Infrastructure

    Sector project "Transport Policy Advice"

    Bus Rapid Transit

    Planning Guide

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    i

    Author:Lloyd Wright

    Editor:Deutsche Gesellschaft frTechnische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbHP. O. Box 5180D - 65726 Eschborn, Germanyhttp://www.gtz.de

    Division 44,Environment and InfrastructureSector Project "Transport Policy Advice"

    Commissioned byBundesministerium fr wirtschaftlicheZusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (BMZ)Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 40D - 53113 Bonn, Germanyhttp://www.bmz.de

    Manager:Manfred Breithaupt

    Comments or feedback?We would welcome any of your comments orsuggestions, on any aspect of the Planning Guide,by e-mail to transport@gtz.de, or by surface mail to:Manfred BreithauptGTZ, Division 44

    P. O. Box 5180D - 65726 EschbornGermany

    Cover Photo:Manfred BreithauptTransMileno bus stop, Bogot (Colombia)February 2002GTZ Transport Photo CD Rom: Urban Transport,Second Edition, September 2004

    Photos:Lloyd Wright and GTZ Transport Photo CD Rom:Urban Transport, Second Edition, September 2004

    Layout:Klaus Neumann, SDS, G.C.

    Eschborn, October 2004

    Findings, interpretations and conclusionsexpressed in this document are based oninformation gathered by GTZ and itsconsultants, partners, and contributors fromreliable sources. GTZ does not, however,guarantee the accuracy and completeness of

    information in this document, and cannot beheld responsible for any errors, omissions orlosses which emerge from its use.

    About the author

    Lloyd WrightUniversity College London

    Mr. Wright is currently conducting transportplanning research at University CollegeLondon. Mr. Wright formerly directed theLatin American activities of the Institute forTransportation & Development Policy (ITDP).He also directed the organisations InternationalBus Rapid Transit Programme. Additionally,Mr. Wright has worked with the InternationalInstitute for Energy Conservation, the US

    Environmental Protection Agency, the USAgency for International Development, theUnited Nations, and GTZ on transport andenvironmental issues. He was also previouslya fellow with the US-Asia EnvironmentalPartnership in Bangkok, ailand. Mr.

    Wright is currently working towards a PhDin Urban Transport Planning at UniversityCollege London. He also possesses an MScin Environmental Assessment from theLondon School of Economics, an MBA

    from Georgetown University, and a BSc inEngineering from the University of Washington.

    Planning Guide:

    Bus Rapid Transit

    http://www.gtz.de/http://www.bmz.de/mailto:transport@gtz.demailto:sds@cantarana.commailto:sds@cantarana.commailto:transport@gtz.dehttp://www.bmz.de/http://www.gtz.de/
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    ii

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    iii

    e development of this Bus Rapid TransitPlanning Guide has benefited from the experi-ences of high-quality public transit projects

    from around the world. e BRT PlanningGuide has benefited greatly from lessons gainedto date from the TransMilenio system in Bogot(Colombia). TransMilenio represents perhapsthe most complete and inventive BRT systemin the world today. e assistance of AnglicaCastro and Carlos Beltrn of TransMilenio SAhas been instrumental in developing this guide-book. Further, the former Mayor of Bogot,Enrique Pealosa, has become an internationalchampion of promoting the BRT concept.

    Additionally, insights from municipal officialsand consultants involved with the BRT systemsin Quito (Ecuador) and Curitiba (Brazil) haveadded greatly to the quality and relevance of theBRT Planning Guide. In many respects, BRTowes its existence to the creativity and deter-mination of Jaime Lerner, the former mayor ofCuritiba and the former governor of the stateof Paran. Csar Arias, who previously directedthe BRT effort in Quito and is now a consultanton the Guayaquil (Ecuador) BRT project, has

    also lent considerable information for the BRTPlanning Guide. Likewise, Hidalgo Nuez andCecilia Rodriguez of Quitos Department ofTransport have provided much assistance. In

    Asia, Kangming Xu and the Energy Foundationare contributing greatly to the development ofBRT in China, as is Dr. Jason Chang who haspreviously led BRT efforts in Taipei. In India,Dr. Dinesh Mohan and Dr. Geetam Tiwari ofthe Indian Institute of Technology in Delhi areat the forefront of efforts there.

    A number of consultancies have worked toimprove the quality of BRT initiatives. Specialthanks go to Luis (Pilo) Willumsen, EnriqueLillo, and German Lleras of Steer Davies Gleavewho are involved in BRT projects worldwide.Also, Jarko Vlasak of StratCo, and formerly ofMcKinsey & Company, has helped to developthe BRT business model used in Bogot. DarioHidalgo, Ignacio de Guzman, and Juan CarlosDaz at Akiris have played a central role in thedevelopment of TransMilenio, and they are nowleading BRT efforts in several cities. Addition-

    ally, several consultancies in Brazil helped to

    create many of the original BRT concepts; thesefirms and individuals include Paulo Custodio,the consulting team at Logit, Pedro Szasz, and

    the consultancy of Logitrans.e BRT Planning Guide has benefited not onlyfrom leading developing-nation experiences butalso from the growing level of interest in BRTin Australia, Western Europe, Japan, and North

    America. A similar compendium of experiencesdeveloped under the United States TransitCooperative Research Program (TCRP) hasbeen a rich source of world-wide experiences inBRT. Sam Zimmerman and the consultancy ofDMJM & Harris have been leading these efforts.

    e concept of BRT owes much to the persistentsupport of key organisations that have worked toraise overall awareness as well as provide directassistance to interested developing-nation cities.e Institute for Transportation & DevelopmentPolicy (ITDP) under the leadership of its Direc-tor, Dr. Walter Hook, has consistently been atthe forefront of providing direct assistance todeveloping cities pursuing sustainable transportoptions. Likewise, Gerhard Menckhoff, a con-sultant with the World Bank, has played a key

    role in catalysing BRT projects in Latin Americaand elsewhere. Also, Peter Midgley, a former

    World Bank transport specialist, has been apioneer with developing-nation BRT efforts.

    Finally, the BRT Planning Guide and the entireSustainable Transport Sourcebook would not bepossible without the strong support and effortfrom the team at GTZ, the German OverseasTechnical Assistance Agency. Karl Fjellstromwas particularly instrumental in developingideas for the Mass Transit BRT Planning Guide

    as well as writing sections comparing differentmass transit options. Klaus Neumann alsoplayed a key role in providing the layout andformatting for the final document. A great dealof thanks goes to Manfred Breithaupt, Directorof GTZs sustainable urban transport pro-gramme, who created the idea of the Sustain-able Transport Sourcebook and who patientlyoversaw the development of each module.

    Lloyd WrightUniversity College London

    Acknowledgements

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    iv

    Contents

    About the author i

    Imprint i

    Acknowledgements iii

    Acronyms vi

    1. Introduction 1

    1.1 Defining Bus Rapid Transit 1

    1.2 History of BRT 2

    1.2.1 The predecessors to BRT 2

    1.2.2 Modern BRT systems 2

    1.2.3 Conventional bus systems 5

    1.3 Public transport in developing

    cities 8

    1.4 Barriers to BRT 9

    1.5 Benefits of BRT 11

    2. Choosing a Mass TransitSystem 13

    2.1 Introduction to mass transit

    options 13

    2.2 Criteria in technology selection 14

    2.2.1 Costs 15

    2.2.2 Design and developmentfactors 19

    2.2.3 Performance 28

    2.2.4 Impacts 33

    2.3 The myths of BRT 38

    3. Planning for BRT 39

    3.1 Planning Stage I:

    Project Preparation 41

    3.1.1 Project creation andcommitment 41

    3.1.2 Legal basis 42

    3.1.3 Development team 43

    3.1.4 Project scope and timing 44

    3.1.5 Planning budget andfinancing 48

    3.2 Planning Stage II: Analysis 51

    3.2.1 Background and situationaldescription 51

    3.2.2 Stakeholder analysis 51

    3.2.3 Transportation data collection 52

    3.2.4 Transportation demandmodelling 58

    3.3 Planning Stage III:

    Communications 63

    3.3.1 Public participation processes 63

    3.3.2 Communications withexisting transport operators 63

    3.3.3 Marketing plan 64

    3.3.4 Public education plan 66

    3.4 Planning Stage IV:

    Operations 693.4.1 Corridor identification 69

    3.4.2 Feeder services 70

    3.4.3 Service options 72

    3.4.4 Passenger capacity 75

    3.4.5 System management andcontrol 79

    3.4.6 Customer service plan 81

    3.5 Planning Stage V: Business

    and regulatory structure 93

    3.5.1 Business structure 93

    3.5.2 Institutional and regulatorystructure 101

    3.5.3 Incentives for competition 104

    3.5.4 Operational cost analysis 113

    3.5.5 Tariff options 115

    3.5.6 Collection and distributionof revenues 119

    3.6 Planning Stage VI:

    Infrastructure 125

    3.6.1 Conceptual study versusdetailed engineering study 125

    3.6.2 Busways 1263.6.3 Stations 135

    3.6.4 Intermediate transfer stations 141

    3.6.5 Terminals 142

    3.6.6 Depots 143

    3.6.7 Control centre 144

    3.6.8 Feeder infrastructure 147

    3.6.9 Integration infrastructure 148

    3.6.10 Commercial space 149

    3.6.11 Traffic signal control 150

    3.6.12 Public uti