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May 2008 Cables-Engl -1 © P. Nicolet ti: see note pag. 2 Copper and Fiber Optic Cables Pietro Nicoletti piero[at]studioreti.it

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    Copper and Fiber Optic Cables

    Pietro Nicolettipiero[at]studioreti.it

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    Copyright note These slides are protected by copyright and international treaties. The title and the

    copyrights concerning the slides (inclusive, but non only, every image, photograph,animation, video, audio, music and text) are the authors (see Page 1) property.

    The slides can be copied and used by research institutes, schools and universitiesaffiliated to the Ministry of Public Instruction and the Ministry of University andScientific Research and Technology, for institutional purpose, not for profit. In thiscase there is not requested any authorization.

    Any other complete or partial use or reproduction (inclusive, but not only,reproduction on discs, networks and printers) is forbidden without written

    authorization of the author in advance. The information contained in these slides are believed correct at the moment of

    publication. They are supplied only for didactic purpose and not to be used forinstallation-projects, products, networks etc. However, there might be changeswithout notice. The authors are not responsible for the content of the slides.

    In any case there can not be declared conformity with the information contained in

    these slides. In any case this note of copyright may never be removed and must be written also

    in case of partial use.

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    Copper cables main characteristics The main characteristics of a transmission media are:

    Vp: Velocity of propagation of the signal expressed as

    c fraction (speed of the light in the empty space): values included between 0.5 and 0.8 c

    Z = r+jI impedance of the line

    conductors' dimension

    american AWG unit of measurement

    Diameter, electrical resistance

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    AWG: American Wire Gage Scale to measure the copper wire dimension

    It is a geometrical regression

    with 39 values in the interval 000 gage (0.460 diameterinch) and 36 gage (0.005 diameter inch)

    Every increase of a gage corresponds to a diameter

    relationship of:

    0.460

    0.005( )

    1/39

    = 92 = 1.2293221/39

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    Copper cables AWG

    AWG mm () mm2 Kg/Km /Km

    22 0.6438 0.3255 2.894 52.96

    23 0.5733 0.2582 1.820 84.21

    24 0.5106 0.2047 1.746 87.82

    25 0.4547 0.1624 1.414 108.4

    26 0.4049 0.1288 1.145 133.9

    24 or 22 AWG for structured cabling system

    26 AWG for patch cord

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    Copper cable attenuation The attenuation is the output signal reduction with

    respect to the entry signal in the cable:

    attenuation linearly grows in dB with the length of thecable and the frequency square root

    to reduce the cable attenuation expanded insulators areused because improve the capacity

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    Attenuation

    V1 V2

    dB = 20 log10 (V1 / V2)

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    Copper pair Cross-Talk Signal energy part induction on the near conductors,

    where a disturb becomes

    The phenomenon increases with increasing it byfrequency

    It can be measured in several manners

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    NEXT: Near End Cross-Talk Cross-Talk measured at the transmitter side

    V1

    V3

    NEXTdB = 20 log10 (V1 / V3)

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    NEXT: Near End Cross-Talk The attenuation only makes the NEXT measure

    significant by the first 20-30 mt of cable

    The measurement is necessary to both ends: dual NEXT

    V1

    V3

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    FEXT: Far End Cross-Talk Cross-Talk measured at the receiver side

    V1

    V4

    FEXTdB = 20 log10 (V1 / V4)

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    ACRACR (Attenuation to Cross-Talk Ratio)

    Combination of attenuation and NEXT

    signal to noise ratio

    noise caused by Cross-Talk

    Required only by ISO and EN normative

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    ELFEXT: Equal Level FEXT

    ~

    ~

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    PSELFEXT (Power Sum ELFEXT)

    ~~

    ~~

    ~~

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    Velocity of propagation (Vp) The propagation velocity of the signals on the

    transmission means is high, but not infinite, so the

    propagation time is little but not null It is necessary to ensure that delays do not exceed

    certain maximum values to ensure the protocol working

    VP 2/3 c

    (c

    is speed of the light in the emptyspace3 108m/s)

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    Delay skew

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    Return loss Il return loss = reflections measurements

    Z1 Z3Z2Impedancevariations

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    Shielded cable The shield presence can involve:

    bigger immunity to the electromagnetic disturb

    disturb radio emission reduction

    bigger constancy of the impedance

    if applied to single pair reduces the crosstalk

    It is necessary to make a correct screen grounding:

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    Twisted pair cable Constituted by one or more twisted pair of copper

    conductors

    Used for voice, local nets, structured cabling system the electrical characteristic required for LAN are

    definitely higher than those for voice

    Lower bandwith than the coaxial one Reduced costs and simple installation

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    Twisted Pair cable types UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair):

    (Z = 100 )

    FTP (Foiled Twisted Pair):

    (Z = 100 )

    S-UTP o S-FTP:

    (Z = 100 ) STP (Shielded Twisted Pair):

    (Z = 150 )

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    UTP 100

    pair 1

    pair 2

    pair 3

    pair 4

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    FTP 100

    pair 1pair 2

    pair 3

    pair 4

    Drain wire for shield continuity

    Foil shield

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    S-UTP or S-FTP 100

    pair 1

    pair 2

    pair 3

    pair 4

    Copper braid

    Single foil shielded pair

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    STP 150 Know as Type 1 IBM

    22 AWG

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    GLASS FIBER OPTIC

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    Glass Fiber Optic It is a tiny and flexible glass material thread:

    an internal part called core

    an outside part called cladding core and cladding have different refraction indexes to

    border the light inside core

    CORE

    CLADDING

    PRIMARY COATING

    SECONDARY COATING

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    Glass Fiber Optic characteristics The optic fibers are just suitable for point point links

    Total immunity to the electromagnetic troubles

    Characterized by two numbers n/m where:

    diameter n of the leading internal light part

    diameter m of the outside part

    Typical values in micronmultimode 50/125, 62.5/125, 100/140

    singlemode 8-10/125

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    Step-index multimode fiber Characteristics

    High modal dispersion

    Low bandwith

    M1

    M4M3

    M2

    M1

    M2

    M3

    M4

    T1 T2

    Input signal Output signal

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    Graded-index multimode fiber Graded-index fiber have a bandwith higher than step-

    index

    work in 1st and 2nd window (850 and 1300 nm)

    M 2008

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    Singlemode fiber

    The fiber behaves like a wave guide admitting asingle propagation mode:

    does not have modal dispersion

    the bandwith is very high, of the order of hundredsof GHz*Km

    work in 2nd

    and 3th

    window (1300 and 1500 nm)

    May 2008

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    Wavelenght and optical components

    Attenua

    tion(dBXKm

    )100

    1

    5

    10

    500 600 700 850 900 1000 1100 1200 13001310

    1400 1550

    LED\VCSEL

    LASER DIODEVCSEL

    LASER DIODE

    May 2008

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    Fiber optic cable types Tight

    Break-out

    dual fiber patch cord Light-duty

    Loose

    May 2008

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    Break-Out tight fiber optic cable

    Fiber opticExternal diameter 250 m

    250 m = 125 m + primary coating

    CentralDielectric element

    SheathToxfree or Low-smoke-fume

    Kevlar

    Secondary coatingExternal diameter 0.9 mm

    External diameter 2 3 mm

    Indoor installation

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    Dual fiber patch cord

    Fiber opticExternal diameter 250 m

    250 m = 125 m + primary coating

    SheathToxfree o Low-smoke-fume

    Kevlar

    Secondary coatingExternal diameter 0.9 mm External diameter 2 3 mm

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    Light-duty tight fiber optic cable

    CentralDielectric element

    Kevlar

    Secondary coatingExternal diameter 0.9 mm

    Fiber opticExternal diameter 250 m

    250 m = 125 m + primary coating

    Roditor resistant protection

    SheathToxfree o Low-smoke-fume

    Indoor/Outdoor installation

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    Loose fiber optic cable

    Fiber optic

    External diameter 250 m250 m = 125 m + primary coating

    CentralDielectric element

    Kevlar

    Roditor resistant protection

    TubeJelly filled

    Sheath

    Sheath

    Outdoor installation