Career Guidance A HANDBOOK FOR POLICY MAKERS
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Career Guidance A HANDBOOK FOR POLICY MAKERS
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on 30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies designed:
- to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy;
- to contribute to sound economic expansion in member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development; and
- to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations.
The original member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became members subsequently through accession at the dates indicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia (7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994), the Czech Republic (21st December 1995), Hungary (7th May 1996), Poland (22nd November 1996), Korea (2th December 1996) and the Slovak Republic (14th December 2000). The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention).
The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union responsible for implementing and managing EU policy. Working in close partnership with the other European institutions and with the governments of the 25 Member States, its roles include making proposals for new legislation and acting as the guardian of the EU treaties to ensure that European legislation is applied correctly. The administrative structure of the Commission reflects the scope of its responsibilities within the European Union. The Directorate General for Education and Culture is one of 36 directorates-general and specialised services.
Publi en ranais sous le Hire -.
L'orientation professionnelle GUIDE PRATIQUE POUR LES DCIDEURS
The views expressed are purely those of the authors and may not, and in any circumstances, be regarded as stating an official position of the European Commission, the OECD or of the governments of their member countries
OECD/European C o m m u n i t i e s 2004
Permission to reproduce a portion of this work for non-commercial purposes or classroom use should be obtained through the Centre franais d'exploitation du droit de copie (CFC), 20, rue des Grands-Augustins, 75006 Paris, France, tel. (33-1) 44 07 47 70, fax (33-1) 46 34 67 19, for every country except the United States. In the United States permission should be obtained through the Copyright Clearance Center, Customer Service, (508)750-8400, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA, or CCC Online: luiuiw.copyright.com. All other applications for permission to reproduce or translate all or part of this book should be made to OECD Publications, 2, rue Andr-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France.
FORK WORD - 3
This publication arises from major reviews of national career guidance policies conducted by the OECD and the European Commission during 2001-2003. Australia, Austria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom took part in the OECD review. The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) gathered data from Belgium, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Portugal and Sweden for the European Commission, and the European Training Foundation (ETF) gathered data from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. A parallel review by the World Bank was conducted in 2003 in Chile, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Turkey. In each country the reviews assessed how the organisation, management and delivery of career guidance services contribute to the implementation of lifelong learning and active labour market policies.
The OECD and the European Commission co-operated in planning the reviews, used a common survey instrument (initially designed for use by the 14 countries taking part in the OECD review, and also used as the basis for the World Bank reviews), shared experts and members of review teams, and jointly commissioned expert papers to inform their assessment of key issues. This co-operation has resulted in a unique set of data on national approaches to career guidance services. A number of common messages emerged from the reviews about deficiencies in national career guidance services. Many examples of good practice exist in the countries that were reviewed. Nevertheless there are major gaps between how' services are organised and delivered on the one hand and some key public policy goals on the other. Access to services is limited, particularly for adults. Too often services fail to develop people's career management skills, but focus upon immediate decisions. Training and qualification systems for those who provide services are often inadequate or inappropriate. Co-ordination between key ministries and stakeholders is poor. The evidence base is insufficient to allow proper steering of services by policy makers, with inadequate data being available on costs, benefits, client characteristics or outcomes. And in delivering services insufficient use is made of ICT and other cost-effective ways to meet client needs more flexibly.
This publication gives policy makers clear, practical tools that can be used to address these problems. It encompasses the major policy domains involved in developing a comprehensive framework for lifelong guidance systems: meeting the career guidance needs of young people and of adults; widening access to career guidance; improving career information; staffing and funding career guidance services; and improving strategic leadership. Within each of these areas the publication:
S Sets out the key challenges that policy makers face in trying to improve career guidance services;
S Provides examples of good practice and of effective responses to these challenges, drawing upon research conducted in 36 OECD and European countries;
S Lists the questions that policy makers need to ask themselves in responding to these challenges; and
S Provides practical options that they can use in order to improve policy.
Material for the publication was prepared by Professor Ronald Sultana of the University of Malta and Professor Tony Watts of the United Kingdom's National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling, both of whom had extensive involvement in the OECD and European Commission reviews. Within the OECD preparation of the publication was supervised by Richard Sweet, and within the European Commission by staff of the Directorate General, Education and Culture. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD and the Director General for Education and Culture, European Commission.
CAREER GUIDANCE: A HANDBOOK FOR POLICY MAKERS ISBN 9264015191 r, OECD/ EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 2IKM
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
Executive Summary 6 1. Introduction 9
Section One: Improving career guidance for young people 2. Career education and guidance in schools 12 3. Career guidance young people at risk 17 4. Career services in tertiary education 20
Section Two: Improving career guidance for adults 5. Career guidance for unemployed adults 23 6. Career guidance for employed adults 28 7. Career guidance for older adults 32
Section Three: Improving access to career guidance 8. Expanding access to career guidance services 34 9. Career guidance services for disadvantaged groups 37
Section Four: Improving the systems that support career guidance 10. Improving career information 40 11. Training and qualifications 45 12. Funding career guidance 49 13. Co-ordination and strategic leadership 52 14. Ensuring the quality of career guidance 56 15. Assessing the effectiveness of career guidance 60
16. Conclusion: The features of a lifelong guidance system 64
Annexes 1. On-line resources for career guidance policymakers 65 2. Common aims and principles for lifelong guidance 67 3. Some common criteria used to assess the quality of career guidance 71 4. The key features of a lifelong guidance system 73
CAREER GUIDANCE: A HANDBOOK FOR POLICY MAKERS - ISBN 9264015191 OECD/ EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 2004
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Well planned and well organised career guidance services are increasingly important. Countries in the OECD and the European Union are implementing lifelong learning strategies, as well as policies to encourage the development of their citizens' employability. To be successfully implemented, such strategies and policies require citizens to have the skills to manage their own education and employment. They require all citizens to have access to high quality information and advice about education, training and work. Yet often the gap