Carpenter's Stainless Steel Blue Book -

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  • Carpenters Stainless Steel Blue Book Select ion | A l loy Data | Fabr icat ion20


  • 2 Carpenter StainleSS SteelS

    about Carpenter technology Corporation 4

    Selectaloy Method 5

    alloy Data 10

    Corrosion 11

    The Problem of Corrosion

    The Special Case of Stainless Steel

    Types of Corrosion

    General Corrosion

    Localized Corrosion

    Intergranular Corrosion

    Pitting Corrosion

    Crevice Corrosion

    Galvanic Corrosion

    Stress-Corrosion Cracking

    Factors Affecting Corrosion

    Corrosion Testing

    Intergranular Corrosion

    Pitting and Crevice Corrosion

    Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Corrosion in Atmospheres

    Importance of Cleaning and Passivating

    Magnetic properties 21

    Austenitic (nonmagnetic) Stainless Steels

    Ferritic Stainless Steels

    Martensitic and Precipitation Hardenable Stainless Steel

    C a r p e n t e r S ta i n l e S S S t e e l S


  • Carpenter StainleSS SteelS 3

    For comprehensive alloy data, including a typical properties slider search and technical articles, visit

    the information and data presented herein are typical or average values and are not a guarantee of maximum or minimum values applications specifically suggested for material described herein are made solely for the purpose of illustration to enable the reader to make his/her own evaluation and are not intended as warranties, either express or implied, of fitness for these or other purposes there is no representation that the recipient of this literature will receive updated editions as they become available

    Unless otherwise specified, registered trademarks are property of CrS Holdings, inc, a subsidiary of Carpenter technology Corporation

    Copyright 2012 CrS Holdings, inc, a subsidiary of Carpenter technology Corporation printed in USa 01-12

    Fabrication 24


    Relative Workability Annealed Condition

    Blanking, Punching, Shearing and Perforating

    Annealing and Heat Treating

    Cleaning and Passivating

    Tumbling and Ball Burnishing

    Machining and Abrasive Wheel Grinding

    Cold Heading, Warm Heading and Hot Heading

    Drawing, Forming and Spinning

    Soldering and Brazing



    MetalMass Weight Calculator 66

    tables estimated weights, conversions 67

    Carpenter Service Centers

  • 4 Carpenter StainleSS SteelS

    Carpenter: Leadership in Specialty Alloy Manufacturing and DistributionFor more than a century, Carpenter technology Corporation has been a leader in the development, manufacture and distribution of conventional and powder metal stainless steels and specialty alloys including high temperature, stainless, superior corrosion resistant, controlled expansion alloys, ultra high-strength and implantable alloys, tool and die steels, and other specialty metals as well as titanium alloys these alloys have been used in the high performance aerospace and defense; transportation; energy; medical; and the industrial and consumer products markets

    along with Carpenters superior product offering, we also offer an expert worldwide staff of metallurgists, research and development scientists, engineers and service professionals to customers around the world Carpenter expertise is available at all times through our website, alloy techZone, MetalMass, and this Stainless Steel Blue Book

    Carpenter requests your feedback, technical questions, and comments about this Blue Book or our superior metals through the following channels: carpenter@cartechcom, Facebook and twitter

    Contact customer service

    About Carpenter Technology Corporation


  • Carpenter StainleSS SteelS 5

    a simplified method known as the Carpenter Selectaloy method (Fig 1) can help engineers select the most suitable stainless steel based on corrosion and strength requirements the Selectaloy method uses 14 basic grades that are representative of certain types of stainless steels and heat resisting alloys Corrosion resistance increases vertically in the Selectaloy diagram, and mechanical properties, or strength, increase from left to right

    Many times a good starting point is type 304 stainless because it is the most widely used stainless grade For increased corrosion resistance, move up to type 316 stainless, and for still more resistance, go higher to 20Cb-3 For less corrosion resistance, drop down to type 430 stainless, or to type 409Cb stainless for even less resistance reading left to right across the lowest level of corrosion resistance, strength increases progressively from type 409Cb stainless to types 410, 420 and 440C stainless steels

    Custom 450 stainless, type 431 stainless and Custom 455 stainless are positioned in the middle of the diagram to show their relative corrosion resistance and strength compared with the alloys along the vertical axis and horizontal axis

    after the initial stainless alloy has been chosen based on corrosion and strength criteria, consider how it is to be fabricated Will the part be machined, headed, welded or heat-treated? these processes may affect the properties essential to the application and influence the alloy selected

    types 304 and 410 stainless steels are available in alloy modifications offering improved machining or cold heading characteristics, while retaining corrosion resistance and mechanical properties comparable to those of the basic grade if machining type 304 stainless is a problem, four alloy variations will offer improved machinability project 70+ type 304 stainless, type 303 Se stainless, type 303 stainless and project 70+ type 303 stainless, in that order

    if type 304 stainless is desired with better cold headability, similar choices are available type 305 stainless is easier to head, type 302HQ-FM stainless is even better, and Carpenter no 10 stainless is the easiest in the group to cold head

    the same concept applies to type 410 stainless Several modifications will offer progressively better machinability, ie type 416 stainless, project 70+ type 416 stainless and no 5-F stainless, in that order

    evaluate these five key factors before choosing a stainless alloy for a specific application

    1. Corrosion Resistancethe primary driver for specifying a stainless steel Basically, candidate materials must resist corrosion in the service environment

    2. Mechanical Propertiesalong with alloy strength, consider hardness, fatigue, impact and stress-rupture properties

    Selectaloy Method

  • 6 Carpenter StainleSS SteelS

    together with corrosion resistance, the mechanical properties often indicate the specific alloy type for the application

    3. Fabrication OperationMaterial processing and machining methods often influence alloy selection Some alloys are better suited than others for machining, heading, welding or heat treating

    4. Value/Costthe overall value/cost analysis of the material involves material cost, processing cost, added product value and effective life of the finished product, among others all these considerations play important roles in evaluating cost/value and should be considered for cost-effective design

    5. Product Availabilityavailability of the material and minimum purchase requirements are also a consideration in choosing material for your application

    More detailed information on corrosion is available on alloy techZone

    although these factors are commonly recognized throughout the metalworking industry, we know that the careful consideration of their importance can be a time-consuming and frustrating experience thats why Carpenter developed its exclusive Selec