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CH1 組織與組織理論

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(1) q 2000 3.84 170 q $64 $4 380 q 22,000 q q

(2) 1906 Haloid Company 1959 914 q Wilson q (Burox) q

(3)1990 CEO Kearns q 1990 Allaire CEO IBM Thomas q 2001 Mulcahy CEO q

Mulcahy (1) , q , , q , q 30%, 6 7 , 23 , , , q , q

Mulcahy (2) q 2002 2003 , 2/3 , iGen , 1/4 q US$13.44 (9/2)q

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(social entities) q (goal directed) q (designed as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems) q (linked to the external environment)q

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(the boundary spanning subsystem) -- q (the production subsystem)-- q (the maintenance subsystem)-- q (the adaptive subsystem)-- q (the management subsystem)-- q

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(organizational configuration)-Mitzberg : (technical core)- (technical support)- (administrative support)- (management)-

Dimension of Organization Designq

Organizational dimensions fall into two types: Structural dimensions provide labels to describe the internal characteristics of an organization. They create a basis for measuring and comparing organizations Contextual dimensions characterize the whole organization, including its size, technology, environment, and goals. They describe the organizational setting that influences and shapes the structural dimensions

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(formalization)- (specialization)- (hierarchy of authority)- (centralization)- (professionalism)- (personnel ratios)-

(size)- q (organizational technology)- q (environment)- q (goals and strategy)- q (culture)- q

Formalization

Centralization Non-workflow Personnel

100

Standardization

Standard Score

50

0 Compan y Technology Size

W.L. Core & Associates Manufacturing 4,200

Wal-Mart Retailing 200,000

State Arts Agency Government Service 135

q q (scientific management) q (administrative principle) q (The Hawthorne Studies) q (contingency theory)

The science of chaos theory suggests that relationships in complex, adaptive systemsincluding organizations-are nonlinear and made up of numerous interconnections and divergent choices q (learning organization)- q

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(level of analysis) (organizational behavior)- , q (organization theory)- q (meso theory)- , q

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