Change Agents

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  • 1. - , , PhD Candidate, Research Officer 47 & 33 210-8203870

2. Agenda 3.

  • ( OD consultant s)
  • , , ,
  • , , , , (Argyris, 1970; Beckhard, 1969 ;Bennis, 1969 ;Burke, 199 7;Havelock, 1973 ;Lewin,1958;Schein, 1988)
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(1/ 4 ) 4.

  • 2. ( )
  • ( Kanter, 1989;1999) ( Nadler&Tushman ,1989)
  • ( Bennis, 1989; Macenzie, 1969; Zaleznik, 1977)
  • , , , politics ( Balogun et al., 1999;Beatty & Lee, 1992; Caldwell, 2003; Santora et al., 1999 )
  • ( Buchanan, 2003; Graetz et al, 2003; Mayon-White, 1993 ) ( Beatty & Lee ,1992; Caldwell, 2003 )
  • = , , , , ,

(2/ 4 ) 5.

  • 3.
  • , . ( Frohman, 1997; Kotter, 1990 )
  • = (), ( Nadler&Tushman ,1989)
  • a champion is required to identify the idea as his or her own, to promote the idea actively and vigorously through informal networks, and to risk his or her position and prestige to ensure the innovation's success (Schon, 1963)
  • = entrepreneurial change leaders and issue seller ( Dutton et al., 2004 ; Howell, Shea & Higgins , 2005; Maidique, 1980)

(3/ 4 ) 6.

  • 4 . Managers ( specialists)
  • Change agents are conceived as middle level managers and functional specialists who adapt, carry forward or build units or key functions ( Beatty & Lee, 1992; Buchanan & Badham, 1999 Caldwell, 2003; Dutton et al., 1997; Herzig & Jimmieson, 2006; Shanley, 2007)
  • ( project manager)( Achilladelis, Jervis, & Robertson, 1971; Beatty & Lee, 1992, Kendra and Taplin, 2003)
  • HR ( Caldwell ,200 1;Doyle, 200 3;Lam & Schaubroeck ,2000 ;Ulrich ,1997)
  • (McKinsey Co, 1997),

(4/ 4 )

  • -(Buchanan & Storey, 1997;Caldwell, 2003;Cummings&Worley, 1997; Doyle, 2002; Hutton, 1994; Katzenbach, 1997; Kotter, 1996; Mayon-White, 1993; Nadler & Tushman, 1998)

7.

  • managers
  • =
  • CEO
  • ( ) soft ( people skills)
  • : , ,

: 8. , , , (1/2) 9.

  • : , , , , ,
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  • to promote the idea actively and vigorously through informal networks, and to risk his or her position and prestige to ensure the innovation's success
  • :

, , , (2/2) 10.

  • Ottaway (1980)
  • Change generators (Key change agents, demonstrators, Patron, Defenders)
  • Change Implementors (external implementor, internal implementors)
  • Change Adopters (Early Adopters, Maintainers, Users)
  • Maidique (1980)
  • Technological Entrepreneur
  • Product Champion
  • Executive Champion
  • Technical Definition
  • Sponsorship
  • Business Definition
  • Change makers (Kanter):
  • S trategists
  • Implementors
  • Recipients

11.

  • ( Gilley et al, 2001)
  • Business Partner
  • Servant Leader
  • Change champion
  • Future Shaper
  • Caldwell(2001)
    • HR change champions
    • Change adapters
    • Change consultants
    • Synergists
  • Caldwell (2001)
  • Leadership models
  • Management model
  • Consultancy model
  • Team models

??? 12.

  • .

13. Change agency CASE STUDY OTiCON S.A. Lars Kolind ;;;;;

  • Live the future, view and vision, architect
  • Emotional Intelligence (make people smile)
  • Resource allocator, implementer, providing direction, inspirator
  • Communication, coalition building, entrepreneurship, team player networking skills
  • Championing and passion (pg 350) the way people perceive work, not the hearing aids if in doubt do it. If it works, fine. If it doesnt we forgive
  • Project management, recruitment of change implementors
  • Stick to change, accept the resistance factor, persistence, courage
  • Realistic previewer
  • Commitment to change (leaves when change refreezed)

14. (1/2)

  • Persuade others, interpersonal-intrapersonal skills, technical skills( )
  • ( Dispositional characteristics )
  • self efficacy, openness to experience, Locus of control, neuroticism, resilience, tolerance for ambiguity etc
  • ,

15.

  • , , ,grit perseverance ( ) , self identification, outspokenness
  • (be realistic previewer of the change)

(2/2) 16.

  • ( project) ( project)
  • manager
  • Katzenbach et al.(1997) distinguish good managers who analyse, organize, monitor and control, from real change leaders, who create, innovate, experiment and take risks.
  • The competency is not enoughNeed expertise the effective change agent is able to deploy those core competences appropriately in context, and is not merely able to display those competences separately (Buchanan and Boddy, 1992)

O manager; ) 17.

  • managers;
  • ;
  • ;
  • (I stand out for change, choose me!!!)

;;;

  • ; ( First in , then out)
  • ;
  • ;
  • ;

( i.e. assessment centers, business simulations, psychometrics etc) 18. Nadler ,Shaw & Walton 19.

  • Avoiding Flying Monkeys, Smoking Poppies
  • Some tips
  • Think of organization organically
  • Network like crazy
  • Live in the future not the present
  • Document your own learning
  • Not everyone get it in the same way
  • Know the business
  • Dont raise expectations unless you can fulfill them
  • Expect change to take longer than previously expected

20. Inconsistent with the initial attitudes to changeConsistent with the initial attitudes to changeDispositions & Competencies Pre-change attitudes Perceived impact of change Type of change PREDICTORS/ ADECEDENTS Attitudes towards change IntentionsBehavior CHANGE AGENCY PROCESS Change Success Change Effectiveness Change Performance OUTCOMES OF CHANGE AGENCY 21. If you think you are too small to be effective, you have never been in bed with a mosquito. ;;;;;;; 22.

  • References
  • Caldwell, R. 2001. Champions, adapters, consultants and synergists: the new change agents in HRM.Human Resource Management Journal , 11(3): 39-52.
  • Caldwell, R. 2003a. Change leaders or change managers: Different or complementary?Leadership and Organizational Development Journa l, 24: 285-293.
  • Caldwell, R. 2003b. A model of change agents: A fourfold classification.British Journal of Management , 14(2): 131-142.
  • Doyle, M. 2003. From change novice to change experts: Issues of learning, development and support.Personnel Review , 31: 465-481.
  • Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J, Pucik, V., Welbourne, T. M. 1999. Managerial coping with organizational change: A dispositional perspective.Journal of Applied Psychology , 84 (1): 107-122.
  • Walker, H. J., Armenakis, A. A., Bernerth, J. B. 2007.Factors influencing organizational change efforts. An integrative investigation of change content, context, process and individual differences.Journal of Organizational Change Management , 20 (6): 761-773.
  • Wanberg, C. R., Banas, J. T. 2000.Predictors and outcomes of openness to changes in a reorganizing workplace.Journal of Applied Psychology , 85(1): 132-142.

23.

  • Books
  • Buchanan, D., Boddy, D. 1992. The expertise of the change agent: Public performance and backstage activity (1st ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Kanter, R. M. 1984. The change masters (2nd ed.). London: Allen & Unwin.
  • Katzenbach, J. R. 1996.Real change leaders (2nd ed.). New York: McKinsey & Company.
  • Balogun, J. & Hope Hailey, V. 1999. Exploring strategic change (1st ed.). London: Prentice Hall
  • Hambrick, D. C., Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. 1998. Navigating change: How Ceos, top teams, and boards steer transformation. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.