Text of Chap 15 Chemical senses. Here comes your footer Page 2 日常觀察 ...
Chap 15 Chemical senses
Here comes your footer Page 2 combine? Flavor = smell + taste Chemical senses are - -
Here comes your footer Page 3 Olfactory system Menstrual synchrony Pheromones Anosmia Detection threshold Yes/no procedure -trials with odors along with blank trials -This can result in bias Forced-choice -one with odorant and one without -Participant indicates which smells strongest
Here comes your footer Page 5 Olfactory system Difference threshold Ofactometer Recognition threshold knowing names helps recognition
Neural codes for olfactory quality Olfactory mucosa is located at the top of the nasal cavity. -Odorants come in contact with the olfactory receptor neurons (ORN). Page 6
Neural codes for olfactory quality (olfactory receptor neurons, ORN) -Contains olfactory receptors -350 receptors (note: only 4 visual pigments) -But, only one olfactory receptor for one ORN Page 7
Neural codes for olfactory quality Olfactory bulb - - hardwired response? e.g. cat odor Page 12
Higher Level Olfactory Processing Signals from the olfactory bulb are sent to -primary olfactory (piriform) cortex in the temporal lobe and amygdala. -Amygdala plays a role in emotional reactions to odors. -(then to) secondary olfactory (orbitofrontal) cortex in the frontal lobe.
Here comes your footer Page 14 Higher order olfactory processing
Here comes your footer Page 15 Higher order olfactory processing e.g. (Morrot et al., 2001)
Here comes your footer Page 18 Higher order olfactory processing de Araujo et al. People were exposed to a mixture of a sweat-like smell and a cheddar cheese flavoring. On some trials, they saw the label cheddar cheese, and on others, the label body odor. Pleasantness ratings were higher for the cheddar cheese trials. fMRI scans showed activity in the orbitofrontal cortex to be associated with the pleasantness ratings.