Chap 49-2 Melatonin and sleep/wake cycles B9902021 周予婷 B9902033 侯如盈

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  • Chap 49-2 Melatonin and sleep/wake cycles B9902021 B9902033
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  • Melatonin A hormone secreted by the pineal gland contains light-sensitive cells or has nervous connection from the eyes converts serotonin into melatonin The Melatonin/Serotonin cycle tryptophan melatonin serotonin neurotransmitter of the sleeping-producing centers high in milk
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  • a vital part of many biochemical systems including sleep and learning free radical scavenging in all cells a potent antioxidant with anti-aging and anti- cancer properties helps to protect embryonic fetuses mediates many hormone functions assists in maintaining immune system health and virus protection Functions of melatonin
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  • The regulation of the melatonin secretion SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) melatonin project the information about illumination ganglion cells the pineal gland interprets the information on the lengths of the day and night secretes feedback(unknown): decrease the activity of SCN
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  • Fig. The biochemical mediation system for serotonin transformation to melatonin in the pinealocytes showing the signal transduction pathways from the retina to the cell and the cell receptor, through cyclic AMP and NAT to the transformation process, Reiter (1994). PVN: paraventricular nucleus SCG: superior cervical ganglia NE: Norepinephrine NAT: N- N-acetyltransferase N- Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase
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  • Potential medical indications Cancer Immunology Menstrual cycle - fertility Puberty onset Learning and memory Treatment of circadian rhythm disorders Mood disorders
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  • Insomnia Types of insomnia jet lag the chronic circadian rhythm disorders Treatment Melatonin and melatonin agonists relatively mild side-effect without altering the sleep pattern Antidepressants Antihistamines
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  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Mood disorder the normal biorhythm is disturbed during a season, especially autumn-winter Symptoms oversleep / over eat / difficulty concentrating/ depression Treatment light therapy and supplementation of melatonin.
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  • The 24-Hour Cycle of Melatonin Production EEG- wave
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  • Campbell Wiki Melatonin/Circadian rhythm/N-acetyltransferase /SAD/Insomnia Dr Neil Cherry, 2000: EMR Reduces Melatonin in Animals and People ( emr/EMR-Reduces-Melatonin.htm)