Chap01-Tong Quan Ve Mang May Tinh Va Truyen Thong

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    Mng my tnh

    Ging vin: Bi Trng TngB mn Truyn thng v Mng my tnh

    Vin Cng ngh thng tin v Truyn thngi hc Bch khoa H Ni

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    V mn hc ny

    Ging vin

    Bi Trng Tng, Vin CNTT&TT - BK HN

    Email : tungbt@soict.hut.edu.vn

    a ch : phng 801 nh B1 - BKHN

    ST : 04 3868 0896

    http://soict.hut.edu.vn/~tungbt/MMT_CNCN.zip

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    Ti liu tham kho

    TCP/IP Illustrated Vol I-The Protocols, Richard Steves, Addison-Wesley

    Internetworking with TCP/IP, Vol 1, Douglas Comer, Prentice Hall Computer

    Networking: a top-down approach featuring the Internet, James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross, Addison Wesley, 4thed, 2006

    Mng my tnh v cc h thng m, Nguyn Thc Hi, NXB Gio Dc

    TCP/IP tutorial and technical overview, Lydia Parziale, David T.Britt, ibm.com/redbooks

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    Chng 1. Tng quan v mng my tnh v truyn thng

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    1. C bn v mng my tnh

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    ARPA: Advanced Research Project AgencyUCLA: University California Los Angeles SRI: Stanford Research InstituteIMP: Interface Message Processor

    Source: http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

    1.1. Lch s Internet

    Bt u t mt th nghim ca d n ca ARPA

    Mt lin kt gia hai nt mng (IMP ti UCLA v IMP ti SRI)

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    3 thng sau, 12/1969

    Mt mng hon chnh vi 4 nt, 56kbps

    UTAHSRI

    UCSBUCLA

    UCSB:University of California, Santa Barbara

    UTAH:University of Utah

    source: http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

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    ARPANET thi k u, 1971

    Mng pht trin vi tc thm mi nt mt thng

    Source:http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

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    Thp nin 70: Kt ni lin mng, kin trc mng mi v cc mng ring

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    S m rng ca ARPANET, 1974

    Lu lng mi ngy vt qu 3.000.000 gi tinsource:http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

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    Thp nin 70

    T u 1970 xut hin cc mng ring:

    ALOHAnet ti Hawaii

    DECnet, IBM SNA, XNA

    1974: Cerf & Kahn nguyn l kt ni cc h thng m (Turing Awards)

    1976: Ethernet, Xerox PARC

    Cui 1970: ATM

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    Thp nin 80: Cc giao thc mi, kt ni thm mng mi

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    1981: Xy dng mng NSFNET

    NSF: National Science Foundation

    Phc v cho nghin cu khoa hc, do s qu ti ca ARPANET

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    1986: Ni kt USENET& NSFNET

    Source: http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

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    Thm nhiu mng v giao thc mi

    Thm nhiu mng mi ni vo: MFENET, HEPNET (Dept. Energy), SPAN (NASA), BITnet, CSnet, NSFnet, Minitel

    TCP/IP c chun ha v ph bin vo1980

    Berkeley tch hp TCP/IP vo BSD Unix

    Dch v: FTP, Mail, DNS

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    Thm nhiu mng v giao thc mi

    Thm nhiu mng mi ni vo: MFENET, HEPNET (Dept. Energy), SPAN (NASA), BITnet, CSnet, NSFnet, Minitel

    TCP/IP c chun ha v ph bin vo1980

    Berkeley tch hp TCP/IP vo BSD Unix

    Dch v: FTP, Mail, DNS

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    Thp nin 90: Web v thng mi ha Internet

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    Thp nin 90

    u 90: ARPAnet ch l mt phn ca Internet

    u 90: Web

    HTML, HTTP: Berners-Lee

    1994: Mosaic, Netscape

    Cui 90: Thng mi

    ha Internet

    Cui 1990s 2000s:

    Nhiu ng dng mi: chat, chia s file P2P

    E-commerce, Yahoo, Amazon, Google

    > 50 triu my trm, > 100 triu NSD

    Vn an ton an ninh thng tin!

    Internet dnh cho tt c mi ngi

    Tt c cc dch v phi quan tm ti vn ny

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    Lc s Internet Vit Nam

    1991: N lc kt ni Internet khng thnh. (V mt l do no )

    1996: Gii quyt cc cn tr, chun b h tng Internet ISP: VNPT

    64kbps, 1 ng kt ni quc t, mt s NSD

    1997: Vit Nam chnh thc kt ni Internet 1 IXP: VNPT

    4 ISP: VNPT, Netnam (IOT), FPT, SPT

    2007: Mi nm Internet Vit Nam 20 ISPs, 4 IXPs

    19 triu NSD, 22.04% dn s

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    Thng k gn y

    Source: Vnnic, http://www.thongkeinternet.vn

    20.822.8

    26.8

    30.522.0424.4

    26.55

    31.11

    35.03

    0

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    10

    15

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    25

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    35

    40

    0.0

    5.0

    10.0

    15.0

    20.0

    25.0

    30.0

    35.0

    2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

    %

    Users

    (m

    illio

    n)

    Number of Internet users by year s ngi dng (triu ngi)% dn s

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    Bng thng kt ni i quc t (Mbps),

    Tng cng: 132202.0 Mbps

    Bng thng kt ni i quc t (Mbps)

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    2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

    Series1 12580 50064 53659 96320 132202

    0

    20000

    40000

    60000

    80000

    100000

    120000

    140000

    Bn

    g t

    h

    ng

    Tc tng trng bng thng

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    Internet nhng nm 2000s: Tng lai l ca cc bn

    ng dng v cng ngh mi Youtube, Skype, Bittorrent, Video & VoIP...

    Mng khng dy, mng quang hc, thng tin di ng

    .

    Internet s tip tc ci tin dch v v bin i khng ngng Mang li s thun tin cho mi ngi

    Chng ta c th lm c iu !

    Thng k Internet 2012

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    Thng k Internet 2012

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    Thng k Internet 2012

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    Thng k Internet 2012

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    Thng k Internet 2012

    Lu lng thng tin trao i : 168 triu a DVD

    S email c gi i : 249 t (~90% l th rc)

    Truy cp facebook : 4,7 t pht

    Thi lng video ti ln youtube : 864.000 gi

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    1.2. Cc khi nim c bn

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    1.2.1. Mng my tnh l g?

    Tp hp cc my tnh kt ni vi nhau da trn mt kin trc no c th trao i d liu

    My tnh: my trm, my ch, b nh tuyn

    Kt ni bng mt phng tin truyn

    Theo mt kin trc mng

    Cc dng my tnh?

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    ng truyn vt l

    L cc phng tin vt l c kh nng truyn dn tn hiu

    Phn loi: Hu tuyn: cp xon, cp ng trc, cp quang,

    V tuyn: sng radio, viba, sng hng ngoi,

    Mt s yu t c trng : Bng tn

    tin cy : t l bt li khi truyn

    suy hao

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    Kin trc mng

    Kin trc mng: Hnh trng (topology) v giao thc (protocol)

    Hnh trng mng

    Trc (Bus), Vng (Ring), Sao (Star)

    Thc t l s kt hp ca nhiu hnh trng khc nhau

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    Giao thc l g?

    Giao thc ngi-ngi

    yu cu

    tr li

    request

    response

    Hi

    Hi

    Anh cho himy gi ri ?

    2:00

    Thi gian

    Giao thc my-my

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    Giao thc mng

    Protocol: Quy tc truyn thng

    Gi mt thng ip vi yu cu hoc thng tin

    Nhn mt thng ip vi thng tin, s kin hoc hnh ng

    nh ngha khun dng v th t truyn, nhn thng ip gia cc thc th trn mng hoc cc hnh ng tng ng khi nhn c thng ip

    V d v giao thc mng: TCP, UDP, IP, HTTP, Telnet, SSH, Ethernet,

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    1.2.2. Phn loi mng my tnh

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    PAN (

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    Chuyn mch gi vs. Chuyn mch knh

    Chuyn mch knh Trao i d liu s dng mt knh ring .

    Mi lin kt s dng mt knh. Ti nguyn cho knh khng c s dng bi ngi khc tr khi ng lin kt

    Chuyn mch gi D liu c chia thnh cc gi nh (packets), v c

    chuyn qua mng

    Nhiu lin kt c th chia s mt knh

    Internet (vi giao thc IP Internet Protocol) s dng chuyn mch gi

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    Chuyn mch knh

    Ti nguyn c gn ring cho mi knhK c khi ti nguyn ca knh angg ri, ngi khc cng khng c dng

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    Chuyn mch gi

    Ton b bng thng c chia s cho tt c mi ngi, Nu cn bng thng, ai cng c th s dng

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    Chuyn mch gi vs. Chuyn mch knh

    Chuyn mch knh Mi knh ch dng cho duy nht 1 lin kt

    Bo m bng thng (cn cho cc ng dng audio/video)

    Lng ph nu lin kt khng s dng ht kh nng ca knh

    Chuyn mch gi Tng hiu qu s dng bng thng

    Tt cho cc dng d liu n ngu nhin, khng nh trc

    Hn ch: Tc nghn lm tr v mt gi tin, khng bo m bng thng

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    Truyn thng hng lin kt vs. khng lin kt

    Truyn thng hng lin kt : D liu c truyn qua mt lin kt c

    thit lp

    Ba giai on: Thit lp lin kt, truyn d liu, Hy b lin kt

    Tin cy

    Truyn thng khng lin kt Khng thit lp lin kt, ch c giai on truyn d

    liu

    Khng tin cy - Best effort

    im-im v im-a im

    im im (point-to-point)

    Cc cp nt mng c kt ni ring bit

    Mi nt ng vai tr lu tr v chuyn tip d liu

    im a im (point-to-multipoint)

    Cc nt mng s dng chung mt kt ni

    D liu gi t 1 nt no s c nhn bi tt c cc nt cn li

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    2. Mt s tham s trong mng

    Cc thng s c bn

    Bng thng

    Thng lng

    tr

    Tr trn thit b u cui

    Tr trn thit b trung gian

    Tr truyn tin

    Tr lan truyn

    mt gi tin

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    tr

    dproc : tr u cui (vi s)

    dqueue : tr trn thit b trung gian (ph thuc vo hiu nng thit b v tc nghn trn ng truyn)

    dtrans :tr truyn tin (ph thuc bng thng)

    dprop :tr lan truyn (vi s ti hng trm ms)

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    Tr v mt mt gi tin

    S gi tin n vt qu kh nng chuyn tip ca thit b

    Cc gi tin phi xp hng

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    3. Kin trc phn tng

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    Phn chia cc chc nng trong vic trao i thng tin

    Bn gi Bn nhnThng tin mun

    trao i

    Ngn ng

    Chuyn t suy ngh sang li ni

    Ngn ng

    Thng tin nhn c

    Cc phng tin truyn thng

    Japanese?English?

    Th?in thoi?E-mail?

    Vic trao i thng ti