Chuong 1 - Tong Quan Ve Revit Va Bim

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  • Chng 1 Tng quan v Revit v BIM

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 1

    Chng 1 Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    A. M u

    I. Gii thiu Revit Architecture l mt phn mm dng cho ngnh thit k kin trc ca hng AutoDesk c sn xut theo khuynh hng BIM. Ni dung ca chng ny l trnh by nhng kin thc c bn ngi s dng bit c Revit Architecture lm c g v lm nh th no cho minh khi s dng n,

    II. Mc ch Sau khi hon tt nghin cu v thc hnh chung ny, ngi s dng s Hiu c thit k kin trc vi s h tr ca my tnh theo khuynh hng BIM. Bc u quen thuc vi giao din v c im hot ng ca Revit Architecture Mt s thao tc c bn trong vic thit k mt cng trnh kin trc Ban u hnh thnh mt phong cch t duy thit k vi my tnh l cng c h tr tht s

    ch my tnh ch thay bt thc trong qu trnh lm vic.

    B. Ni dung

    I. Lch s ca Revit Building i vi nhng ngi lm thit k kin trc ca Vit Nam , cc phn mm ca Hng AutoDesk l kh quen thuc. Ho khng xa l g vi cc phn mm nh ACAD, 3D Studio, 3D Max, 3D Viz . . . Sau hn mt thp nin s dng , ho quen thuc n xem nh y l nhng phn mm c bn cho ngnh thit k xy dng . Hin nay, phn ln cc c s o to ngnh thit k kin trc vn con tip tc dy phn mm ACAD nh l phn mm chuyn ngnh. Phn mm ACAD cho cng vic thit k kin trc trong th ky 21 c hiu qu hay khng? C l chng ta nghe ni n nhng phn mm khc nh Architectural Desktop, Micro Station, ArchiCad . . . ca nhiu hng khc nhau. Vy th ta nn chon phn mm no cho cng vic thit k hin nay. Tht ra, mi phn mm u c u khuyt im ring ca mnh. Vn t ra khng phi l phn mm no hay hay d, m mi c nhn u phi t mnh tm ra phn mm thch hp cho cng vic hng ngy. tng chnh xc cho vic chon la ny, chng ta s xem li lich s pht trin cc phn mm ca hng AutoDesk pht hnh cho ngnh thit k xy dng.

    1. Cac phn mm ca hang AutoDesk cho ngnh thit k kin truc a. Khai nim v CAD CAD l vit tt ca cm t Computer Aided Design (my tnh tr gip thit k ) ng thi cung l c mun ca con ngi trong thi i tin hoc. Ni chung, thit k l mt cng vic ca nhiu ngnh ngh khc nhau . Tuy nhin, i vi ngnh thit k xy dng th iu

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 2

    ban u c hiu nh l s xut hin ca hnh nh trn mn hnh theo y mun ca ngi s dng. to lp mt hnh nh trn mn hnh, my tnh da vo 2 nguyn ly ca ngnh ton hnh hoc :

    Nguyn ly cua hinh hoc c in : hnh nh l tp hp cc im . Da vo nguyn ly ny s c hnh nh dng raster. y l dng hnh nh cui cng c to thnh bi cc phn mm nh 3D Max, 3D Viz . . .

    Mt im ca hnh nh c biu thi trn mn hnh bng mt pixel . Mt pixel c qun ly bi cc thuc tnh nh vi tr, mu sc . . . V vy, mt hnh nh c kch thc hnh hoc cng ln th s pixel cng nhiu , keo theo yu c u nhiu ti nguyn ca phn cng qun ly thng tin. H qu l dung lng file cng ln , phn mm s x ly chm Hnh raster thng c nhng u im c bn l : mu sc v to hnh phong ph gn vi thc t.

    Nguyn ly cua hinh hoc giai tich : hnh nh l thi ca mt hm s y = f(x). Da vo nguyn ly ny s c hnh nh dng vector . y l dng hnh nh c to ra bi phn mm nh ACAD

    Mt hnh nh vector c qun ly bng mt hm s v mt vi thng s . Do , d kch thc hnh nh ln hay nho cung khng nh hng nhiu n dung lung file. Hnh vector thng c nhng c im : n sc, to hnh kem phong ph so vi hnh raster. C th to hnh phong ph hn , nhng v cn nhiu hm s hoc hm s bc cao nn dn n l dung lng file tng theo , nhng vn khng ln bng hnh raster cng mt ni dung.

    Vy ngi lm thit k kin trc s dng loai phn mm no, kt qu l hnh raster hay vector, cho cng vic hng ngy ca mnh ? Cu tra li l ca hai. C vector ln raster, ty thuc vo giai oan no trong qu trnh thit k : qu trnh thit k cc khng gian chc nng, vector hiu qu hn; qu trnh nghin cu vt liu v mu, raster hiu qu hn. Bn cnh , ngoai nhng hnh nh thy c trn mn hnh l thng tin hnh hoc (graphic information), ngi lm thit k kin trc con cn n nhng thng tin khng phi l hnh nh goi l thng tin phi hnh hoc (non-graphic information ) nh din tch , th t ch, khi lng . . . ca cng vic m ho ang lm. Xem hnh 1.B.I.1a Da trn nhng thng tin phi hnh hoc, khng ch ngnh thit k cng trnh m cc b mn lin quan n mt d n nh ti chnh, qun ly d n . . . s khai thc thc c th cho cng vic ca mnh phc v d n.

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 3

    V d : hin nay, Vit Nam chng ta, kh c mt d n no c th a ra tng vn u t mt cch chnh xc. C nhiu nguyn nhn, nhng nguyn nhn ch yu l khu thit k khng c mt cng c tnh ton khi lng thit k mt cc nhanh chng v ng tin cy m hu nh da hon ton vo con ngi. Nu ngi thit k s dng cc phn mm theo khuynh hng BIM thit k th khi lng s c tnh ton mt cch t ng v hon toan chnh xc theo nhng g xut hin trn mn hnh.

    Hnh 1.B.I.1 Trn c s hai phng thc hnh thnh nh trn, cc phn mm CAD to lp cc hnh thc xut hin gm :

    Surface Model : Ruled Surfaces Solid Modeling NURB Surface Modeling Parametric Modeling

    Xem hnh 1.B.I.2

    Surface Models

    Ruled Surface

    Solid Modeling

    NURB Surface Modeling

    Parametric Modeling

    Hnh 1.B.I.2

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 4

    Trong 5 thnh phn c bn trn th Solid Modeling v Parametric Modeling c ngnh thit k kin trc s dng nhiu hn c. Modelling c m hnh ho thnh cc m hnh di y :

    Box : khi hp Cylinder : khi tr Cone : khi nn Torus : khi vong xuyn Wedge : khi hnh nm Sphere : khi cu

    Box

    Cylinder

    Cone

    Wedge

    Torus

    Sphere

    Hnh 1.B.I.3

    T cc m hnh c bn v da trn nguyn ly ca bin hnh Morphology, mt s lnh c dng to hnh theo tr tng tng ngi s dng. Da vo nhng yu t va cp trn y , hng AutoDesk ln lt xut bn nhng phn mm khc nhau cho ngnh thit k xy dng. b. Cac phn mm cho ngnh thit k xy dng ca hang AutoDesk

    Trong nhng nm 90, ACAD l phn mm c ngi thit k kin trc s dng ph bin nht khi thit k hnh hoc vector (m nh im l ACAD R.14 hin nay l phin bn 2008), v 3D Max (nh im l phin bn 5.0, hin nay l phin bn 9.0)

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 5

    khi thit k hnh hoc raster. y c xem nh l nhng phn mm ng dng cng ngh th nht l CAD. Nhn vo hin trng s dng ti Vit Nam, ACAD c s dng nh l mt cng c v k thut. CAD ch c y ngha nh l Computer Aided Drawing. Mt s ngi c kh nng lp trnh bng AutoLisp pht trin thm mt s lnh chuyn ngnh kn trc. Tuy nhin, s pht trin ny cung khng th hn na v thiu nhng c s php ly mang tnh v m. iu ny c th hin c th qua s vic l n nay Vit Nam vn cha c mt quy chun v t tn Layer (Hip Hi Kin Trc S Hoa K ban hnh tiu chun ny t nm 1994). Trc khi xut bn ACAD 2000, AutoDesk c th nghim mt phin bn 14.1 goi tn l Architectural Desktop. Phn mm ny l s kt hp gia phn mm Acad v AEC (truc y ca hng SoftDesk). y l phin bn dnh ring cho ngi tht k kin trc. Ngi s dng n nhn phin bn ny mt cc nng nhit v ho thy rng y ng l mt phn mm CAD ng ngha (Computer Aided Design). Tuy nhin, cng s dng ho cng thy thiu nhng cng c cn thit. AutoDesk tip tc pht trin cho n phin bn Architectural Desktop 2006 c xem nh l phin bn c s dng ph bin nht.

    n nhng nm u th ky 21, ngi thit k kin trc trn th gii s dng

    Architectural Desktop cho thit k Vector v Viz Render cho thit k raster hoc dng trc tip v 3D Viz nu ch mun to c kt qu thit k kin trc bng hnh raster. Hin nay, Architectural Desktop s dng phin bn 2008. y l nhng ng dng ca cng ngh th 2 goi l cng ngh CAD Objects. Architectural Desktop l mt phn mm c pht trin da trn nn ca phn ACAD nhng theo hng BIM (Building Information Modelling xem phn gii thch bn di). Vi phn mm ny, ngi thit k kin trc thay i hn cch lm vic ca mnh. Ho khng con phi lm vic nh khi dng phn mm ACAD (phng php lm vic nh vi bt thc). Ho khng phi nghin cu i tng bng mt bng, mt ng, mt ct . . . m ch nghin cu hoan toan trn hnh 3D. Tt c nhng thng tin hnh hoc nh mt bng, mt ng, mt ct . . . hay thng tin phi hnh hoc nh khi lng thit k, s lng vt t . . . u c trch xut t ng t m hnh 3D. CAD ca ngnh thit k kin trc tr thnh mt b mn mi ca ngnh tin hoc v mang tn CAADD (Computer Aided Architectural Design and Database). Tuy nhin, do da trn phn mm ACAD nn Architectual Desktop c nhng hn ch nh : mt s chi tit kin trc (nh mi vom) khng th c phn mm thit k t ng theo hng BIM c; mun s dng phn mm phi s dng c ACAD; nm bt c chng trnh phc v cho cng vic thit k khng phi l mt vic d dng. Ngoai ra, s hiu bit su sc v y mt s lnh nh Pedit, Line, Poyline, Xef . . . ca Acad l rt cn thit s dng c Architectural Desktop.

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 6

    C l rng, y chnh l nguyn nhn nhng ngi thit k kin trc ca Vit Nam tuy thy c nhng li ch qu thit thc ca Architectuarl Desktop cho cng vic ca mnh, nhng s dng kh hn ch.

    n u nm 2006, vi phin bn 9 ca Revit Building, ngi thit k kin trc trn th gii c mt cng c kh ly tng cho cng vic hng ngy ca mnh. Tuy l mt sn phm ca mt hng phn mm quen thuc l AutoDesk, nhng ngi thit k kin trc Vit Nam rt t bit n. C nhiu nguyn nhn, nhng c l nguyn nhn quan trong nht l khng y n mt trong nhng c s ly lun quan trong Revit Architecture xut hin v nhn c s n nhn nng nhit ca th gii l khuynh hng BIM trong ngnh cng nghip xy dng.

    Vi Revit Building, ngi s dng khng cn phi