Chuong4 khoi dieukhien

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  • 1. 1 - Tng qut v khi iu khin 1. Nhim v ca khi iu khin . Nh tn gi ca n th khi iu khin lm nhim v iu khin mi s hot ng ca my, bao gm cc iu khin nh sau : - iu khin m ngun . - iu khin duy tr ngun . - iu khin m ngun cho knh thu v knh pht tn hiu . - iu khin qu trnh np Pin - iu khin qu trnh m ho v gii m tn hiu - Kim sot tn hiu a ra mn hnh LCD - Kim sot m qut bn phm - Kim sot SIM Card - iu khin s hot ng ca Camera - iu khin cp ngun cho khi hng ngoi, Bluetooth - iu khin tn hiu bo dung, chung, led . Biu hin khi hng khi iu khin l g ? Tu theo cc mc h hng m dn n mt mt trong cc chc nng trn , v vy khi hng khi iu khin c th dn ti mt trong cc hin tng sau : - My khng m c ngun - M ln ngun nhng khng duy tr, ln ngun ri tt . - My hng thu, mt sng . - My hng pht . - Mt tn hiu a ra mn hnh LCD, hoc tn hiu trn mn hnh b sai vi thit k ca my . - Mt tc dng ca bn phm hoc mt tc dng ca mt s www.hocnghe.com.vn xuanvinh_0912421959 Ti liu ny ng k bn quyn

2. phm - My khng nhn SIM hoc bo li SIM - Khng s dng c Camera - Khng s dng c hng ngoi hay Bluetooth - Mt tn hiu m bo nh Dung - Chung - hay n Led . => Trong cc hin tng hng khi iu khin th hin tng my khng ln ngun v ngun khng duy tr l hay gp nht . 2. Cc thnh phn trong khi iu khin CPU ( Center Processor Unit - n v x l trung tm) cn gi l IC vi x l. - CPU hot ng theo cc m lnh c lp trnh sn np vo trong b nh , CPU s khng hot ng c nu khng c phn mm np trong b nh Memory. - Trong in thoi, CPU l linh kin nhiu chn nht, chn c mt dy v l linh kin kh thay th nht . IC vi x l Memory : l tp hp ca cc b nh bao gm : - ROM ( Read Olly Memory ) y l b nh ch c, d liu trong b nh ny c nh sn xut np sn, b nh ROM c nhim v lu gi cc trnh iu khin, cc lnh khi ng my . - Vi my Samsung th ROM l IC ring c 8 chn - Mt s my khc ROM c th tch hp vo trong FLASH - Vi NOKIA dng DCT4 hoc cao hn th ROM li c tch hp trong IC ngun, v vy khi thay IC ngun NOKIA ta phi vit li d liu vo ROM th my mi c th hot ng c ( Gi l qu trnh ng b IC ngun ) - FLASH : L IC nh c tc nhanh dng np cc phn mm iu khin my nh H iu hnh , vi x l khi hot ng s truy cp v ly ra cc phn mm iu khin my trong IC nh FLASH => qua gii m to ra cc lnh iu khin => iu khin cc b phn khc ca my hot ng . Nu c vn g b nh FLASH th my s khng hot ng ng c, thng thng khi hng FLASH th my khng duy tr ngun . - Qu trnh chy phn mm l xo v np li cc thng tin trn b nh FLASH , nu hng IC nh FLASH th bn khng th chy c phn mm . www.hocnghe.com.vn xuanvinh_0912421959 Ti liu ny ng k bn quyn 3. IC nh FLASH - SRAM : ( Syncho Radom Acccess Memory ) L b nh trung gian lu tr tm cc d liu trong qu trnh x l ca CPU, nu b nh SRAM hng th CPU s khng hot ng c , khi ta tt my th d liu trong SRAM s mt . IC nh SRAM Ch thch : - VK1, VK2, VK3 cc in p khi ng cp cho khi www.hocnghe.com.vn xuanvinh_0912421959 Ti liu ny ng k bn quyn 4. iu khin - Add Bus ( A0 - A20 ) : 21 ng dy a ch gia CPU v b nh FLASH, 21 ng a ch ngha l CPU s qun l c 221 a ch nh trong FLASH . - Data Bus ( D0 - D15 ) : 16 ng dy trao i d liu gia CPU v FLASH, trong mi xung nhp CPU s truyn qua li c 16 bit thng tin . - Write ( WR ) : Lnh cho php ghi d liu vo b nh - Read ( RD ) : Lnh c d liu t b nh - ChipSelect ( CS ) : Lnh chon chp, trong mt IC nh c th c nhiu chp nh, mi thi im th CPU ch giao tip vi mt chp nh ghi hay c thng tin . V my NOKIA 3310 3. Tn hiu x l trong khi iu khin . Tn hiu trong khi iu khin l g ? Cc tn hiu x l v lu tr trong khi iu khin chng tn ti di dng m nh phn ( tn hiu s Digital ) - Thnh phn nh nht ca m nh phn l cc bit 0 hoc 1 - M nh phn c t chc thnh n v l Byte , mi Byte c 8 bit Tn hiu Digital www.hocnghe.com.vn xuanvinh_0912421959 Ti liu ny ng k bn quyn 5. - 1KB = 210 Byte = 1024 Byte - 1MB = 210 KB = 220 Byte - Mi ngn trong b nh n cha c 1Byte thng tin v c nh mt a ch . - CPU s truy cp vo a ch ca ngn nh no thng qua b dy Address , np vo hay ly ra l ph thuc vo lnh Read hay Write, d liu ly ra c truyn v CPU thng qua b dy Data . CPU hot ng nh th no ? hiu CPU hot ng ra sao bn hy tm hiu qu trnh thao tc trn in thoi . - Khi bn bm bm .. bn phm , CPU cha lm g c n tm thi np cc thng tin ca bn vo SRAM . => Khi bn bm OK hay mt phm thc thi no n => ngha l bn yu cu CPU x l . - CPU s c yu cu ca bn v truy cp vo b nh ly ra phn mm iu khin tng ng, n thc thi cc lnh ca phn mm v tr v kt qu cho bn . - Nu khng ly c phn mm th CPU s khng thc thi yu cu ca bn . - Nu ly c phn mm khng ng => n s tr v kt qa sai cho bn . - Nu phn mm b thay th bi cc cu lnh c hai th n s thc thi cc lnh c hai ( V d mt yu cu Format li my c thay vo on m x l tin nhn, vy l khi bn nh tin thay v tin nhn c gi i th my li Format lm in thoi ca bn mt ht d liu ) l hin tng in thoi ca bn b Virus . *** Nhng iu trn c ngha g vi bn ?? - ngha nht vi bn l mun bn hiu rng , c ti 40% h hng trong khi iu khin l do li phn mm . - Nu bn c thy hng khi iu khin ( V d my khng m ngun, my khng duy tr ngun, my khng nhp mng ) l mang my kh my hn ra chun b thay th IC, iu ny cng ging nh mt Bc s c thy bnh nhn au bng l mang dao ko ra chun b m rut tha, nu khng phi th tnh sau : lm nh th khi tm c bnh th bnh nhn tc t !!! - Np phn mm nh th no s c cp cc phn sau, nu bn cha bit nhiu v my tnh th hy xem li Phn cng my tnh trc khi c th lm c phn mm in thoi . ngha ca b nh RAM - Khi bn bt my in thoi, cc phn mm cn thit s c np ln b nh RAM bn sn sng s dng, vy cc phn mm l g ? => cc phn mm l tt c nhng g hin th trn mn hnh ca bn, bao gm Menu qun l cc File v th mc qun l cc chng trnh ng dng, mn hnh nn ... - Khi bn nhp vo bn phm, cc d liu cng tm thi np www.hocnghe.com.vn xuanvinh_0912421959 Ti liu ny ng k bn quyn 6. 2 - Phng php S/C khi iu khin . vo RAM - Khi bn nhn mt tin nhn, d liu cng tm thi np vo RAM V vy nu khng c RAM hoc Ram b hng th my s khng nhn bt k mt yu cu no ca bn hay ni cch khc hng RAM th khi iu khin s khng hot ng c . ngha ca b nh FLASH - Nh ta bit mi s hot ng ca CPU u ph thuc vo phn mm np trong FLASH, nu hng FLASH th CPU s khng ly c phn mm iu khin my, v vy my s khng m ngun nu hng FLASH hoc mt sng nu phn mm b li . Nu l hng b nh th thng hng linh kin g ? - Nu l hng b nh th c ti 90% l hng FLASH, 10% cn li l hng ROM hoc SRAM . - Khi hng cc b nh s lm cho khi iu khin khng hot ng c v kt qu l bn khng m c ngun . - Cc trng hp li phn mm thng thng my vn ln ngun nhng s b mt mt trong cc chc nng khc V d My khng ni mng, my khng gi c tin nhn v v... 1. Phn tch cc nguyn nhn h hng trn khi iu khin . hiu c bn cht v nguyn nhn h hng ca khi iu khin ta hy phn tch s sau www.hocnghe.com.vn xuanvinh_0912421959 Ti liu ny ng k bn quyn 7. S lin quan gia cc khi . Nu hng khi ngun s khng c in p cung cp cho khi iu khin => My s khng m ngun , khng c hin th trn mn hnh Nu khi iu khin khng hot ng th => Khng hin th trn mn hnh LCD => Khng c lnh duy tr ngun v my khng m ngun . => Khng c lnh iu khin m ngun cho knh Thu - Pht => Khng c lnh iu khin cc chc nng khc hot ng . Cc nguyn nhn lm cho khi iu khin khng hot ng l : - Hng IC Vi x l - Hng FLASH - Hng RAM - Hng phn mm trong FLASH - Mt dao ng 13MHz Kt lun : - Nu khi iu khin khng hot ng th cha c chc nng no trong my hot ng , in thoi lc ny ging nh ta qun cha lp Pin . => Suy lun ngc li : Ch cn c mt chc nng no hot ng l chng t khi iu khin hot ng . Khi khi iu khin hot ng tuy nhin n vn c th gy ra mt s bnh nh : - My ln ngun ri mt ngay . - My mt sng - My hng pht - My mt dung - Mt chung - Khng bo Led, mn hnh ti om - My hng np . - Khng s dng c Camera - Bm mt s phm khng tc dng Cc nguyn nhn trn thng do : - Lng mi hn trn IC Vi x l, b nh FLASH, RAM - t cp tn hiu - t mch in trong khi iu khin . - Li phn mm trn IC - FLASH 2 . Cc bnh thng gp ca khi iu khin : T s phn tch trn ta c th chia cc h hng ca khi iu khin ra lm hai loi bnh : Bnh 1 : - Cha c chc nng no trong my hot ng => V vy my khng ln ngun, khng c mn hnh hin th . Bnh 2 : My b mt mt chc nng no nh : - My ln ngun ri mt ngay. - My mt sng - My mt Dung - My mt dung www.hocnghe.com.vn xuanvinh_0912421959 Ti liu ny ng k bn quyn 8. - My khng sng n Led - My khng np c Pin - Bm mt s phm khng tc dng - Mn hnh b mt nt hay chp chn . - Mt hin th trn mn hnh ( nhng my vn hot ng ) 3. Phng php kim tra khi iu khin 3.1 - Bnh 1 - My khng ln ngun, khng c mn hnh hin th . Nguyn nhn : - My b chp ngun V.BAT - Hng IC Ngun - Hng CPU - Hng FLASH - Hng RAM - Mt dao ng 13MHz - Hng phn mm trong FLASH . Cc bc kim tra : Bc 1 : ( Kim tra xem ngun V.BAT c b chp khng ? ) - Tho Pin ra, dng ng h thang X1 o tr khng gia chn dng v chn m ca kt ni Pin trn in thoi . => Nu kt qu o nh trn ( Mt chiu ln kim, mt chiu khng ln kim ) => l tr khng bnh thng : => Nu c hai chiu o kim ln = 0 l my b chp ngun V.BAT ( Bn hy xem li cch sa phn ngun ) Bc 2 : ( Kim tra IC ngun c hot ng khng ? ) - Kim tra cng tc ON/OFF xem c tip xc khng ? - Chn cng tc c b bong mi hn khng ? - Bm v gi phm ON/OFF v o cc in p VK1, VK2, www.hocnghe.com.vn xuanvinh_0912421959 Ti liu ny ng k bn quyn 9. VK3 Lu tn ca cc in p khi ng trn cc dng my nh sau : - Ta cn xc nh im o ca cc in p trn, lu trn v my bn khng th o vo chn IC chn gm , v vy bn cn tm v o in p ngun trn cc t lc . - Da vo s nguyn l bn bit c t lc trn cc ng ngun trn . - Da vo s linh kin bn bit c v tr t lc cn o trn v my : - o kim tra ba in p khi ng trn, nu thiu mt trong cc in p trn th khi iu khin s khng hot ng . - Nu thy thiu mt trong cc in p trn => bn hy xem li phng php sa cha khi ngun . S linh kin nhn bit v tr cc linh kin trn v my . Bc 3 : ( Kim tra dng tiu th ca my bng ng h dng ) - Chnh ng h khong 4,5V DC - Cp in cho my - Bt cng tc ON/OFF trn in thoi v quan st ng h dng, tin so snh th bn hy dng tiu th ca mt my bnh thng nh sau : NOKIA SAMSUNG VK1 VCXO XVCC VK2 VCORE AVCC VK3 VBB VCC www.hocnghe.com.vn xuanvinh_0912421959 Ti liu ny ng k bn quyn 10. Dng tiu th ca mt my bnh thng - My hng khi ngun th s khng c dng khi ng . - My hng khi iu khin th c dng khi ng ri mt ngay do khng c lnh duy tr ngun . Hng khi iu khin, khi bt cng tc thy c dng iu khin ri mt ngay - Nu khi iu khin hot ng th dng khi ng s duy tr v tip tc c cc dng khc tiu th khc. Bc 4 : ( Dng hp np phn mm kim tra ) - Hp np phn mm s c hng dn chi tit trong chng Phn mm sa cha . ( Phn ny