Classical Greece

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  • 1. Mountainous peninsula jutting out into the Mediterranean Sea Approximately 1,400 islands Geography directly shaped traditions and customs

2. Sea for the Greeks was like the rivers for the river civilizations Seas were used for transportation (liquid highways) Needed the sea because Greece was poor in natural resources 3. of Greece is covered with mountains Difficult to unite Greece because mountains separated Greeks Greeks developed small, independent communities 4. Temperatures only varied from 48-80 degrees Fahrenheit, so life was outdoors 5. Mycenaeans were one of the first people to settle Greece Warrior-like Minoans lived in Crete Seaborne people Mycenaeans conquered the Minoans 6. Mycenaeans vs. Troy According to legend, a Greek army besieged and destroyed Troy because a Trojan youth kidnapped Helen, a beautiful wife of a Greek king First was thought to be a myth, but archaeologists have found evidence that maybe these were true events 7. After Mycenaeans collapsed the Dorians came onto the war- torn countryside Dorians were less advanced than the Mycenaeans Appeared that the Greeks temporarily forgotten the art of writing 8. Homer= greatest storyteller, blind The Iliad and The Odyssey (about Trojan War) Epics= narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds 9. = traditional stories, about their gods Through these myths, the Greeks sought to understand the mysteries of nature and the power of human passions 10. Gods, polytheistic Attributed human qualities, such as love, hate and jealously, to their gods Gods lived forever Zeus= ruler of Gods Hera= Zeus wife Mount Olympus= were the gods lived Athena= goddess of wisdom, Zeus favorite child 11. City-state= polis, fundamental political unit in ancient Greece Acropolis= fortified hilltop 12. All city-states ruled differently: Monarchy= rule by one Aristocracy= rule by elite Oligarchy= rule by a few people 13. Iron was better than bronze (which was harder and cheaper) Citizens were expected to defend their polis Phalanx=a military formation of foot soldiers armed with shields and swords 14. =powerful individuals who gained control of the government by appealing to the poor and the discontented for support Many peasants and farmers joined together to revolt 15. Military state Sparta conquered locals and these became helots (peasants forced to stay and work on their land) Helots were required to give their crops They revolted, and even though they were outnumbered (8 to 1)the Spartans almost lost. With this fear, they built a strong city- state 16. 2 groups governed Sparta: 1. Assembly- elected male officials 2. Council of Elders- proposed laws that assembly voted on 5 elected officials (ephors) carried out the laws 17. Men: military training At age 7, boys left home and moved into army barracks Wore no shoes and marched all day and slept on benches at night Ate black porridge Women: Women did not enter army, but they did train, run, wrestle and play sports (why?) Managed estates while husbands were in army 18. Spartans valued duty, strength, and discipline over individuality, beauty, and freedom 19. Democracy= rule of the people People participated directly in political decision making Only male adults counted as citizens Women had no part in government, only job was to raise the family 20. Peasants demanded a written code of laws These laws were unfair and soon a new aristocrat was put in power Solon 21. Outlawed debt slavery Allowed all citizens to participate Overseas trade (grapes & olives) 22. Greece vs. Persian Empire Battle of Marathon: Persian army came to attack the Greeks. The Greeks were outnumbered, but charged. The Greek military advantages won Although they won the battle, they had left there city defenseless 23. The army chose a young runner, named Pheidippides to race back to Athens and report the victory He brought news of the defeat, sprinting the distance of 26 miles He gave his message, collapsed and died 24. 10 years later, Darius the Great son, Xerxes still wanted revenge He attacked Greece When he came to a pass, 7,000 Greeks and 300 Spartans blocked his way. Fearing defeat after a traitor told of a secret passage, many Greeks retreated. 300 Spartans stayed and all were killed 25. Greek ships drove their battering rams straight into the Persian ships and sunk 1/3 of Xerxes ships After the war, the Greek city-states had a new sense of confidence and freedom Athens became the leader, and formed the Delian League (alliance between city-states) 26. Last 50 years (480-430 B.C.) Athens experienced a growth in intellectual and artistic learning 27. Strengthen Athenian democracy Hold and strengthen the empire Glorify Athens 28. Increased the number of public officials Even the poorest could serve if elected Introduced Direct Democracy=a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives 29. Built a 200 ship navy, the strongest in the Mediterranean Did this to control the seas and trade 30. Bought gold, ivory and marble to beautify Athens Parthenon- artisans who worked for 15 years to build one of architectures noblest works 31. Parthenon was built for Athena, goddess of wisdom and the protector of Athens Athena statue stood 38 feet tall and contained gold and ivory Figures sculptured during this time were graceful, strong and perfectly formed Faces neither had a smile or laughter or anger, but were serene Classical art- values of order, balance and proportion in art 32. Greeks invented drama and built the first theaters in the west Tragedy= serious drama about themes like love, hate, war and betrayal Famous dramatists: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides 33. Comedy= contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor Many contained satire= works that poked fun at a subject What does Greek Drama tell us about the Greeks? The Greeks could enjoy entertainment, and were one of the first to put a lot of effort into having entertainment 34. Sparta vs. Athens Athens had the strongest sea power in Greece, but Sparta is located inland and could not be attacked by sea Athenians were pushed back into Athens when the Spartans attacked Pericles brought all the residents inside the walls of Athens Plague killed 1/3- 2/3 of all Athenians, including Pericles Even with a weaker army, Athens held in for 9 years and then surrendered to Sparta 35. =lovers of wisdom Based their thinking of 2 assumptions: 1. The Universe (land, sky and sea) is put together in an orderly way and subject to change 2. People can understand these ideas through logic and reason 36. Absolute truth and justice exist The unexamined life is not worth living Encouraged Greeks to question themselves and their moral character Brought to trial for corrupting the youth of Athens and neglecting the citys gods. Jury disagreed and brought him to death. He died after drinking a slow-acting poison 37. Student of Socrates Approx. 28 years old when Socrates died Wrote down Socrates words His most famous work, The Republic Set forth his vision for a perfect government, which was not a democracy His ideal society all citizens fall into 3 groups: farmers and artisans, warriors and the ruling class Greatest from the ruling class would be chosen philosopher-king 38. Pupil of Plato Invented a method for arguing according to rules of logic Most famous pupil Alexander Son of King Philip of Macedonia 13 years old prince Alexander ended as a student when he became the ruler of Macedonia and later is known as Alexander the Great 39. Alexander set up many outposts and new cities, all for which were heavily influenced by Greek culture After his death, a new culture emerged Hellenistic= blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian influences 40. Center of commerce= Alexandra, Egypt Allowed to grow because of trade ports and successful commerce Diverse population 41. Greek gods on all streets Palaces Glass tomb of Alexander 400 foot bronze lighthouse Museum and library (dedicated to Muses, the Greek goddess of art and sciences, where the word museum comes from) 42. Museum contained a small observatory in which astronomers to study planets and stars Estimated that the sun was at least 300 times larger than the earth (earlier belief was that the sun was smaller than Greece) Estimated that the earth and planets revolved around the sun, but that the earth was at the center of the universe 43. Euclid= mathematician who opened a school or geography in Alexandria Wrote the book, Elements, which has over 400 geometry patterns It is said, that next to the Bible, Euclids, Elements, is the most used and studied book Archimedes= studied at Alexandria, value of pi (ratio of the circumference of a circle), pulley system 44. Founder: Greek philosopher, Zeno Believed in a divine power who controlled the universe Vices like human desires, power and wealth Social unity Appealed to people of different races, cultures and economic backgrounds 45. Founder: Epicurus Universe is composed of atoms and ruled by gods who had no interest in humans Only real objects are those you can observe by your 5 senses Goal of all humans is to gain harmony in body and soul 46. 1. Greeces geography does NOT include which of the following? A. Many mountains B. Sea C. Plenty of rivers D. Thousands of islands 47. 2. The sea for the Greeks was like a ___________ for the early river valley civilizations. A. River B. God C. Food source D. Temple 48. 3. In Greece, seas were nicknamed liquid __________. A. Rivers B. Highways C. Oceans D. Streets 49. 4. Who were the first 2 groups of people to enter Greece? A. Dorians and Trojans B. Trojans and Mycenaeans C. Mycenaeans and Minoans D. Spartans and Athenians 50. 5. Who was Homer? A. A blind poet who is famous for his epic tales B. One of

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