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Compostion 2 - PKU · Web view Changes in Word Meaning Week 14 Chapter 2 Word Meaning Meaning and Context Week 15 Chapter 3 English Dictionaries Week 16 Final 三、 Exam s (1) Mid-term

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Compostion 2


English Lexicology

Week I Introduction

一、The aim of the course

The aim of the course is to give a systematic description of the English vocabulary. Vocabulary has its own system. This system contains

△ Word-formation

Word meaning

Changes in word meaning

△ Sense relations

Meaning and context



Of them, word-formation and sense relations are regarded as the most important parts. Let’s take a look at the word-formation and sense relations

Word-formation roots, affixes e.g. epidermis


how English words are formed and made; develop one’s own personal vocabulary and increase word power.

Sense relations relations among word meaning;

Polysemy and homonymy

Synonym and Antonym

Association and Collocation


improve one’s abilibty to identify and use English words appropriately.

二、Teaching Plan



Week 1

Introduction & Chapter 1 Word

The Development of the English Vocabulary

Week 2

Chapter 1 Word

Basic Concepts of Words and Vocabulary

Week 3

Chapter 1 Word

Word Formation (I)

Week 4

Chapter 1 Word

Word Formation (II)

Week 5


Week 6

Chapter 1 Word

Word Formation (II)

Week 7

Mid-Term Examination

Week 8

Chapter 2 Word Meaning


Week 9

Chapter 2 Word Meaning

Sense Relations (I)

Week 10

Chapter 2 Word Meaning

Sense Relations (I)

Week 11

Chapter 2 Word Meaning

Sense Relations (II)

Week 12

Chapter 2 Word Meaning

Sense Relations (II)

Week 13

Chapter 2 Word Meaning

Changes in Word Meaning

Week 14

Chapter 2 Word Meaning

Meaning and Context

Week 15

Chapter 3 English Dictionaries

Week 16



(1) Mid-term 50% (word-fromation and some basic knowlege)


English Lexicology

Mid-Term Exam (50%)

1. Please write down the meaning of each root and give one example of it.(10%)

Example Root Meaning in English Example

brev,bridg short brevity

2. Please write down the meaning of each affix and give one example of it.(10%)

Example Affix Meaning in English Example

ante before antedate

3. There are 10 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. (10%)


We can say that a word is a A free form of a language that has a given sound and meaning and syntactic function.

A. minimal

B. narrow

C. single

D. identical

4. Guess the meanings of the following words according to the example given below. (10%)

Example matriarchy n. matri: mother; archy: ruler, rule 母系制,母系政治

5. Write down the origins and meanings of the following words. (10%)

Example Word Origin Meaning in English

status Latin social position

(2) Final 50% (sense relations, meaning and context)


English Lexicology

Final Examination (50%)

1. Many words have different meanings when they are used in different contexts. Examine the words in bold type and define them in English. (5%)


(1) If you bring over your bicycle, I’ll fix it for you. to repair

(2) When the radio signal comes on again, I’ll take a fix on our position. measurement and determination of one’s position

(3) Janet is in a terrible fix! predicament

2. Context provides a variety of clues for inference of word-meaning. Guess the meanings of the words in bold type and tell what contextual clues have helped you in arriving at the meanings. (10%)

Example Perhaps the most startling theory to come out of Kinesics, the study of body movement, was suggested by Professor Birdwhistell.

Meaning in Chinese 人体动力学

Clue definition

3. Study the following words and their meanings: (i) is the

primary meaning of the word, and (ii) is the derived meaning of the word. Give the process that each word has undergone, using the terms of: extension, narrowing, elevation and degradation to describe the process. (5%)

Example box: (extension)

(i) container made of boxwood

(ii) any container

4.There is one lexical error in each of the following sentences.Underline the error and then put the correct form in the bracket. (10%)

Example I hope my arrangements will not disturb with your routine. (interfere)

5. Select the pair of words which are related in the same way as the capitalized words are related to each other. (10%)

Example Intimidate: Fear

(A) maintain: satisfaction

(B) astonish: wonder

(C) soothe: concern

(D) feed: hunger

(E) awaken: tiredness

The correct answer is (B) ______

6. Writing (10%)

Directions Write a compostiotion on the topic “ ”. You are required to write at least 150 words according to the outline given below.




四、References (课程参考书目)

1. H314.2/22 现代英语表达与理解 陆国强

2. H313/20 现代英语词汇学 陆国强

3. H314.1/2 现代英语构词 陆国强

4. H313/109 英汉和汉英语义结构对比 陆国强

5. H314.3/28 现代英语联想与搭配 陆国强

6. H313/148 英语同义表达法英汉比较语义学 王逢鑫

7. H314.1/16 英语构词的玄妙 The wonder of English

word-making 王逢鑫

8. H313.1/185 英语词汇分类联想学习法 How to study English

vocabulary by association 王逢鑫

9. H313.1/123 英语词汇的魅力 王逢鑫

10. H316/106 英汉意念分类词典 A NOTIONAL ENGLISH-CHINESE


11. H313/148 英汉比较语义学 English-Chinese comparative

semantics 王逢鑫

12. H313/111 大学英语词汇与语义教程 勒梅琳

13. H313/107 英语词汇的意趣 梁晓鹏


Zhang Hua [email protected] Monitor

Tue 7:10---9PM(上课时间); 9--10PM(答疑时间)

A General Survey of English Vocabulary

一、Development of English Vocabulary

1. The Indo-European Language Family

---300 language families

---a highly inflected language

---the two kinds of tendencies: the isolation and moving

---the eight principal groups

an Eastern set: Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Armenian and Albanian;

a Western set: Celtic, Italic, Hellenic, Germanic.

2. A Historical Overview of the English Vocabulary


---the Latin of the Roman Legions

---the Germanic tribes

(1) Old English Vocabulary(450-1150) Anglo-Saxon

---Angles, Saxons, and Jutes

---Anglo-Saxon as Old English

---Sometimes they changed meanings of native words and common practice was to create new words by combining two native words.

---60,000 words

---a highly inflected language

(2) Middle English Vocabulary(1150-1500) French

---the Norman Conquest

----English were reduced to the status of an inferior people.

----Middle English retained many inflections.

----If we say that Old English was a language of full endings, Middle English was one of leveled endings.

(3) Modern English Vocabulary(1500-up to now)

borrowing and word-formation

Modern English began with the establishment of printing in England. Considering the changes in vocabulary, it is necessary to subdivide it into Early (1500-1700) and Late (1700-up to the present) Modern English.

(i) Early Modern English

Because of the Renaissance, Latin and Greek were recognized as two languages of great scholarship. Over 10,000 new words entered the English language and most of them were from Latin and Greek, which contributed to the vocabulary of Modern English.

(ii) Late Modern English

In the mid-seventeenth century, England experienced the Industrial Revolution, so it became a great economic power. English began to absorb words from all major languages of the world. After World War II, although borrowing remained an important channel of vocabulary expansion, more words are created by means of word-formation.

3.Modes of Vocabulary Development

(1) The Present-day English Vocabulary

---three main sources of new words:

(i)the rapid development of modern science and technology;

(ii)social, economic and political changes;

(iii)the influence of other cultures and languages.

(2) Three Channels

Modern English vocabulary develops through three channels: creation, semantic change, borrowing.

(i) Creation refers to the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affix

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