C´ng nghe che bien banh

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  • 1. Th nghiem CNTPCong nghe che bien banh biscuit Bai 1 CONG NGHE CHE BIENBANH BISCUITTrang 1

2. Th nghiem CNTPCong nghe che bien banh biscuitI. TONG QUAN1.1. Cay lua mLua m la mot trong nhng cay lng thc pho bientren the gii (cung vi gao va ngo). No la lng thcchnh cua gan mot na dan so the gii.Phan loai khoa hoc cua cay lua m nh sau: Ho (Family) Poaceae (Hoa thao) Phan hoPooideae Toc (Tride) Triticeae (Hordeae) Chi (Genus) Triticum Loai (Species) Triticum aestivum Hnh 1.1: Bong lua m 1.1.1. Trong trot Lua m thch hp vi ieu kien kh hau lanh, am thap. Do o, no thng ctrong nhng nc nh Trung Quoc, Nga, My, Canada, Uc, An o, Phap, c, cacnc thuoc Lien Xo cu, Cay lua m moi nam ch trong c mot vu (vu mua ong hoac vu mua xuan).Trong o: Lua m mua ong c gieo trong vao cuoi thu va gat vao mua henam sau. Lua m mua xuan c gieo trong vao mua xuan va gat vao cuoi mua he. Thong thng, ngi ta thng trong vao vu mua ong v lua m mua ong conang suat cao hn. 1.1.2. Phan loai 1.1.2.1. Theo o cng cua hatGom lua m cng va lua m mem.v Lua m mem La loai lua m c trong pho bien nhat (chiem 86 89% dien tch lua mthe gii). Hat lua m mem co hnh dang gan nh bau duc, mau trang nga hoac hunghung. Noi nhu cua lua m mem co the trong, uc hay na uc. Hat lua m mem co mot vet lom sau doc theo than hat.v Lua m cng Dien tch trong chiem khoang 11 13% dien tch lua m the gii. Hat lua m co dang thuon dai, co mau vang rm hay o hung. Lua m cng co o trang rat cao, thng khoang 95 100%.Trang 2 3. Th nghiem CNTPCong nghe che bien banh biscuit 1.1.2.2. Theo mau sac cua vo cam Gom lua m mau o, lua m mau trang, lua m mau ho phach hay lua m mau oam. Bang 1.1: Phan loai theo mau sac cua mot so loai lua mSTT Loai lua mNguon goc Mau 1 Domestic Common Wheat (Dom) Nhato 2 Western White (WW) My Trang 3 Hard Winter (HW) My o 4 Dard Nonhem Spring (DNS) My o 5 No. 1 Canada Western Red Spring (ICP)Canadao 6 Canadian Amber Durum (Durum, WAD)Canada Ho phach 7 Prime Hard (PH)Uc Trang 8 Australia Standard White (ASW) Uc Trang 1.1.2.3. Theo o uc Gom lua m trang trong va lua m b bac.1.2. Bot mBot m la c lam t hat lua m bang cach loai lp vo ngoai va phoi, sau onghien tinh. Tuy thuoc vao giong, phng phap trong trot va ieu kien kh hau ma chatlng cua nguyen lieu lua m khac nhau. mot mc o nao o, ngi th xay bot cothe chon hat lua m e tao bot vi nhng ac tnh mong muon nhng nhng ieu kientrong may xay cung tac ong en chat lng bot m tao thanh. 1.2.1. Thanh phan hoa hoc cua bot m 1.2.1.1. GlucidGlucid chiem t 70 90% chat kho cua bot m. Trong o, tinh bot chiem khoang80% glucid bot m. Ngoai ra, trong thanh phan glucid bot m con co cha cac hp chatkhac nh dextrin, pentozan, cenlulose va hemicenlolose.v Tinh bot La thanh phan quan trong nhat cua bot m, co anh hng ln en chat lngcua bot nhao sau nay. Tinh bot lua m co cau truc dang hat tron vi kch thc hat t 5 50 m.Tinh bot bao gom hai cau t la amylose va amylopectin. Amylose+ Trong tinh bot lua m, amylose co khoi lng phan t khoang 35.104 vc va comc o polymer hoa khoang 2000 2200 goc glucose.+ Cac goc glucose trong si amylose chu yeu lien ket vi nhau qua lien ket -1,4glycozide tao thanh mach thang va ch co khoang 1,6% goc glucose lien ket vinhau qua lien ket -1,6glycozide tao thanh mach nhanh. Trung bnh mot phan tamylose co khoang 5 nhanh lien ket -1,4 glycozide.Trang 3 4. Th nghiem CNTPCong nghe che bien banh biscuit Amylopectin+ Trong tinh bot lua m, amylopectin co khoi lng phan t khoang 90.106 vc vaco mc o polymer hoa khoang 10000 goc glucose.+ Phan t amylopectin co cau tao gom hai loai vung xen ke: vung mot co cau taochat, sap xep co trat t va co o tinh the do o kho b thuy phan; vung th hai sapxep kem trat t, co nhieu iem phan nhanh va khong co o tinh the nen de dang bthuy phan. o ln va o nguyen cua hat tinh bot co anh hng en tnh ran chac, khanang hut nc va ham lng ng trong bot nhao. Trong tinh bot lua m gom 2 loaihat: Hat loai ln A co dang hnh bau duc vi ng knh ln hn 10m Hat loai nho B co dang hnh cau vi ng knh t 410m, chiem 90%tong so hat tinh bot. Hnh 1.2: Hnh dang cua hat loai ln A (a) va hat loai nho B (b)Hat nho thng co cau tao chat, hat ln co cau tao xop. V vay, hat tinh bot ln vahat tinh bot v se b ng hoa nhanh hn.Bang 1.2: S khac nhau ve thanh phan hoa hoc cua hai loai hat lua mThanh phanHat loai ln AHat loai nho BAmylose (%)29,2 1,027,4 1,6Lipid (mg/100g) + Acid beo t do 84 25 162 50 + Lysophospholipid 845 651062 90Trang 4 5. Th nghiem CNTP Cong nghe che bien banh biscuitBang 1.3: Tnh chat cua hai loai hat tinh bot lua mTnh chat Hat loai ln A Hat loai nho B3 The tch (m ) 1842 22.1566 11.6 ng knh (m )14.1 0.6 4.12 0.282 Dien tch be mat rieng (m /g)0.256 0.011 0.788 0.058o Nhiet o ho hoa ( C )+Bat au 54.8 55.9+Gia 58.4 61.4+Cuoi6264.8 Nang lng ho hoa (J/g)9.9 1.5 9.4 1.2 v Dextrin Dextrin chiem khoang 15% glucid bot m. No la san pham tao ra khi tinhbot b thuy phan di tac dung cua he enzyme amylase cua lua m va t lien ket vinc. Khoi lng phan t va tnh chat cua dextrin phu thuoc vao mc o thuy phantinh bot. Ngi ta phan ra cac nhom dextrin sau: Amilodextrin la hp chat co cau tao gan giong tinh bot, khi tac dung vi iod cho mau tm. Eritrodextrin la hp chat co khoi lng phan t nho hn, khi tac dung vi iot cho mau o nau. Acrodextrin la hp chat khi tac dung vi iot khong cho mau. Mantodextrin la nhng dextrin n gian nhat, khi tac dung vi iot khong cho mau ac trng. v Pentozan Pentozan la cac polysaccharide cua cac ng co cha 5C, chiem khoang1,2 3,5% glucid bot m. Cac pentozan co tnh hao nc, khi trng n tao huyen phu ac anh hngti tnh chat vat ly cua bot nhao Pentozan trong bot m gom 2 loai la pentozan tan trong nc va pentozankhong tan trong nc. Chung khac nhau mc o phan nhanh: pentozan khong tan comc o phan nhanh ln hn. Pentozan tan trong nc chiem 1 1,5% tong lng pentozan. Pentozan tanco the hap thu mot lng nc gap 15 20 lan trong lng cua no do vay lam tang onht va o dnh cua bot nhao. Khi dung dung moi etanol 80% hoac (NH4)2SO4 baohoa, pentozan tan c tach thanh hai phan: Phan ket tua cha arabinoxylan. Phan tan cha arabinogalactan. Pentozan khong tan chiem khoang 1 1,3% tong lng pentozan. Pentozankhong tan trng n trong nc tao thanh dch keo, dch keo nay co anh hng en cactnh chat lu bien cua bot nhao.Trang 5 6. Th nghiem CNTPCong nghe che bien banh biscuit v Cellulose va hemicellulose Cenlulose chiem khoang t 0,1 2,3% con hemicellulose chiem 2 8%glucid bot m. Chung khong co y ngha ve mat dinh dng oi vi ngi nhng giup tangnhu ong ruot, giup tieu hoa tot.v Cac loai ng glucose, fructose, maltose va saccharose Chiem khoang 0,11% glucid bot m. Chung tham gia cac phan ng Maillard tao mau cho san pham. Con oi vicac loai banh co len men th cac ng nay la nguon thc an cho vi sinh vat. Ham lng chung cac loai ng phu thuoc vao hang bot va chat lng hat.Trong bot m trang, chung vao khoang 1,8 4% va bot m en la khoang 4 6,3%.Bang 1.4: Ham lng trung bnh cua cac loai ng co trong bot m Loai ng Ham lng Fructose0,02 0,08 Glucose0,00 10,09 Maltose 0,05 0,10 Saccharose0,10 0,40 Paffinose 0,05 0,17 Glucodifrutose0,20 0,30 Oligosaccharide 1,20 1,30 1.2.2.2. Protein Tuy thuoc giong, ieu kien trong trot, thu hoach ma ham lng protid trong botm chiem t 8 25% chat kho.Trong qua trnh chn cua hat, cac protein d tr se c hnh thanh va c nhv trong cac the protein (protein bodies) hnh cau co ng knh 2 5 m va co mangbao boc. Khi hat chn thanh thuc, cac mang bao the protein nay se b v ra va cacprotein d tr se tao thanh dang vo nh hnh bao boc xung quanh cac hat tinh botS phan bo protein gia cac phan khac nhau cua hat cung khac nhau.Bang 1.5: Ham lng protein cua mot so giong lua mLoai lua mHam lng protein, % HRS(My)11,5 18 Durum 10 16,5 Plate (Argentina)10 16 CWRS (Manitoba) 9 18 HRW(My) 9 14,5 Nga9 14,5 Uc8 13,5 Anh 8 13 Cac nc chau Au khac 8 11,5 SRW (My) 8 11 Trang 6 7. Th nghiem CNTP Cong nghe che bien banh biscuit Ta co the phan loai protein trong bot m thanh 4 phan :v Albumin Chiem khoang 5,7 11,5% protid bot m. Khoi lng phan t 12000 60000 vc. Tan trong nc, b ket tua nong o muoi (NH4)2SO4 kha cao ( 70 100%o bao hoa ).v Globulin Chiem khoang 5,7 10,8% protid bot m. Tan rat t trong nc, tan trong dung dch muoi trung hoa loang (NaCl, KCl,Na2SO4 )v Prolamin (Gliadin) Chiem khoang 40 50% protid bot m. Khong tan trong nc va dung dch muoi loang, ch tan trong dung dchethanol hay isopropanol 70 80%. Gliadin ac trng cho o co gian cua bot nhao. Cac gliadin cua lua mthng dang n chuoi. Gliadin co tnh a hnh rat ln. Bot m co khoang 20 30 loai gliadin khac nhau co khoi lng phan t trongkhoang 30 000 80 000 vc. Gliadin , va co phan t lng t 30000 45000 dalton. Trong o,30 axit amin au N tan cung cua cac gliadin , va rat giong nhau va 20axit amin au tien tao thanh peptid tn hieu a beo. Peptit nay co goc lysine gan au cuoi N tiep o la cac axit amin a beo va cuoi cung la goc alanine noivi protein. Cac gliadin , va con co mot so cau disunfua trong phan t doo lam cho cau truc bac ba chat va ben. Gliadin co phan t lng t 60000 80000 dalton. Cac gliadin coham lng glutamin va proline rat cao, chiem 75% tong lng axit amin. Ngoaira, chung cha rat t hoac khong cha cac axit amin co S do o trong phan tkhong co cau disunfua.v Glutelin (Glutenin) Chiem khoang 34 55% protid bot m. Ch tan trong dung dch kiem hoac acid loang. Glutenin co cau truc bac 4 phc tap, ac trng cho o an hoi cua bot nhaov khi ngam nc co kha nang tao khuon hay mang mong chac, an hoi, co tnh co ketcao va chu c keo cang. Cac glutenin co xu hng t lien ket vi nhau bang tng tac a beo, banglien ket hydro va bang cau disunfua ln hn so vi gliadin. Khoi lng phan t cua cac glutenin co the len en 20.106 dalton. Nhng protein can gan nh la nhng glutenin c lien hp lai bang caudisunfua. Khi pha huy cac cau disunfua gia cac phan t bang tac nhan kh, ta thuc 25 di n v glutenin. Do glutenin co tnh a beo be mat cao va co kha nang lien hp vi cac hpphan lipid nen a tao ra mang mong khong tham oi vi kh CO2Trang 7 8. Th nghiem CNTP Cong nghe che bien banh biscuit Pr