D e s e r t

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M a k i b a. D e s e r t. M o n s o o n. 和辻「風土」 の考え方. 「人と自然の相互作用環」としての 地球環境問題 ータクラマカン砂漠の気候変動をめぐってー 名古屋 Oct. 19, 2006 佐藤洋一郎 (総合地球環境学研究所). Mugi-area. Grass species with annual habit that adapt to semi-dry zone including wheat, barley and oat. 400mm ann. rainfall. 稲. 麦. D e s e r t. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • DesertM o n s o o nM a k i b a

  • Oct. 19, 2006

  • DesertM o n s o o n(summer-rain area)400mm ann. rainfallGrass species with annual habit that adapt to semi-dry zone including wheat, barley and oat.Mugi-area

  • Tarim basinTenshan mountains

  • Shaohe site

  • DNA archaeology

  • Application of a restrict enzyme,

  • gel4X6X

  • Require-ment of water and fertilizerDiploid

    Tetraploid

    Hexaploid

  • Wheat consumption100-150kg / capita / year

    Population in Loulan17000Productivity0.2-1t / haRequired area1700-12750 haCalculation

  • Much water was available3000years ago

  • A cow consumes 3.3 tons of grass per year(S. Kanae, personal communication)Yield of grassland = ca. 0.4 - 4 tons per hectareA cow requires ca. 0.8-8 hectare of grasslandMinimum Population Size=1000-2000Required area for cow =800-16000 hectare

  • 28000ha

  • p.53)

  • Question:

    History of desertification

    Mechanisms of desertification

  • Literatures

  • In the 4th century of Loulan kingdom, food shortage became serious due to population increase. Therefore, humans begun double cropping that caused saline-soil problems due to inappropriate irrigation (Yamada, 2005)

  • In a kingdom he visited, more than 4000 monks lived

  • From S. Hedin (1934)

  • Shaohe20km

  • 492050yrs

  • Shaohe20km

  • Shaohe20km

  • Rice zoneMap around 3000 4000 yrs. BP.Map around 3000 4000 yrs.BPMugi Zone

  • Conclusion:

    Takramakan desert has been wetland that wheat agriculture and stock-farming practiced. A kingdom in this area, Loulan (ca.1600-2400BP.) had fertile land of at least ca. 17 sq.km for wheat, and 8sq.km for cattle. Desertification of Takramakan desert was caused at least partly by human activities, such as heavy irrigation or waste of water.

  • Climate changeBreedingIrrigationGenetic erosionChemicalsLoss ofSpecies-diversityEpidemicDesertificationEpidemic(humans)DeforestWater problemsProblem soils