dampak self-esteem terhadap perilaku kemalasan sosial makalah

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  • UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

    DAMPAK SELF-ESTEEM TERHADAP PERILAKU KEMALASAN

    SOSIAL

    MAKALAH NON SEMINAR

    Diajukan sebagai salah satu syarat untuk memperoleh gelar sarjana Psikologi

    MELLISA TARA NURSALIM

    1006718391

    FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI

    PROGRAM STUDI KELAS KHUSUS INTERNASIONAL

    Depok

    Agustus 2014

    Dampak self-esteem.., Mellisa Tara Nursalim, FPsi UI, 2014

  • Dampak self-esteem.., Mellisa Tara Nursalim, FPsi UI, 2014

  • Dampak self-esteem.., Mellisa Tara Nursalim, FPsi UI, 2014

  • Dampak self-esteem.., Mellisa Tara Nursalim, FPsi UI, 2014

  • Dampak self-esteem.., Mellisa Tara Nursalim, FPsi UI, 2014

  • Dampak Self-esteem Terhadap Perilaku Kemalasan Sosial

    Mellisa Tara Nursalim dan Ike Anggraika

    1. Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia

    2. Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia

    E-mail: mellisatara@gmail.com

    Abstrak

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menginvestigasi dampak self-esteem terhadap perilaku kemalasan sosial.

    Penelitian ini menggunakan design 2x2 independent group antara dua kondisi tugas (koaktif x kolektif) dan dua

    tingkat kesulitan tugas (mudah x sulit). Partisipan di dalam grup kondisi koaktif menyelesaikan tugas secara

    individu sedangkan partisipan di dalam group kondisi kolektif menyelesaikan tugas secara berkelompok.

    Partisipan di dalam group tugas mudah diminta untung menghafal 15 nama buah dan hewan sedangkan

    partisipan di dalam group tugas sulit diminta untuk menghafal 15 istilah ilmiah. Setelah itu partisipan diminta

    untuk mengisi kuesioner untuk mengukur self-esteem mereka. Tugas tersebut diberikan kepada 60 mahasiswa

    dengan jumlah yang seimbang untuk setiap group. Hasil analisis menunjukan bahwa partisipan yang berada

    dalam grup tugas mudah mengerahkan usaha yang lebih besar dalam mengerjakan tugas ketika bekerja sendiri

    dibandingkan dengan ketika bekerja bersama-sama. Namun prestasi partisipan yang berada di dalam group

    tugas sulit tidak berbeda. Partisipan di dalam grup tugas sulit mempunyai self-esteem lebih tinggi dibandingkan

    dengan partisipan di dalam group tugas mudah. Di dalam grup kondisi koaktif, self-esteem yang rendah

    mengarah kepada kompensasi sosial sedangkan di dalam group kolektif hal tersebut mengarah kepada

    kemalasan sosial. Partisipan dengan self-esteem yang tinggi cenderung mengerahkan usaha yang lebih besar di

    dalam group kolektif. Kesimpulannya, penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa self-esteem mempengaruhi kemalasan

    sosial. Kinerja sebuah group dapat ditingkatkan dengan memfokuskan persepsi anggota kelompok tentang

    kesulitan tugas yang dilakukan.

    Effects of Self-Esteem on Social Loafing

    Abstract

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of self-esteem in social loafing. 2x2 independent group analysis

    was conducted between task condition (coactive x collective) and task difficulty (easy x difficult). Participants

    in the coactive task condition complete the task individually whereas participants in the collective task condition

    complete the task as a group. Participants in the easy task condition were asked to memorize 15 fruit and animal

    name whereas participants in the difficult task condition were asked to memorize 15 scientific terms. Afterward,

    the participants were asked to complete questionnaire to measure their self-esteem. The task was given to 60

    university students with equal amount for each group. As expected, the results show that participants in easy

    task condition exert more effort when working coactively compared to working collectively. However, the

    performances do not differ in the difficult task condition. Participants in the difficult condition have higher self-

    esteem than participants in the easy condition. In coactive condition, low self-esteem lead to social

    compensation whereas in collective condition, it leads to social loafing behavior. On the other hand, people with

    Dampak self-esteem.., Mellisa Tara Nursalim, FPsi UI, 2014

    mailto:mellisatara@gmail.com

  • high self-esteem incline to exert more effort for group performance. In conclusion, this research suggests that

    self-esteem affects social loafing. We can increase group performance by focusing on group members

    perceptions of the task difficulty.

    Keywords: social loafing; self-esteem; group performance

    Introduction

    There is a saying here TEAM Together Everyone Achieves More. This is fascinating as it

    explains that an individual goal is easier to be fulfilled when they work together as a group.

    In contrast, when there are many people available in the group, people usually do not work as

    hard as when they are alone because they divided the tasks for some people. It means that

    people tend to work less than they ought to.

    The phenomenon of this issue that has recently received significant attention is social

    loafing. Social loafing occurs in different domain such as education and business. According

    to Latan, Williams, and Harkins (1979), social loafing refers to the situation that people tend

    to reduce individual effort when they work collectively than when they work individually.

    Some people might not work at all or relaying on other reliable people to finish the work on

    time. In previous studies, social loafing occurs in various tasks such as decision making

    (Chidambaram & Tung, 2005), shouting ability (Jackson & Harkins, 1985), and

    brainstorming (Gagn & Zuckerman, 1999).

    The effectiveness of group is important to predict the group performance. In the group

    condition, each member of the group should understand their role and participate effectively

    because their work will affect the work of other people. When the work is not clear and the

    delegation of tasks is not balance, some member may think they are not needed as a member

    (Chidambaram & Tung, 2005). As the result, they will not participate and loaf more.

    Therefore, understanding the theory of social loafing is important and research in social

    loafing is also required to understand the group dynamic.

    Factors affecting social loafing in the group performance have been widely

    investigated. People tend to loaf more in groups because there is a stronger relationship

    Dampak self-esteem.., Mellisa Tara Nursalim, FPsi UI, 2014

  • between individual efforts and valued outcomes when they work individually (Karau &

    William, 1993). People tend to lose their individuality and the recognition that comes with

    their contributions when they work in a group condition. Therefore, those people lose

    motivation to offer their ability since it will not be acknowledge (Charbonnier, Huguet,

    Brauer, & Monteil, 1998. Social loafing also negatively related to group cohesiveness (Yip et

    al., 2007). In line with Latan, Williams, and Harkins (1981), social loafing has generally

    been explained as due to lack of identifiability. However, social loafing reduces when

    working collectively does not eliminate valued outcomes (Karau & William, 1993).

    Furthermore, research indicated that individual differences such as need of cognition

    (Smith, Kerr, Markus, & Stasson, 2001), self-beliefs (Charbonnier, Huguet, Brauer, &

    Monteil, 1998; Huguet, Charbonnier, & Monteil, 1999), and personal involvement (Brickner,

    Harkins, Ostrom, 1986) affect social loafing in group performance. People with high self-

    uniqueness exert less effort in group performance on easy task, however, they exert effort as

    much as individually on more challenging task (Huguet et al., 1999). Harkins and Petty

    (1982) stated that with a difficult task, participants work as hard as individually, even thought

    their outputs are not identifiable.

    According to Lin, Baruch, and Shih (2012), group performance is affected by the

    components of corporate social responsibility that mediated by team-efficacy and team self-

    esteem. Moreover, individual in coactive condition will work harder because they are really

    involved in the tasks and they have to try hard to hold their pride as they performance is

    identified as individual performance. In addition, group performance lead to social loafing

    which caused by attribution and equity, submaximal goal setting, and lessened contiguity

    between input and outcome (Latan et al., 1979). Submaximal goal settings occurs when the

    team members perceive that they can work less as the goal is well defined and several

    reliable people are already working for that. Therefore, they become more optimizing rather

    than maximizing. In addition, lessened contingency between input and outcome refer to the

    feeling of lost in a crowd and unable to gain recognition for their contribution (Latan et al.,

    1979; Charbonnier, Huguet, Brauer, & Monteil, 1998). However, there is no evidence

    whether or not self-esteem affects social loafing in group performance. Therefore, we are

    questioning whether self-esteem has an affect on social loafing.

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of self-esteem on social loafing

    behavior. This is a part of understanding the moderating influence of individual differences

    on social loafing (Huguet, Charbonnier, & Monteil, 1999). The participants are university

    Dampak self-esteem.., Mellisa Tara Nursalim, FPsi UI, 2014

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