Data Sekunder

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Exploratory Research Design: Secondary Data

Yang akan Dibahas Overview. Perbedaan Data primer dan data sekunder. Kelebihan dan Kekurangan Data Sekunder. Kriteria untuk Evaluasi data sekunder. Klasifikasi data sekunder.

Overview Sebelum pengumpulan data primer, peneliti perlu mengumpulkan data sekunder yang relevan terlebih dahulu. Data sekunder sangat penting terutama untuk penelitian dengan anggaran yang terbatas.

PENGERTIAN DATA PRIMER DAN DATA SEKUNDER Data primer merupakan data yang dikumpulkan langsung oleh peneliti untuk tujuan penelitian tersebut. Data sekunder data yang dikumpulkan oleh pihak lain untuk beberapa tujuan.

Perbedaan Data Primer dan SekunderData PrimerTujuan Langsung untuk masalah. Proses Keterlibatannya tinggi

Data SekunderTidak langsung untuk masalah. Keterlibatannya rendah

BiayaWaktu

TinggiLama

Relative murahSingkat

Manfaat Data Sekunder Mengidentifikasi masalah. Menentukan masalah menjadi lebih tepat. Mengembangkan pendekatan terhadap masalah. Menformulasikan riset desain dengan tepat (mengidentfikasikan variabel kunci). Menjawab pertanyaan penelitian dan pengujian hipotesis. Melakukan interpretasi data primer lebih jelas.

Kelemahan Data Sekunder Karena data sekunder dikumpulkan bukan untuk kepentingan langsung perneliti, maka: Seringkali tidak relevan. Seringkali tidak akurat.

Tujuan, variabel, metode yang digunakan seringkali tidak tepat dengan situasi sekarang.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder Spesifikasi dan Metodologi Metode Pengumpulan Data Respon Rate Sample Teknik Ukuran Sampel Analisis Data

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder Eror dan Ketepatan Menguji tingkat kesalahan Desain Penelitian Sampel Analisis Data PelaporanUntuk mengukur ketepatan dengan dilakukan dengan membandingkan dengan sumber yang berbeda.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder Kemutahiran Jeda waktu antara pengumpulan dan publikasi. Frekuensi data di update.Sensus data secara periodik akan di update.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder Kemutahiran Jeda waktu antara pengumpulan dan publikasi. Frekuensi data di updateSensus data secara periodik akan di update.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder Tujuan Mengapa data di kumpulkan ?Tujuan pengumpulan data menentukan relevansi data.

Kriteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder Dasar/Isi Data Definisi variabel kunci. Unit pengukuran. Kategori penggunaan.

Tujuan pengumpulan data menentukan relevansi data.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder Kemandirian Keahlian Kredibility. Reputasi.

Data yang didapatkan semestinya dikonfirmasikan dengan sumbernya.

Fig. 4.1

KLASIFIKASI DATA SEKUNDER

Secondary Data

Internal

External

Ready to Use

Requires further processing

Published Computerized Materials Databases

Syndicated Services

Data Sekunder Internal Data sekunder yang berasal dari dalam perusahaan. Lebih murah dan mudah didapatkan. Data Base Marketing Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan berdasarkan produk line berdasarkan departemen berdasarkn toko tertentu berdasarkan daerah geogarfis kas dan kredit berdasarkan periode waktu berdasarkan jumlah pembelian

Data Sekunder Internal Siap untuk digunakan. Harus diolah terlebih dahulu.

Data Sekunder Eksternal Data sekunder yang berasal dari luar perusahaan seperti dari pemerintah, organisasi non profit, asosiasi perdagangan, organisasi profesional, comersial publisher, perusahaan pialang investasi, profesional marketing researchs. Sumber data Eksternal Publish Material Computer database Syndicate service

Fig. 4.2

A Classification of Published Secondary SourcesPublished Secondary Data

General Business Sources

Government Sources

Guides

Directories Indexes Statistical Data

Census Other Data Government Publications

Publish Material General Business Source Guideline Directories Indexes Statistical Data

Government Source Census Data Other Government Publication

Fig. 4.3

A Classification of Computerized DatabasesComputerized Databases

On-Line

Internet

Off-Line

Bibliographic Databases

Numeric Databases

Full-Text Databases

Directory Databases

SpecialPurpose Databases

Fig. 4.4

A Classification of Syndicated ServicesUnit of Measurement

Households/ Consumers

Institutions

Computerized Database Online and Off Line Bibliographies Data Bases Numeric Databases Full Text Databases Directory Databases Special Purpose Database

Syndicated Data from Households i. Surveysa. Psychographics & Lifestyles b. Advertising Evaluation c. General Surveys d. Uses of Surveys e. Advantages & Disadvantages of Surveys

ii. Diary Panelsa. Diary Purchase Panels b. Diary Media Panels c. Uses of Dairy Panels d. Advantages & Disadvantages of Dairy Panels

iii. Electronic Scanner Servicesa. Volume Tracking Data b. Scanner Diary Panels c. Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV d. Uses of Scanner Services e. Advantages & Disadvantages

12) Syndicated Data from Institutions

i. Retailers & Wholesalersa. Uses of Audit Data b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Audit Data ii. Industry Services a. Uses of Industry Services b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Industry Services

RIP 4.1

Type of Individual/Household Level Data Available from Syndicated FirmsDemographic Data Identification (Name, address, telephone) Sex

I. -

-

Marital statusNames of family members Age (including ages of family members)

-

IncomeOccupation Number of children present

-

Home ownershipLength of residence Number and make of cars owned

II.

Psychographic Lifestyle Data

-

Interest in golfInterest in snow skiing Interest in book reading Interest in running Interest in bicycling Interest in pets Interest in fishing Interest in electronics Interest in cable television

There are also firms such as Dun & Bradstreet and American Business Information which collect demographic data on businesses.

Fig. 4.4 Contd.

Syndicated Services: ConsumersHouseholds / Consumers

Mail Diary Panels PurchaseSurveys

Media

Electronic scanner servicesScanner Diary Panels with Cable TV

Volume Tracking Data

Scanner Diary Panels

Psychographic & Lifestyles

General

Advertising Evaluation

Fig. 4.4 Contd.

Syndicated Services: InstitutionsInstitutions

Retailers

Wholesalers

Industrial firms

Audits

Direct Inquiries

Clipping Services

Corporate Reports

Table 4.3

Overview of Syndicated ServicesCharacteristics AdvantagesSurveys conducted at Most flexible way of Interviewer errors; regular intervals obtaining data; respondent errors information on underlying motives Recorded purchase behavior can be linked to the demographic / psychographic characteristics

Type

Surveys

Disadvantages Uses

Diary Households provide Purchase specific information Panels regularly over an extended period of time; respondent asked to record specific behaviors as they occur Diary Media Panels Electronic devices automatically recording behavior, supplemented by a diary

Lack of representativeness; response bias; maturation

Same as diary purchase panel

Same as diary purchase panel

Market segmentation, advertising theme selection and advertising effectiveness Forecasting sales, market share and trends; establishing consumer profiles, brand loyalty and switching; evaluating test markets, advertising, and distribution Establishing advertising rates; selecting media program or air time; establishing viewer profiles

Table 4.3 Contd.

Type

Sc anner Volume Tracking Data

Data may not be Price tracking, representative; errors modeling, in recording effectiveness of inpurc hases; difficult tostore promotions link purchas es to elements of marketing mix other than price Sc anner Sc anner panels of Data reflect actual Data may not be Promotional mix Diary households that purc hases; sample representative; analyses , copy Panels subscribe to cable control; ability to link quality of data testing, new product with Cable TV panel data to limited testing, positioning TV household characteristics Audit Verification of Relatively precise Coverage may be Measurement of services product movement information at the incomplete; matc hing consumer sales and by examining retail and wholesale of data on market share, physic al records or levels competitive activity competitive activity, performing may be diffic ult analyzing inventory analysis distribution patterns: tracking of new products Industrial Data banks on Important sourc e of Data are lacking in Determining market Product industrial information on terms of c ontent, potential by Syndicated establishments industrial firms, quantity, and quality geographic area, Servic es created through particularly useful in defining sales direct inquiries of initial phases of the territories, allocating companies, c lipping projects advertising budget services, and corporate reports

Characteristics Advantages

Household Data reflects actual purc hases are purc hases; timely recorded through data, less expensive electronic scanners in supermarkets

Disadvantages

Uses