Dothraki Language

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DothrakiPronunciation Created by Date Setting and usage Users do.a.ki George R. R. Martin, David J. Peterson from 2009 A Song of Ice and Fire, 2011 series Game of Thrones Fictional language, zero speakers. (date missing) constructed languages Purpose o

artistic languages fictional languages Dothraki

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ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3

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The Dothraki language is the constructed language of the Dothraki, the indigenous inhabitants of the Dothraki Sea in the series A Song of Ice and Fire written by George R. R. Martin. It was created by David J. Peterson, a member of the Language Creation Society, for HBO's television series Game of Thrones. Dothraki was designed to fit George R. R. Martin's original conception of the language, based upon the few extant phrases and words in his original books. As of 21 September 2011, there were 3,163 created words in the lexicon,[1] though far from all words are known to the public. However, there is a growing community of Dothraki language fans, with websites like "Learn Dothraki"[2] offering information on the state of the language.

Contents[hide]

1 Development o 1.1 Language constraints 2 Phonology and romanization o 2.1 Consonants o 2.2 Vowels 3 Grammar o 3.1 Word Order 4 Sample 5 References 6 External links

[edit] DevelopmentThe Dothraki vocabulary was created by Peterson well in advance of the adaptation. HBO hired the Language Creation Society to create the language, and after an application process involving over thirty conlangers, David Peterson was chosen to develop the Dothraki language. He delivered over 1700 words to HBO before the initial shooting. Peterson drew inspiration from George R.R. Martins description of the language, as well as from such languages as Russian, Turkish, Estonian, Inuktitut and Swahili.[3]

[edit] Language constraintsThe Dothraki language was developed under two significant constraints. First, the language had to match the uses already put down in the books. Secondly, it had to be easily pronounceable or learnable by the actors. These two constraints influenced the grammar and phonology of the language: for instance, voiceless stops can be aspirated or unaspirated, as in English.

[edit] Phonology and romanizationDavid Peterson has said that "You know, most people probably dont really know what Arabic actually sounds like, so to an untrained ear, it might sound like Arabic. To someone who knows Arabic, it doesnt. I tend to think of the sound as a mix between Arabic (minus the distinctive pharyngeals) and Spanish, due to the dental consonants."[4] Regarding the orthography, the Dothraki themselves don't have a writing systemnor do many of the surrounding peoples (e.g. the Lhazareen). If there were to be any written examples of Dothraki in the A Song of Ice and Fire universe, it would be in a writing system developed in the Free Cities and adapted to Dothraki, or in some place like Ghis or Qarth, which do have writing systems.[5]

[edit] ConsonantsThere are twenty-three consonant phonemes in the Dothraki language. Here the romanized form is given on the left, and the IPA in brackets. Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular Glottal k [k] q [q] t [t] d [d] g [] ch [t] s [s] z [z] j [d] sh [] zh [] kh [x] h [h]

Plosive Voiced plosive Affricate Voiced affricate

Voiceless fricative f [f] th [] Voiced fricative v [v] m [m] n [n] Nasal Lateral l [l] Trill Tap w [w] Glide

r [r] r [] y [j]

The digraphs kh, sh, th and zh are all fricatives, while ch and j are affricates. The letters c and x never appear in Dothraki, although c appears in the digraph ch, pronounced like 'check'. b and p seem to appear only in names, as in Bharbo and Pono. Voiceless stops may be aspirated. This does not change word meaning.

[edit] VowelsDothraki has a four vowel system shown below: Vowels Diphthongs i [i] iy [ij] e [e] ey [ej] o [o] oy [oj] a [a] ay [aj] In the A Song of Ice and Fire books, u never occurs as a vowel, appearing only after "q", and only in names, as in Jhiqui and Quaro. In sequence of multiple vowels, each such vowel represents a separate syllable. Examples: shierak [i.e.'ak] star, rhaesh [ha.'e] country, khaleesi ['xa.le.e.si] queen.

[edit] GrammarBasic word order is SVO: subject comes first, then verb and lastly object. In a noun phrase demonstratives come first, but adjectives, possessor and prepositional phrases all follow the noun. Though prepositions are also sometimes employed, the language is foremost inflectional. Prefixes, suffixes and circumfixes are all used. Verbs conjugate in infinite, past, present, future, two imperatives and (archaic) participle; they also agree with person, number and polarity. Nouns divide into two classes, inanimate and animate. They decline in five cases, nominative, accusative, genitive, allative and ablative. Animate nouns also decline according to number.[6][7]

[edit] Word OrderIn a basic sentence, the order of these elements (when all three are present) is as in English: First comes the Subject (S), then comes the Verb (V), then comes the Object (O). Here's an example: Khal ahhas arakh. The Khal (S) sharpened (V) the arakh (O). When only a subject is a present, the subject precedes the verb, as it does in English: Arakh hasa. The arakh (S) is sharp (V). In noun phrases there is a specific order as well. The order is as follows: demonstrative, noun, adverb, adjective, genitive noun, prepositional phrase. Prepositions always precede their noun complements. jin ave sekke verven anni m'orvikoon this father very violent of.mine with.a.whip this very violent father of mine with a whip Adverbs normally are sentence final, but they can also immediately follow the verb. Modal particles precede the verb.[6]

[edit] SampleNevakhi vekha ha maan: Rekke, m'aresakea norethi fitte. /nevaxi vexa ha maan rekke maesakea noei fitte/ seat.GEN exist.3SG.PRES for 3SG.ALL there.ACC with.coward.ALL.PL hair.GEN short There is a place for him: There, with the short-haired cowards.[8]

[edit] References1. ^ "The Header Script". 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2011-10-03.

2. ^ "Lekh". Dothraki. 2011-04-05. Retrieved 2011-05-11. 3. ^ "Official HBO Press Release". April 12, 2010. 4. ^ "Creating Dothraki - An Interview with David J Peterson and Sai Emrys". April 22, 2010. 5. ^ "Westeros.Ru interview". June 24, 2010. 6. ^ a b "Dothraki 101 post on HBO's Making Game of Throne's blog". December 15, 2010. 7. ^ "Dothraki presentation at Language Creation Conference 4". August 22, 2011. 8. ^ "Dothraki Presentation at WorldCon 2011". August 21, 2011.

[edit] External links

The official Dothraki blog The LCS blog about the language The Dothraki Language Wiki [show]

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A Song of Ice and Fire by George R. R. Martin[show]

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DothrakiLekh Dothraki

HomeWelcome to Dothraki.org! We are an unofficial fan-site for the Dothraki Language, used in George R.R. Martins series A Song of Ice and Fire. HBO has just finished showing the first season of an ongoing series called Game of Thrones, and they hired David Peterson of the Language Creation Society (LCS) to make a full language out of the small snippets used in the

books. This site is dedicated towards being the official home of that language community around Dothraki. We hope to be the fan base for it, allowing fans to learn, document, and speak it together, just as on our sister site, LearnNavi.org. Were in contact with the LCS, but were not officially a part of them everything here is for fans, by fans. Dothraki is the language of the nomadic horse warriors who populate the Dothraki Sea: a vast grass plain in the center of the continent of Essos, which lies to the east of Westeros, across the Narrow Sea. Their language differs greatly from the Common Tongue of Westeros and the languages of the Free Cities, which descend from High Valyrian. For more, check the wiki, or watch our YouTube channel, or better yet, read the books. For a description of the language itself, youll find no better place to start looking than here.

Learning Dothraki?If you are interested in learning to speak Dothraki then the place for you to start is at our starting platform in the Dothraki wiki: http://wiki.dothraki.org/dothraki/Learningdothraki This wiki is still under construction but more information is added continuously.

Resources

The Unofficial Dothraki Dictionary (Updated frequently) Dothraki Language wiki Dothraki.org Forum Dothraki IRC Chat Dothraki Wiki in a PDF Document

January 27,