Duval-2

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(m) SATELIT + h = (m) 2 4 5 7 10 15 20 45 60

1 ESE 1000 ESE 2500 ESE 4000 ESE 5000 ESE 6000 10 17 24 28 32 20 34 46 55 64 26 42 58 68 79 27 43 59 69 79 28 44 59 69 79 30 45 60 70 80 30 45 60 70 80 -

2 ESE 1000 ESE 2500 ESE 4000 ESE 5000 ESE 6000 15 23 30 35 40 30 45 60 69 78 38 57 75 86 97 40 59 76 87 98 42 61 77 88 99 46 63 80 90 10 1 49 65 81 92 10 2 55 70 85 95 10 5 -

3 ESE 1000 ESE 2500 ESE 4000 ESE 5000 ESE 6000 18 26 33 38 44 37 52 66 76 87 43 65 84 95 10 7 46 66 85 96 10 8 49 69 87 98 10 9 54 72 89 10 0 11 1 57 75 92 10 2 11 3 68 84 99 11 0 12 0 70 85 10 0 11 0 12 0

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satelit

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:IP65 : 1KA 180 KA - 1 s 2.7s

satelit+

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1 SATELIT+ ESE 2 3 4 5 6

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APPENDIX C (Normative)E.S.E. LIGHTNING CONDUCTOR ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE

C1

EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

The effectiveness of an E.S.E. Iightning conductor is assessed by comparing the upward leader triggering time emitted by the E.S.E. Iightning conductor against the upward leader triggering time emitted by an S.R. Iightning conductor. For this purpose, the SR lightning conductor and E.S.E. Iightning conductor are assessed one after the other under the same electrical and geometrical conditions during laboratory tests simulating the natural conditions of the upward leader initiation (positive upward leader). C 1.1 Ground field simulation The natural ground field existing before a lightning stroke affects the conditions of corona formation and of existing space charges. The natural ground field should therefore be simulated : its value ranges from 10 kV/m to 25 kV/m. C 1.2 Impulse field simulation To reproduce the natural phenomenon as closely as possible, the ground field build-up is simulated by a waveform the rise time of which ranges from 100 sec to 1000 sec. The waveform slope within the upward leader initiation region should be between 2.108 and 2.109 V/m/s.

C2

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP C 2.1 Positions of lightning protection systems to be compared

The upper plate/air-termination distance should be sufficient for the upward leader to propagate in free space and, in any case, over a length greater than 1 m (d 1 m). The objects to be compared should be placed in the same electrical environment which is independent of their locations: they should be tested one after the other and centred on ground above the plate and their height should be the same. C 2.2 Dimensions of experimental set-up The upper plate/ground distance (H) should be greater than 2 m. The ratio h/H of the air-termination height to the plate height above ground

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level should range from 0.25 to 0.5. The smaller horizontal dimension of the upper plate is the upper plate/ground H distance.

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C 3 PARAMETERS TO BE CHECKED - MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN C 3.1 Electrical parameters - Applied voltage waveforms and amplitudes (ambient field calibration, pulsed voltage wave, associated current, etc.); - Continuous polarisation setting; - Initiation setting on the reference equipment (simple rod lightning conductor) : initiation probability equal to 1. C 3.2 Geometrical conditions The distance d should be strictly the same in each configuration: it shouid be checked before each test. C 3.3 Climatic parameters The climatic conditions should be recorded before and after testing in each configuration (pressure, temperature, absolute humidity). C 3.4 Number of lightning strokes in each configuration The number of lightning strokes should be statistically adequate in each configuration, e.g. about one hundred lightning strokes in each configuration. C 3.5 Triggering time The criterion adopted for assessing the effectiveness of an E.S.E. lightning conductor is its capacity to initiate an upward leader before an SR lightning conductor under the same conditions. The average upward leader triggering time T is measured for each usable lightning stroke on the SR lightning conductor and then on the E.S.E. lightning conductor.

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C4

EFFICIENCY OF THE E.S.E. LIGHTNING CONDUCTOR C 4.1 Experimental Assessment of the average triggering times

The upward leader triggering times measured during usable shocks on an SR lightning conductor and an E.S.E. Iightning conductor are used to compute the average triggering times T'SRLC and T'ESELC in compliance with the selected experimental curve parameters. C 4.2 Reference waveform The reference waveform is defined by a rise time TR of 650 sec and a shape as shown in the graph of Figure C2. C 4.3 Determination of the triggering advance of the E.S.E. Iightning conductor The experimental curve is plotted on the same graph as the reference waveform to which is assigned the same field value E M as the experimental field EMexp. Lines are dropped from T'SRLC and T'ESELC onto the rererence curve and the ordinates of the intersection points give the E field values. The triggering times are obtained by projecting lines from the E values to the points where they intersect the reference curve; the associated values on the x-axis gives the triggering advance T (sec) = T'SRLC and T'ESELC.

Note : The method proposed above can be used to determine a T value in a laboratory. Using the upward leader initiation fields which only depend on airtermination height h, a T value

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independent of d can be determined. This transposition is accomplished using the continuous leader starting threshold field model developed by Rizk & Berger.

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REFERENCE LIST

* -

-

Fontenay aux Roses Saclay Vaujours La Hague

- Cadarache - Marcoule - Pierrelatte -Tricastin...

* - - - - * - Rhne-Poulenc Akzo-Nobel Kodak Shell Chimie Henkel Rubson Shell Total BP (Lavrat) Fould Springer (Maison Alfort) Novacel (Rouen) Chevron Chemical (Le Havre) SCPO (Chalon /Saone) Butagaz (Rennes) ... - -

*ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE ( ) - Arammon, Le Havre - Montereau... - Dampierre, de Chinon, Gravelines, Le Blayais, Nogent... *GAZ DE FRANCE( ) - * CNES IRSID GANIL SNECMA CNET Thomson CSF ONERA Aropatiale

* - Orly - RATP - SNCF ( ) - Banque de France...

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