Ecological Interface Design (EID)

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Ecological Interface Design (EID). INTRODUCTION an attempt to extend the benefits of direct manipulation interfaces (DMI) to complex work domains Unanticipated Events thee broad areas for events familiar events skills to deal with these events - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ecological Interface Design (EID)INTRODUCTIONan attempt to extend the benefits of direct manipulation interfaces (DMI) to complex work domainsUnanticipated Eventsthee broad areas for eventsfamiliar events skills to deal with these eventsunfamiliar, but anticipated events infrequentunfamiliar and unanticipated eventsunanticipated events are the major cause of life-threatening accidents mistakes (errors in intention) rather than slips (errors in execution)for routine events UI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)PROBLEM FORMULATIONFundamentalsan interface a control system control theorythe Law of Requisite Variety states that complex systems require complex controllersphysical systems can be described by a set of constraintsevery good controller must be, or possess, a model of the system it is controlling

UI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)The Structure of the Design Problemtwo questions pertinent to interface design

Abstraction hierarchy as a psychologically relevant form of representing the constraints in a work domain in a way that operators to cope with unanticipated eventsSRK taxonomy as a useful framework for describing the various mechanisms that people have for processing infodomain and operator as the organism-environment reciprocityUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)THE ABSTRACTION HIERARCHYWhat Kind of Hierarchy?belongs to the class of stratified hierarchy by Mesarovic et al. (1970)a means-end relationship between levels (explicitly goal-oriented nature) the AH not a specific representation but rather a framework for developing representations for various work domainsfive levels of constraints for process control systems functional purpose, abstract function, generalized function, physical function, physical forman informational basis for coping with unanticipated events and a psychologically valid representation for problem-solvingUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)

UI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)Coping with Unanticipated Events: A Historical Overviewin the 1960s at Ris National Lab in Denmarkhuman operator plays a key role in overall system reliability and safetyaccident-causing errors by human operators with unfamiliar situations not anticipated by designers Engineering analysis of the control requirements posed by unanticipated events the AH as a framework for identifying and integrating the set of goal relevant constraints that are operating in a given work domainhigher levels represent relational info about system purpose, whereas the lower levels represent more elemental data about physical implementationUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)Psychological Relevanceengineering perspective for coping with unanticipated eventshigher levels are less detailed than lower levels makes complex systems look simpler explicitly goal-oriented means-end relation an efficient form of searchpossible to meaningfully map problem solving protocols onto an AH representation of the domainsubjects problem solving trajectories would begin at a high level of abstraction and gradually focus in on lower levels, thereby exploiting the goal-related constraint provided by the hierarchyUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)MULTIPLE LEVELS OF COGNITIVE CONTROLthree levels of info (signals, signs, or symbols) vs. three levels of cognitive control SBB (automated behavior patterns), RBB (a set of cue-action mappings), and KBB (PS operations on a symbolic representation)The Power of Perceptionthree levels of cognitive control into two general categoriesperceptual processing (SBB, RBB) fast, effortless, parallelanalytic PS based on a symbolic representation (KBB) slow, laborious, serial, more error prone due to WM

UI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)two characteristics of complex work domainhighly skilled and extensive experience in controlling the systeminterface design needs specific application generality not importantmake perceptual processing an attractive possibilityempirical evidence? Brunswick (1956), Hammond et al. (1987) perception can be very effective not always leads to superior performance but the conditions characteristics of complex work domains are propitious for perceptual processing

UI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)The Propensity for Perceptual ProcessingTwo ExamplesKlein (1989) a series of naturalistic DM in the domain of firefighting, military operations, engineering design; nonroutine eventsSurprisingly, experts often relies on recognitional DMMental effort recognition mode less taxing than the analytic modeEffectiveness with their experience quickly generate plausible action alternatives than the complete set of possible alternativesAppropriateness -- recognitional DM much quicker than analyticalKirlick (1989) complex, supervisory control taskExpert behavior almost exclusively on perception and actionUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)More Examples and What Can Go WrongHollnagel (1981) surface/ deep control in process controlFischoff et al. (1978), Smith (1989) in management DM

Skill and Task EffectsLevel of skill of the operator and the level of complexity of the task demandsNecessary to understand how the levels are related and what the activities associated with each otherUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)Implications for Interface Design

SBB in the form of time-space signals, RBB by familiar perceptual forms (signs), KBB by meaningful structures (Symbols)

UI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)ECOLOGICAL INTERFACE DESIGNThe PrinciplesSBB To support interaction via time-space signals, the operator should be able to act to directly on the display, and the structure of the displayed information should be isomorphic to the part-whole structure of movementsRBB Provide a consistent one-to-one mapping between the work domain constraints and the cues or signs provided by the interfaceno consistent mapping between the perceptual cues and the constraints that govern the process behavior procedural traps: novel situations where operators rely on their normal rule set, but without the usual successUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)Unique and consistent mapping between constraints and cuesmental economy RBB less than KBBCan exhibit what looks like KBB by relying on RBBKBB Represent the work domain in the form of an abstraction hierarchy to serve as an externalized mental model that will support knowledge-based problem solvingLimitationsThree issues pertaining to the use of AHdesigners knowledge of the constraints governing the systemRobustness empirical research neededLimitations due to sensor technologygeneralizabilityUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)WHAT IS THE CONTRIBUTION OF EID?Communicating the Information to the OperatorDirect Manipulation Interfaces:DMI allow users to directly act on what they see in the display but lack of the explanation of human information processing capability SRK frameworkObject Displays:Mapping the higher order perceptual relationships onto goal-relevant variablesDirectly relevant to EID principle 2 to support RBB, the perceptual cues (signs) should directly specify the process constraintsUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)Technology-Driven Display Design:Computer graphics for building interfaces for complex technical systems mimic or schematic diagramsEID is top-down while technology-based is bottom-up

Representing the Complexity in the DomainOperator Function Model:Another formalism as an alternative to the AHOFM (Mitchell and Miller, 1986) a discrete control modelWhat data should be displayed?How should those data be organized into screens?How should context sensitivity be built into the display?How can information be presented at various levels of detail?UI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)Mappings are nondeterministicMiller (1982) structural vs. behavioral representationA structural representation is one in which the structures that define the system are defied directly in some set of objects (AH) complex systems where unanticipated events are the biggest threat to system safetya behavioral representation is a representation of a dynamic system whose elements consist of system behavior (OFM) situations where operators are required to dynamically select the relevant subset of data to carry out predictable tasksUI/CM LABUser I LAB Ecological Interface Design (EID)EMPIRICAL EVALUATIONDURESS (Dual Reservoir System Simulation) a thermal-hydraulic process simulationPhysical/functional (P+F) interface and physical (P) interfaceFunctional variables to the higher levels of the AHthe P+F interface superior diagnosis performance to the P interface, primarily for expertsThe higher-order functional info in the P+F interface is important for diagnosis, justifying for including higher levels of the AH in an interfaceSuperiority of the P+F interface in the memory taskUI/CM LABUser I LAB