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AAA COLLEGE OF

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

KAMARAJ EDUCATIONAL ROAD,

AMATHUR, SIVAKASI - 626123.

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERINGLABORATORY MANUAL CUM OBSERVATION

EC6361 ELECTRONICS LABORATORY AAA COLLEGE OFENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

KAMARAJ EDUCATIONAL ROAD,

AMATHUR, SIVAKASI 626123.

NAME

: _________________________________________________________________________________

REGISTER NUMBER: _________________________________________________ ROLL NO: __________________

BRANCH

: _________________________________________________________________________________

YEAR

: _________________________________________________________________________________

Bonafide Record of work done in the _________________________________________________________

Of AAA College of Engineering and Technology, Amathur, during the year _____________.

STAFF IN-CHARGE

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Submitted for the Practical Examination held on ___________________________ at AAA College of Engineering and Technology, Amathur,Sivakasi.

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER INDEXEx.No.DateTitle of the ExperimentPage No.MarkSignature

L1aCharacteristics of Semi conductor diode

L1bCharacteristics of Zener diode

L2aCharacteristics of a NPN Transistor under common emitter configuration

L2bCharacteristics of a NPN Transistor under common collector configuration

L2cCharacteristics of a NPN Transistor under common base configuration

L3Characteristics of JFET

L4Characteristics of UJT and generation of saw tooth waveforms

L5Design and Frequency response characteristics of a Common Emitter amplifier

L6Characteristics of photo diode & photo transistor, Study of light activated relay circuit

L7aDesign and testing of RC phase shift oscillators

L7bDesign and testing of LC oscillators

L8Single Phase half-wave and full wave rectifiers with inductive and capacitive filters

L9Differential amplifiers using FET

L10Study of CRO for frequency and phase measurements

L11Astable and Monostable multivibrators

L12Realization of passive filters

Exp.No:1

CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE

AIM:

To draw the forward & Reverse characteristics of semi conductor diode & to determine its cut-in voltage.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

SL. NOAPPARATUS NAMERANGEQUANTITY

1RPS(0-30)V1

2Ammeter(0-30 mA) MC1

(0-100 mA) MC1

3voltmeter(0-1V) MC1

(0-30V) MC1

4Resistors1 K1

10 K1

5Diode1 N 40011

6Bread board-1

7Connecting Wires-1 set

THEORY:

A PN junction is known as a semiconductor (or) crystal diode. The outstanding property of a crystal diode is to conduct current in one direction only.

PROCEDURE:

FORWARD BIASING:On forward biasing, initially no current flows due to barrier potential. As the applied potential exceeds the barrier potential the charge carriers gain sufficient energy to cross the potential barrier and hence enter the other region. The holes, which are majority carriers in the P-region, become minority carriers on entering the N-regions, and electrons, which are the majority carriers in the N-region, become minority carriers on entering the P-region. This injection of Minority carriers results in the current flow, opposite to the direction of electron movement.

REVERSE BIASING:On reverse biasing, the majority charge carriers are attracted towards the terminals due to the applied potential resulting in the widening of the depletion region. Since the charge carriers are pushed towards the terminals no current flows in the device due to majority charge carriers. There will be some current in the device due to the thermally generated minority carriers. The generation of such carriers is independent of the applied potential and hence the current is constant for all increasing reverse potential. This current is referred to as Reverse Saturation Current (IO) and it increases with temperature. When the applied reverse voltage is increased beyond the certain limit, it results in breakdown. During breakdown, the diode current increases tremendously.

PROCEDURE:FORWARD BIAS:1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram.

2. Vary the applied voltage V in steps of 0.1V.

3. Note down the corresponding Ammeter readings I.

4. Plot a graph between V & I

OBSERVATIONS1. Find the d.c (static) resistance = V/I.

2. Find the a.c (dynamic) resistance r = V / I (r = V/I) = V2 V1 .

I 2 I13. Find the forward voltage drop = [Hint: it is equal to 0.7 for Si and 0.3 for Ge]

REVERSE BIAS:1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram.

2. Vary the applied voltage V in steps of 1.0V.

3. Note down the corresponding Ammeter readings I.

4. Plot a graph between V & I

5. Find the dynamic resistance r = V / I.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Forward Bias:

Reverse bias:

MODEL GRAPH:

TABULATION:Forward bias:Sl. NoInput voltageOutput voltageOutput current

(volts)(volts)(Amps)

Reverse bias:Sl. NoInput voltageOutput voltageOutput current

(volts)(volts)(Amps)

RESULT:Forward & reverse bias characteristics of junction diode are plotted & their dynamic resistances, cut-in voltage are as follows,

Dynamic forward resistance = --------------ohm

Dynamic reverse resistance = --------------ohm

Cut-in- voltage= -------------------volt

Exp.No:1b

CHARACTERISTICS OF ZENER DIODE

AIM:

To draw the forward & reverse characteristics of zener diode. Determine its cut-in voltage & breakdown voltage.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Sl. NoApparatus NameRangeQuantity

1RPS(0-30) V1 No

2Voltmeter(0-3V) MC1 No

(0-30V) MC

3Ammeter(0-100mA) MC1 No

4Bread board1 No

5Resistors1 K1 No

10 K

6Zener diodeFZ5.11 No

7Connecting Wires1 set

THEORY:

A properly doped crystal diode, which has a sharp breakdown voltage, is known as zener diode.

FORWARD BIAS:

On forward biasing, initially no current flows due to barrier potential. As the applied potential increases, it exceeds the barrier potential at one value and the charge carriers gain sufficient energy to cross the potential barrier and enter the other region. the holes ,which are majority carriers in p-region, become minority carriers on entering the N-regions and electrons, which are the majority carriers in the N-regions become minority carriers on entering the P-region. This injection of minority carriers results current, opposite to the direction of electron movement.

REVERSE BIAS:

When the reverse bias is applied due to majority carriers small amount of current (ie) reverse saturation current flows across the junction. As the reverse bias is increased to breakdown voltage, sudden rise in current takes place due to zener effect.ZENER EFFECT:Normally, PN junction of Zener Diode is heavily doped. Due to heavy doping the depletion layer will be narrow. When the reverse bias is increased the potential across the depletion layer is more. This exerts a force on the electrons in the outermost shell. Because of this force the electrons are pulled away from the parent nuclei and become free electrons. This ionization, which occurs due to electrostatic force of attraction, is known as Zener effect. It results in large number of free carriers, which in turn increases the reverse saturation current

PROCEDURE:FORWARD BIAS:1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.

2. Vary the power supply in such a way that the readings are taken in steps of 0.1V in the voltmeter till the needle of power supply shows 30V.

3. Note down the corresponding ammeter readings.

4. Plot the graph :V (vs) I.

5. Find the dynamic resistance r = V / I.

REVERSE BIAS:1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram.

2. Vary the power supply in such a way that the readings are taken in steps of 0.1V in the voltmeter till the needle of power supply shows 30V.

3. Note down the corresponding Ammeter readings I.

4. Plot a graph between V & I

5. Find the dynamic resistance r = V / I.

6. Find the reverse voltage Vr at Iz=20 mA.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Forward bias:Reverse bias:

MODEL GRAPH:

TABULATION:

Forward bias:

Sl. NoInput voltageOutput voltageOutput current

(volts)(volts)m(Amps)

Reverse bias:

Sl. NoInput voltageOutput voltageOutput current

(volts)(volts)m(Amps)

Result:Forward and Reverse bias characteristics of the zener diode was studied andForward bias dynamic resistance = ---------------------Reverse bias dynamic resistance = ----------------------The reverse voltage at Iz =20 mA determined from the reverse characteristics of the Zener diode is --------------------------.Exp.No:2a CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON EMITTER CONFIGURATIONAIM:

To draw the input and output characteristics of common Emitter configuration for a given transistor and find the input and output resistance.APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Sl. NoApparatus NameRangeQuantity

1RPS(0-30) V2

2Voltmeter(0-2V) MC1

(0-30V) MC

3Ammeter(0-100 A) MC1

(0-50mA) MC

4Resistor1 k,1

68k1

5TransistorBC 1071

6Bread board-1

7Connecting Wires-1 set

THEORY:

In this arrangement, input is applied between base and emitter and output is taken from t