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  • Veterinary Pharmacology

    Endocrine System

    Antiduretic Hormone, Growth

    Hormone & Anabolic Steroids

    Veterinary Pharmacology

    Endocrine System

    Antiduretic Hormone, Growth

    Hormone & Anabolic Steroids

    Goudarz Sadeghi, DVM, PhD, DScAssociate Professor of Pharmacology

    University of Tehran

    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

  • ADH 1Introduction

    Full name: Anti-diuretic hormone

    Other name: Vasopressin

    Secretion: by the neurohypophysial system

    Receptors: V1:

    VSM: vasoconstriction

    Hepatocytes: glycogenolysis

    Platelets: aggregation


    Renal collecting ducts:

    permeability to water concentrated urine

    the release of von Willebrand factor

  • ADH 2Release & Effects

  • ADH 3Desmopressin - 1

    Chemical name:

    DDAVP (l-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin)


    A long-acting synthetic analogue of ADH that

    works primarily at V2 receptors.

    Main application:

    treatment of diabetes insipidus

  • ADH 4Desmopressin - 2

    Administration: Parenterally


    Into the conjunctival sacThe minimum dose required by these latter routes is 5-

    10 times the parenteral dose.

    The administration of 1-4 drops once or twice a day controls polyuria in most animals with diabetes insipidus.

  • ADH 5Desmopressin - 3

    DDAVP is used to treat canine patients with von Willebrand disease.

    shortens the bleeding time in these dogs.

    The parenteral route is indicated, because

    hemostatic effects require 5-10 times the dose needed to control polyuria.

  • ADH 6Desmopressin - 4

    Side effects of therapy:


    Conjunctival irritation

    excessive doses of DDAVP excretion of a

    free water load fluid retention


    if severe overhydration develops cerebral edema

  • GH 1General

    Growth hormone (GH) is normally synthesized and secreted by the pituitary gland under the influence of GHRH produced by the hypothalamus.

  • GH 2Bovine GH - 1

    Application: in cattle to enhance growth or milk production.

    Characteristics: a prolonged- release injectable formulation of a recombinant bovine GH.

    Administration: SC every 14 days

  • GH 3Bovine GH - 2

    Adverse effects: Mild hyperthermia

    Clinical and subclinical mastitis

    Reduced feed intake

    Swelling at the injection site

    Mild anemia

    Decreased fertility

    Increased gestational problems Early birth, twinning, retained placenta

  • Anabolic Steroids 1General

    The ASs are synthetic androgenic compounds that have been developed to have: anabolic effects

    virilizing effects

    Veterinary applications: 1) to treat nonregenerative anemias

    2) to enhance growth and performance

    3) to stimulate appetite

  • Anabolic Steroids 2Compounds

  • Anabolic Steroids 3Effects

    Useful in anemia:

    erythropoietin production heme synthesis

    red cell proliferation

    If adequate protein and calories

    nitrogen retention lean body mass body weight

    They are controlled drugs.

  • Anabolic Steroids 4Applications - 1

    In small animals:


    Nandrolone decanoate

    In the horse:


    Boldenone undecylenate

  • Anabolic Steroids 5Applications - 2


    Oral or parenteral

    The anabolic effects persist for up to 1 week.


    Parenteral, weekly

    Somewhat more effective in stimulating erythropoiesis


    IM, every 8 weeks to horses

  • Anabolic Steroids 6Side Effects

    Hepatotoxicity (particularly in cats)

    Sodium, calcium, phosphate, potassium, and water retention

    Prostatic disease



    Contraindication: in pregnant or breeding animals

  • Bile Acids 1General

    Synthesized exclusively in the liver from cholesterol.

    The only bile acid used pharmacologically in small animals is ursodeoxycholic acid.

  • Bile Acids 2Ursodeoxycholic Acid - 1


    to treat cholesterol gallstones

    as a hepatoprotective agent

    Lowers plasma and bile cholesterol by:

    cholesterol secretion into bile

    intestinal re-absorption of cholesterol

    hepatic synthesis of cholesterol

  • Bile Acids 3Ursodeoxycholic Acid- 2

    Potential benefits in treating hepatic disease:

    bicarbonate-rich bile flow (chloresis).

    Chronic administration replacement of the normal relatively hydrophobic pool of bile acids with the relatively

    hydrophilic ursodeoxycholate.

    Hydrophobic bile acids are cytotoxic agents at high concentrations!

    Protection of mitocnondrial membrane integrity.

    Immune-modulating effects (interactions with the

    corticosteroid receptor?)

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