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COMENTARIOS DEL EDITOR
Este nmero de Hermes le presenta a los lectores reflexiones y discusiones en torno a temas de gran relevancia para la enseanza en lnea, como lo son: los factores que influyen en la participacin de la facultad en el uso de tecnologas basadas en el Web, el desarrollo de cursos en lnea para adiestrar a los/as profesores/as sobre tecnologas de aprendizaje y el problema de cmo evitar que los estudiantes se copien en los exmenes.
Comenzamos con un artculo de la Dra. Aury Curbelo, del Recinto Universitario de Mayagez, quien discute los resultados de su estudio sobre los obstculos que confrontan los profesores de educacin agrcola en los Estados Unidos para integrar las tecnologas de comunicacin e informacin a sus cursos. Entre las barreras que identificaron estos profesores se encuentran : falta de tiempo concedido por la administracin, falta de incentivos econmicos, falta de una poltica institucional, sobrecarga acadmica y la falta de recursos econmicos, entre otros. A pesar de que la muestra de este estudio es de profesores de educacin agrcola, nos parece que estos obstculos son los mismos que confrontan los profesores de otras disciplinas en Puerto Rico y otras pases.
El profesor Douglas Young, director del Centro de Educacin a Distancia de la Universidad Texas Pan-American, describe un curso en lnea desarrollado para adiestrar a profesores en el diseo instruccional de cursos a distancia. Este curso es ofrecido tanto en ingls como espaol y puede convertirse en una forma de complementar los adiestramientos sobre enseanza en lnea ofrecidos a la facultad.
El Dr. Robert Bramucci, Decano del Open Campus del Riverside Community College District, nos presenta un protocolo para lidiar con el problema del copiarse en los exmenes. Muchas de sus sugerencias pueden ser aplicadas a los cursos en lnea y representan un modelo que puede
aminorar significativamente este problema.
Por ltimo, Stephen Downes, investigador en el National Research Council of Canada, nos ofrece unas reflexiones muy interesantes en torno a los derechos de autor desde una perspectiva que trasciende los modelos tradicionales que se han utilizado para abordar este tema.
Esperamos que disfruten este nmero de la misma manera que hemos disfrutado la preparacin del mismo.
FACTORS INFLUENCING FACULTY PARTICIPATION IN WEB-BASEDDISTANCE EDUCATION TECHNOLOGIESAURY M. CURBELO-RUIZ, PH.DAssistant Professor University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez Campus
TEACHING ONLINE IN HIGHER EDUCATION: AN ONLINE FACULTY WORKSHOP IN ONLINE PEDAGOGYDOUGLAS A. YOUNG, MADirector, Center for Distance LearningUniversity of Texas-Pan American
A PROTOCOL TO PREVENT CHEATING ON EXAMINATIONSROBERT S. BRAMUCCI, PH.D.Dean, Open Campus at Riverside CommunityCollege District
COPYRIGHT, ETHICS AND THEFTSTEPHEN DOWNESSenior Researcher, National Research Council of Canada
Revista del Centro de Enseanza Complementada por Internet
Mario Nez MolinaEditor
David Zapata MenesesArtista Grfico
Recursos creados por el Centro
Criticas a nuevas tecnologas
Recursos en la Internet
FACTORS INFLUENCING FACULTY PARTICIPATION IN WEB-BASED DISTANCEEDUCATION TECHNOLOGIESAURY M. CURBELO-RUIZ, PH.DAssistant Professor University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez Campus
ABSTRACTThe use of web-based technologies continues to grow. College and universities must take a proactive stance to meet the educational needs of society in the 21st Century. The adoption and use of web-based technologies are the methods that colleges and universities can embrace to meet the task of educating the students of the 21st Century. Greater use of web-based distance education technology is needed to improve productivity and expand access to different educational programs.
The purpose of the study was to investigate factors which influenced faculty participation in web-based distance education technologies for delivering instruction in agricultural programs. In addition, the study sought to discuss faculty perceptions on their level of competence, level of importance, availability of infrastructure, training, and perceived major barriers faced in using web-based distance education technologies for delivering instruction in agricultural programs. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict factors that influenced faculty participation in web-based distance education.
Based on the 88% of the responses, findings of this investigation suggested that faculty have a high level of competence/skills using web-based technologies. In addition, this study found that educators considered the use of web-based technologies to enhance their teaching to be helpful and important. Concerning the availability of infrastructure provided by institutions, educators indicated that training, technical assistance and equipment are available to used. Faculty respondents identified six major barriers that would inhibit their decision to participate in using web-based technologies to deliver distance education. Those barriers were: (1) the lack of administratively provided time, like professional development leave, to learn to use web-based technologies; (2) the lack of a reward and incentives that encourages faculty to participate in web-based distance education; (3) the lack of credit toward tenure and promotion; (4) concern about workload; (5) the lack of grants materials/expenses (funding); and, (6) concern about the effects of distance education technology on the quality of the courses. Finally, regression model yielded two predictor variables: Level of competence/skills and lack of grant material/expenses (funding). The variables included in the multiple regression model accounted for 33% of the faculty participation in web-based distance education.
INTRODUCTIONTechnology has been the source of much revolutionary activity in many of the functions at colleges and universities. Today, something new and very important is occurring. New web-based technologies in academic instruction and communication are establishing a foothold on many American campuses, and in time, these technologies may significantly influence the way these institutions of higher education perform their basic mission of educating learners (Brooks, 1999). Distance learning (DL) is one product of these developments. Kayworth and Koch (1997) stated that distance learning was one of educations boom areas, and that it was growing to where some experts predicted that it would eventually become the normal mode of instruction.
A national study (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1989) reported that nearly half of the state colleges and universities surveyed offered distance education (DE) courses. Ten percent of state colleges and universities awarded full degree programs via distance education (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1989). Clearly, the most prominent trend was the exploding number and variety of distance education courses offered by state colleges and institutions of higher education (Distance Education Policy Recommendation, 1996). Distance learning is emerging as an increasingly important educational component of higher educations instructional delivery systems (Greene & Meek, 1997). Furthermore, Jayaraman and Piper (1998) added that the market for distance learning (DL) had experienced significant expansion and was expected to grow at a rate of 25% to 35% per annum over the next few years. Today, many educational institutions are taking advantage of telecommunications technology by developing and delivering distance education conferences, workshops, courses, and programs. The increasing availability of telecommunications has also provided agricultural faculty, extension educators, and professionals with unique opportunities to plan and deliver distance education courses and programs. However, Newcomb (1992) indicated that agricultural distance education would not reach its potential until educators learned to plan and deliver instruction differently, using a variety of methods and techniques.
Moreover, collegiate faculty members are increasingly being asked to teach in a distance-learning environment. Many of these DL faculty members are not adequately
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prepared for their DL obligations (Brooks, 1999). Brooks (1999) stated that as the educational model for delivering instruction broadens, technologies continue to advance, educational delivery methods continue to expand, and audiences become more diversified, faculty remain a key element in the teaching and learning process. Olcott and Wright (1995) indicated that the responsibility for instructional quality and control, the improvement of learning, and the aggregate effectiveness of distance education still rested with the faculty.
Ultimately, it is the faculty who need to be aware of diverse technologies and delivery methods available for distance education so they can incorporate them into their teaching and learning strategies. To use distance-learning strategies, faculty may need to alter teaching styles used within the traditional classroom, and develop new skills to effectively reach the distant learner. Dillon and Walsh (1992), and Clark (1993), both observed that faculty using distance education technology faced a variety of challenges when adapting their teaching styles to a framework compatible with the distance-learning environment. In 1992, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting reported to Congress that faculty needed to understand the relationship between learning, interactivity, and technology, as well as how to operate the techno