FACTORS INFLUENCING SEDIMENT TRANSPORT Peter.pdf workflow built in the ArcGIS Model Builder, shows that

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  • Nyugat-magyarországi Egyetem

    Roth Gyula Erdészeti és Vadgazdálkodási Tudományok Doktori Iskola

    Erdei ökoszisztémák ökológiája és diverzitása program

    FACTORS INFLUENCING SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

    ON THE HEADWATER CATCHMENTS OF RÁK

    BROOK, SOPRON

    HORDALÉKSZÁLLÍTÁSRA HATÓ TÉNYEZŐK A SOPRONI

    RÁK-PATAK FELSŐ VÍZGYŰJTŐJÉN

    DOKTORI (PhD) ÉRTEKEZÉS

    Készítette:

    Csáfordi Péter

    Témavezetők:

    Dr. habil Gribovszki Zoltán PhD PhD

    Dr. Kalicz Péter PhD

    Sopron, 2014

  • 3

    Factors influencing sediment transport

    on the headwater catchments of Rák Brook, Sopron

    Hordalékszállításra ható tényezők a soproni Rák-patak felső vízgyűjtőjén

    Értekezés doktori (PhD) fokozat elnyerése érdekében

    Készült a Nyugat-magyarországi Egyetem

    Roth Gyula Erdészeti és Vadgazdálkodási Tudományok Doktori Iskolája

    Erdei ökoszisztémák ökológiája és diverzitása programja keretében

    Írta:

    Csáfordi Péter

    Témavezetők: Dr. habil Gribovszki Zoltán PhD PhD

    Elfogadásra javaslom (igen / nem) .......................

    aláírás

    Dr. Kalicz Péter PhD

    Elfogadásra javaslom (igen / nem) .......................

    aláírás

    A jelölt a doktori szigorlaton ........... % -ot ért el,

    Sopron, 2011. június 28.

    ..............................................

    a Szigorlati Bizottság elnöke

    Az értekezést bírálóként elfogadásra javaslom (igen /nem)

    Első bíráló: .............................................. igen / nem .......................

    aláírás

    Második bíráló: .............................................. igen / nem .......................

    aláírás

    (Esetleg harmadik bíráló ................................ igen / nem .......................

    aláírás)

    A jelölt az értekezés nyilvános vitáján ........ % -ot ért el,

    Sopron, ..............................................

    a Bírálóbizottság elnöke

    A doktori (PhD) oklevél minősítése .............................................

    Sopron, ..............................................

    Az EDT elnöke

  • 4

    „…megméretik az embernek fia

    s ki mint vetett, azonképpen arat.

    Mert elfut a víz és csak a kő marad,

    de a kő marad.”

    (Wass Albert: Üzenet haza)

    „…the man will be judged

    and we reap what we sow.

    Because the water runs off and only the stone remains,

    but the stone remains.”

    (Albert Wass: Message to home)

  • 5

    Contents

    List of symbols and abbreviations .............................................................................................. 7

    Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... 9

    Kivonat ..................................................................................................................................... 10

    1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 11

    1.1. Background .............................................................................................................. 11

    1.2 Soil erosion by water ................................................................................................. 12

    1.3 Soil erosion modelling .............................................................................................. 14

    1.3.1 The Universal Soil Loss Equation and its applicability ................................ 14

    1.3.2 Implementation of the USLE in Geographical Information Systems ........... 16

    1.3.3 The soil erosion prediction model EROSION-3D ........................................ 17

    1.4 Sediment types .......................................................................................................... 19

    1.4.1 Bedload transport .......................................................................................... 20

    1.5 Suspended sediment transport ................................................................................... 23

    1.5.1 Physical principles of the suspended sediment transport .............................. 23

    1.5.2 Temporal variability of the suspended sediment transport ........................... 23

    1.5.3 Hydrological, hydrometeorological and climate parameters influencing the

    suspended sediment transport ........................................................................ 27

    1.5.4 Prediction of suspended sediment transport .................................................. 28

    1.6 Erosion and sediment dynamics under different land cover and land use ................ 31

    1.6.1 Erosion and sediment dynamics of forested catchments ............................... 31

    1.6.2 Impact of the land cover alterations on the suspended sediment dynamics .. 34

    2. Objectives and research questions ........................................................................................ 36

    3. Materials and methods ......................................................................................................... 38

    3.1 Study area .................................................................................................................. 38

    3.1.1 The catchment of the Rák Brook ................................................................... 38

    3.1.2 The Farkas Valley and the Vadkan Valley .................................................... 39

    3.2 Sediment and sediment control parameters ............................................................... 44

    3.2.1 Precipitation data ........................................................................................... 44

    3.2.2 Runoff data .................................................................................................... 46

    3.2.3 Temperature data ........................................................................................... 48

    3.2.4 Sediment data ................................................................................................ 48

    3.3 Statistical analyses ..................................................................................................... 52

    3.4 Geodesic survey and working with GIS .................................................................... 53

    3.5 Soil loss calculations ................................................................................................. 56

    3.5.1 Determination of factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) ........ 56

    3.5.2 Datasets and parameters of the EROSION-3D ............................................. 58

    4. Results .................................................................................................................................. 59

    4.1 Soil, rainfall and runoff conditions ........................................................................... 59

    4.1.1 Soil map of the Farkas Valley and spatial distribution of the K factor ......... 59

    4.1.2 Precipitation categories and the descriptive statistical variables of different

    rainfall parameters ......................................................................................... 59

    4.1.3 Characterization of flood events in the Farkas Valley .................................. 63

    4.2 Suspended sediment concentration and its control factors ........................................ 66

    4.3 Relation between suspended sediment and sediment control factors ....................... 71

    4.3.1 Relation between suspended sediment and sediment control factors at low

    flow ................................................................................................................ 71

    4.3.2 Relation between suspended sediment and sediment control factors at high

    flow ................................................................................................................ 75

  • 6

    4.4 Sediment yield calculations ....................................................................................... 85

    4.4.1 Regression equations for calculating suspended sediment yield ................... 85

    4.4.2 Calculation of sediment yield at annual and event-scale .............................. 86

    4.4.3 Quantification of the sediment contribution by an outwashing sediment

    deposit ........................................................................................................... 91

    4.5 Contribution of soil erosion to the sediment transport .............................................. 94

    4.5.1 Development of the workflow “Erosion analysis” in the ArcGIS Model

    Builder ........................................................................................................... 94

    4.5.2 Modelling of surface erosion with the USLE in the Farkas Valley .............. 97

    4.5.3 Modelling with EROSION-3D ...................................................................... 99

    5. Discussion and conclusions .